Neither Donkey Nor Horse: Medicine In The Struggle Over China's Modernity

Paperback | July 18, 2016

bySean Hsiang-lin Lei

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Neither Donkey nor Horse tells the story of how Chinese medicine was transformed from the antithesis of modernity in the early twentieth century into a potent symbol of and vehicle for China’s exploration of its own modernity half a century later. Instead of viewing this transition as derivative of the political history of modern China, Sean Hsiang-lin Lei argues that China’s medical history had a life of its own, one that at times directly influenced the ideological struggle over the meaning of China’s modernity and the Chinese state.
Far from being a remnant of China’s premodern past, Chinese medicine in the twentieth century coevolved with Western medicine and the Nationalist state, undergoing a profound transformation—institutionally, epistemologically, and materially—that resulted in the creation of a modern Chinese medicine. This new medicine was derided as “neither donkey nor horse” because it necessarily betrayed both of the parental traditions and therefore was doomed to fail. Yet this hybrid medicine survived, through self-innovation and negotiation, thus challenging the conception of modernity that rejected the possibility of productive crossbreeding between the modern and the traditional.
By exploring the production of modern Chinese medicine and China’s modernity in tandem, Lei offers both a political history of medicine and a medical history of the Chinese state.

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Neither Donkey nor Horse tells the story of how Chinese medicine was transformed from the antithesis of modernity in the early twentieth century into a potent symbol of and vehicle for China’s exploration of its own modernity half a century later. Instead of viewing this transition as derivative of the political history of modern China...

Sean Hsiang-lin Lei is associate research fellow at the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, Taiwan; associate professor at the Institute of Science, Technology, and Society at National Yang-Ming University; and a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He lives in Taipei, Taiwan.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:394 pages, 9 × 6 × 1.1 inPublished:July 18, 2016Publisher:University Of Chicago PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:022637940X

ISBN - 13:9780226379401

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction
When Chinese Medicine Encountered the State
Beyond the Dual History of Tradition and Modernity
Toward a Coevolutionary History
China’s Modernity
The Discourse of Modernity
Neither Donkey nor Horse
2. Sovereignty and the Microscope: The Containment of the Manchurian Plague, 1910–11
Not Believing That “This Plague Could Be Infectious”
Pneumonic Plague versus Bubonic Plague
“The Most Brutal Policies Seen in Four Thousand Years”
Challenges from Chinese Medicine: Hong Kong versus Manchuria
Chuanran: Extending a Network of Infected Individuals
Avoiding Epidemics
Joining the Global Surveillance System
Conclusion: The Social Characteristics of the Manchurian Plague
3. Connecting Medicine with the State: From Missionary Medicine to Public Health, 1860–1928
Missionary Medicine
Western Medicine in Late Qing China versus Meiji Japan
The First Generation of Chinese Practitioners of Western Medicine
Western Medicine as a Public Enterprise
“Public Health: Time Not Ripe for Large Work,” 1914–1924
The Ministry of Health and the Medical Obligations of Modern Government, 1926–27
4. Imagining the Relationship between Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine, 1890–1928
Converging Chinese and Western Medicine in the Late 1890s
Non-Identity between the Meridian Channels and the Blood Vessels
Yu Yan and the Tripartition of Chinese Medicine
To Avoid the Place of Confrontation
Ephedrine and Scientific Research on Nationally Produced Drugs
Inventing an Empirical Tradition of Chinese Medicine
5. The Chinese Medical Revolution and the National Medicine Movement
The Chinese Medical Revolution
Controversy over Legalizing Schools of Chinese Medicine
Abolishing Chinese Medicine: The Proposal of 1929
The March Seventeenth Demonstration
The Ambivalent Meaning of Guoyi
The Delegation to Nanjing
Envisioning National Medicine
6. Visualizing Health Care in 1930s Shanghai
Reading a Chart of the Medical Environment in Shanghai
Western Medicine: Consolidation and Boundary-Drawing
Chinese Medicine: Fragmentation and Disintegration
Systematizing Chinese Medicine
7. Science as a Verb: Scientizing Chinese Medicine and the Rise of Mongrel Medicine
The Institute of National Medicine
The Chinese Scientization Movement
The Polemic of Scientizing Chinese Medicine: Three Positions
Embracing Scientization and Abandoning Qi-Transformation
Rejecting Scientization
Reassembling Chinese Medicine: Acupuncture and Zhuyou Exorcism
The Challenge of “Mongrel Medicine”
8. The Germ Theory and the Prehistory of “Pattern Differentiation and Treatment Determination”
Do You Recognize the Existence of Infectious Diseases?
Notifiable Infectious Disease
Unifying Nosological Nomenclature and Translating Typhoid Fever
Incorporating the Germ Theory into Chinese Medicine
Pattern versus Disease
A Prehistory of “Pattern Differentiation and Treatment Determination”
9. Research Design as Political Strategy: The Birth of the New Antimalaria Drug Changshan
Changshan as a Research Anomaly
Scientific Research on Nationally Produced Drugs
Stage One: Overcoming the Barrier to Entry
Stage Two: Re-networking Changshan
Two Research Protocols: 1–2–3–4–5 versus 5–4–3–2–1
Research Protocol as Political Strategy
Conclusion: The Politics of Knowledge and the Regime of Value
10. State Medicine for Rural China, 1929–1949
Defining China’s Medical Problem
Discovering Rural China
The Ding County Model of Community Medicine
State Medicine and the Chinese Medical Association
State Medicine and Local Self-Government
The Issue of Eliminating Village Health Workers
Chinese Medicine for Rural China
11. Conclusion: Thinking with Modern Chinese Medicine
Medicine and the State
Creation of Values
Medicine and China’s Modernity: Nationalist versus Communist
Chinese Medicine and Science and Technology Studies

Editorial Reviews

"Neither Donkey nor Horse is intensely argued and contains a great wealth of materials and information. It offers both a panoramic view and strong theses. Its analysis is sharp and stimulating. Although Lei is theory-minded, his prose is clear and accessible. The book is easily the best scholarly work on the history of Chinese medicine of the Republican period. It will be essential reading for anyone interested in the history of modern Chinese medicine and indeed should be an important reference for students of the history of Republican China."