Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth International Symposium on Blood Transfusion, Groningen, NL, Organized by the Sanquin Division Blood Bank North-East, Groningen.It is in many ways fitting that the last of these international symposia on blood transfusion should end with neonatal blood transfusion. The most fragile, least well studied and most at risk population requires special care and concern. We need to expand our knowledge of their unique physiology, biochemical pathways and in planning treatment and interventions, always "do no harm." This proceedings of the last Groningen symposium presents a wealth of information on developmental immunology, the molecular basis of haematopoeisis, physiological basis of bleeding and thrombosis, transfusion risks and benefits and lastly, future therapies. Infants provide us with much to learn but in turn they will be the providers of (through cord blood) and the recipients of (through cellular engineering) the best that science can offer. Translational research, which has been the thrust of these presentations for 28 years, will benefit them in a way that no scientist could have ever predicted.