Nekton by Yu.G. AleyevNekton by Yu.G. Aleyev


byYu.G. Aleyev

Paperback | January 4, 2012

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1. Nekton as an ecomorphological type of biont The term nekton was suggested and used for the first time in 1890 by E. Haeckel in his book Plankton-Studien. Etymologically the word nekton derives from the Greek VTJKTTJP, i.e. swimming. As Haeckel defined it, nekton describes collectively all swimming animals that are 'free to choose their path', i.e. can resist a strong current of water and, distinct from planktonic animals, go where they wish. While giving a general idea of the dividing line between plankton and nekton, Haeckel's definition, which has played an important role in shaping our ideas about nekton, today no longer provides a sufficient basis for ecological and functional morphological investigations, since it affords no possibility of quantitatively assessing either the boundary between plankton and nekton or that between nekton and other ecomorphological types of biont. Thus Parin (1968), proceeding from Haeckel's principle, believes that in the epipelagic zone of the ocean the minimum size of nektonic fishes with a well-developed capacity for active swimming may be between 15 and 30 cm, as fishes shorter than 15 cm are unable to counter oceanic currents. Meanwhile young Leucaspius (Leucaspius delineatus) only 1.5 cm long, observed by this writer in ponds near Moscow proved capable of active horizontal migrations across the entire body of water, which, if Haeckel's definition is accepted, brings the border between planktonic and nektonic fish in this case to between 1.5 and 2.0 cm.
Title:NektonFormat:PaperbackDimensions:441 pagesPublished:January 4, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401013268

ISBN - 13:9789401013260

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Table of Contents

1. Nekton as an Ecomorphological Type of Biont.- 2. Definition, History and Task of Nektonology.- 3. Nektonological Investigation Methods.- 4. General Remarks.- 1. Nekton: Systematics and Geographical Distribution.- I. Ecomorphological Classification of Nekton.- II. Systematic Composition, Geographic Range and Distribution in Bodies of Water.- 1. Systematic Composition.- 2. Geographic Range and Distribution in Bodies of Water.- 2. Fundamental Nektonic Adaptations.- III. Maintaining the Body Suspended in the Water.- 1. Statodynamic Types of Nektonic Animal.- 2. Density and Buoyancy.- 3. Modes of Ensuring Neutral Buoyancy.- 4. Hydrodynamic Correction of Buoyancy.- 5. Phylogeny of Adaptations Associated with Supporting the Body in a Suspended State.- IV. Creation of Propulsive Force (Locomotion).- 1. General.- 2. Swimming, Undulatory Propulsors.- 3. Swimming, Paddling Propulsors..- 4. Swimming, Hydrojet Propulsors.- 5. Flight, Aerial Propulsors.- 6. Locomotion on the Surface of Solid Substrata, Tactile Propulsors ..- 7. Other Modes of Movement.- 8. Phylogeny of Adaptations Associated with Creating Propulsive Force.- V. Reducing Resistance to Movement.- 1. General.- 2. Features of Flow over Body.- 3. Preventing Boundary-Layer Separation.- 4. Boundary-Layer Laminarization.- 5. Hydrodynamic Resistance and Swimming Speeds.- 6. The Phylogeny of Adaptations Towards Reducing Resistance to Movement.- VI. Controlling Movement.- 1. General.- 2. Stabilization and Changing Direction of Movement.- 3. Maintaining Equilibrium and Braking.- 4. Phylogeny of Adaptations Related to Movement Control.- VII. Camouflage and Defence.- 1. General.- 2. Camouflage.- 3. Defence Against Enemies.- 4. The Phylogeny of Adaptations Associated with Camouflage and Defence.- VIII. Other Adaptations.- 1. General.- 2. Reception and Transmission of Information.- 3. Capture of Food.- 4. Other Adaptations.- 3. Origins and Ecological Divergence of Nekton.- IX. Ecomorphological Classes of Nekton and their Origins.- 1. General.- 2. Ecomorphological Classes of Nekton.- 3. Origins and History of Development of Nekton.- X. Nekton and the Body of Water.- Conclusion.- Literature.- Name Index.- Animal Latin Names Index.