Neurobiology: A Functional Approach by Georg F. Striedter

Neurobiology: A Functional Approach

byGeorg F. Striedter

Hardcover | October 16, 2015

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Focusing on the problems that brains help organisms solve, Neurobiology: A Functional Approach asks not only how the nervous system works but also why it works as it does. This text introduces readers to neurobiology through an evolutionary, organismal, and experimental perspective. With astrong emphasis on neural circuits and systems, it bridges the gap between the cellular and molecular end and the cognitive end of the neuroscience spectrum, allowing students to grasp the full breadth of the subject. Neurobiology covers not only what neuroscientists have learned about the brain interms of facts and ideas, but also how they have learned it through key experiments.

About The Author

Georg F. Striedter is Professor of Neurobiology and Behavior at University of California, Irvine. Dr. Striedter's research focuses on the evolution of brain development in different animal species.
Principles of Brain Evolution
Principles of Brain Evolution

by Georg F. Striedter


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Title:Neurobiology: A Functional ApproachFormat:HardcoverDimensions:648 pages, 11.1 × 8.82 × 1.1 inPublished:October 16, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195396154

ISBN - 13:9780195396157

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Table of Contents

Preface1. Nervous System Organization1. How Do Neuroscientists Study the Brain?The value of why questions2. What are the basic components of the nervous system?Neuroanatomical nomenclatureMajor divisions of the nervous systemNeurons and glial cells3. What kinds of circuits do neurons form?Principles of neural circuit organization4. What is the brain's functional architecture?Early ideas on brain organizationModern views of brain organization5. How can scientists "reverse engineer" the brain?Functional decomposition strategiesNeuropsychologyNeuroethology6. How do brains evolve?Descent with conservation and modificationWhich species to study?7. BoxesNeuronatomical techniquesPhysiological techniques2. Computing with neurons1. What are neurons?History of the Neuron DoctrineBasic features of a stereotypical neuron2. What mechanisms generate resting and action potentials?Ionic basis of the resting potentialIonic basis of the action potential3. How do action potentials travel along axons?A traveling wave of membrane depolarizationThe effects of myelination4. How do neurons transmit and integrate information?Synaptic transmissionSynaptic integration5. How do neurons differ from one another?Anatomical varietyNeurotransmitter varietyReceptor varietyIon channel variety6. Neuronal information processingHow neurons encode informationBrains versus computers7. BoxesNeuronal membrane mathPatch clamp recordingNature's neurotoxinsMood molecules3. Neuronal Plasticity1. How are synapses strengthened in the marine snail Aplysia?Sensitization in AplysiaMaking sensitization last for days2. How are synapses strengthened in mammals?Hippocampal long-term potentiationHebbian long-term potentiationMechanisms of LTP inductionMechanisms of LTP stabilization3. When are synapses weakened?Cerebellar long-term depressionSpike timing-dependent plasticity4. Can inactive neurons strengthen their inputs?5. Can experiences rewire the brain?Turnover of dendritic spinesSprouting of axonal connectionsSensory cortex plasticityMotor cortex plasticity6. How does experience affect brain and cortex size?7. Does neural plasticity cause learning and memory?8. BoxesThe impact of invertebrates on neurobiologyHippocampal structure and functionsBrain-machine interfaces4. Developing a Nervous System1. Where in the embryo does the nervous system originate?Induction of the Nervous SystemForming the Neural Tube2. How does the neural tube get subdivided?Rostrocaudal patterningDorsoventral patterningMidbrain and forebrain patterning3. Where do neurons come from?NeurogenesisRadial neuronal migrationNeurogenesis timing and cell fate4. How do axons find their targets?Axonal growth conesGrowth cone guidanceThe retinotectal system5. How do synapses form?Filopodial interactionsSynapse formation6. How can a neural circuit be fine-tuned?Developmental neuron deathPruning and sprouting neuronal connections7. What are the major themes of neural development?8. BoxesStudying gene expression with in situ hybridizationHox genes in evolutionDrugs and a baby's brain5. Protecting and Maintaining the Adult Nervous System1. Are new neurons added to adult brains?Neuronal birthdating experiments2. How is the brain protected from physical trauma?Meninges and cerebrospinal fluidPressure kills neurons3. How does the brain protect itself against toxins and pathogens?The blood-brain barrierThe blood-CSF and arachnoid barriers4. How does the nervous system respond to an attack?The brain's immune responseMinimizing neuron deathFunctional recovery through brain rewiring5. How do neurons get their energy?Sources of metabolic energyCerebral blood flowLinking blood flow to neuronal activity6. What links body and brain?7. BoxesDelivering drugs to the brainImmune responses in Alzheimer's DiseaseFunctional magnetic resonance imaging6. Sensors I: Remote Sensing1. How do we sense darkness and light?Special regions of the retinaRod photoreceptorsCone photoreceptorsPathways through the retinaThe puzzle of the inverted vertebrate retina2. How do we sense odors?Olfactory epitheliumOlfactory receptor moleculesThe olfactory bulb3. How do we hear sounds?Outer and middle earsThe cochleaEncoding sound parameters4. Are there some principles of sensor organization?Variability in sensor rangeVariability in sensor sensitivityLabeled linesSensory maps5. BoxesAnosmias: does your world smell the same as mine?Cochlear implantsElectroreception and other alien senses7. Sensors II: Sensing on Contact1. How do we sense touch and vibration?Encapsulated nerve endingsCentral projections of mechanosensory axons2. How do we sense pain?Axons that transmit painPain modulation3. How do we sense temperature?Temperature-sensitive TRP channelsFood-activated TRP channels4. How do we taste foods and other chemicals?Taste cellsTaste receptor moleculesCentral taste pathwaysVariations in tasting ability5. How can we sense our body's physiological condition?Sensing tissue aciditySensing blood chemistry6. How do we sense body position and movement?ProprioceptionVestibular sensors7. What are some common themes of contact sensor organization?8. BoxesFeeling less pain in high CO2Shingles and dermatomesNeurogenic inflammationCannabinoid effects on food intake8. Using Muscles and Glands1. How do neurons control skeletal muscle?The contractile machineryExcitation-contraction couplingControlling muscle forceMuscle spindles2. What makes the Heart Beat?Generation of the cardiac rhythmModulation of the cardiac rhythm3. What is special about smooth muscle?4. How do muscles lengthen after contractions?Muscles must be antagonized5. How do neurons control hormones, and vice versa?The posterior pituitaryThe anterior pituitaryHippocampal regulation of stress hormones6. BoxesOuter hair cell motilityEndocrine disruptors9. Regulating Bodily Functions1. How do we maintain physiological stability?2. What parts of the nervous system control the vital bodily functions?The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous systemSensory components of the autonomic nervous systemThe enteric nervous system3. How do neural circuits regulate the vital bodily functions?Adjusting heart rateRegulating blood pressureControlling breathingRegulating body temperature4. How do neurons control fluid and energy balance?Balancing the bodily fluidsRegulating digestionRegulating appetite5. How do we coordinate our vegetative processes?Circadian regulationDealing with acute stressEffects of chronic stress6. BoxesFainting spells and vagal nerve stimulationTackling obesity through surgeryVegetative control after spinal cord injuryJet lag and night shift work10. Controlling Posture and Locomotion1. What is a reflex?Pupillary reflexes2. How do reflexes protect us from harm?The eye blink reflexWithdrawal reflexes3. How do we stabilize our body's position?Muscle stretch reflexesStabilizing the eyesStabilizing the headStabilizing the bodyModulation of postural reflexes4. How do animals move through the world?Central pattern generationSwimming in fishesWalking in quadrupeds5. What does motor cortex contribute to motor control?Pathways descending from motor cortexCortical motor mapsEncoding movement detailsMirror neurons in the premotor cortexMotor cortex plasticity6. What does the cerebellum contribute to motor control?Cerebellar anatomyCerebellar function: adaptive feedforward controlCerebellar dysfunctionNon-motor functions of the cerebellum7. How do the motor systems interact?8. BoxesUsing animals in researchLocked-in syndromeThe conditioned eye blink response11. Localizing Stimuli and Orienting in Space1. How do the somatosensory and visual systems encode space?Spatial mapping in the somatosensory systemSpatial mapping in the visual system2. How can animals determine where a sound came from?Interaural comparisonsEncoding space in the auditory midbrain and forebrain3. In which spatial coordinate system should stimuli be localized?4. How do animals orient toward an interesting stimulus?Targeted eye movementsTargeted head movementsTargeted hand movements5. How do animals navigate through space?Testing for allocentric navigation in animalsHippocampal lesions impair allocentric navigationHippocampal place cells6. BoxesSound localization in owlsRecording neural activity in awake animals12. Identifying Stimuli and Stimulus Objects1. What coding strategies do sensory systems employ?2. How does the visual system identify objects?Retinal receptive fieldsThalamic receptive fieldsEdges and line detectors in primary visual cortexIdentifying visual motionIdentifying colorIdentifying faces and other complex visual objects3. How do neurons encode non-visual objects?Object identification in the olfactory systemIdentifying soundsIdentifying things by touch or taste4. Are we born with all the neurons we use to identify stimulus objects?Sensory deprivation experimentsInstructive effects of early experience5. Why do we experience objects as coherent entities?6. BoxesIntrinsic signal optical imagingAgnosias13. Regulating Brain States1. How does the brain generate and direct attention?Psychological aspects of attentionNeural correlates of involuntary attentionNeural correlates of voluntary attention2. What mechanisms generate behavioral arousal?The electroencephalogram (EEG)Ascending arousal systemsLocus coeruleus anatomy and physiologyPostsynaptic effects of locus coeruleus activationControl of locus coeruleus activity3. Why do we sleep, and what helps us wake up?Stages of sleepThe origins of EEG rhythmsBrain systems that wake us upBrain systems that induce sleep4. What's happening during REM sleep?5. Why does the brain have discrete states?6. BoxesAttention deficitsAnesthesia and the death penalty14. Remembering Relationships1. How many forms of learning and memory are there?2. What's wrong with H.M.?3. Can H.M.'s amnesia be reproduced in non-humans?Subdivisions of the medial temporal lobeObject discrimination tests in ratsWhat does the hippocampus do?4. How are hippocampus-dependent memories created, and how are they recalled?Hippocampal circuitry and synaptic plasticityPattern learning within the hippocampusMemory recall5. What happens to memories as they grow old?Systems consolidationThe formation of neocortical assemblies6. What makes some memories stronger than others?7. How do animals learn what's dangerous?Auditory fear conditioningContextual fear conditioningInhibitory avoidance training8. How do we learn what to eat, or not to eat?9. What happens when memories conflict?10. BoxesMemory specialistsEpilepsyPost-traumatic stress15. Selecting Actions, Pursuing Goals1. What is the frontostriatal system?2. What are the direct and indirect pathways through the striatum?Direct frontostriatal loopsThe indirect pathway through the striatum3. What is the influence of dopamine on the frontostriatal loops?Dopaminergic modulation of the striatumAnimal models of frontostriatal disordersDopamine and drugs of abuse4. How do we learn what to do when?Dopamine bursts signal unexpected rewardsDopamine bursts promote synaptic plasticity5. How do the dorsal and the ventral striatum relate to one another?6. What to do with prefrontal cortexPrefrontal lobotomiesResponse inhibitionWorking memory7. How do the components of the frontostriatal system work together?8. BoxesTreating Parkinson's diseaseSex drive and sexual conditioning16. Being Different from Others1. Which species should neuroscientists study, and why?2. Who evolved the largest and most complex brains?Evolutionary increases in brain size and complexityAllometric brain scaling3. What makes human brains unique?Primate brain evolutionThe neural basis of human languageThe evolution of language-related circuitry4. Do brains differ between the sexes?Mechanisms of sexual differentiationSex differences in spinal cord, midbrain, and hypothalamusSex differences in the telencephalon5. Within a sex, how much do human brains vary?Nature and nurture of brain variabilityImplications of brain variability for functional brain imagingAge-related variability in brains6. What can we learn by comparing diverse brains?7. BoxesThe challenges of human subjects selectionComplex mental disorders: autism and schizophreniaGlossaryCreditsIndex

Editorial Reviews

"This is a book that I would consider ideal for an Intro Neuroscience course. It has a strong pre-med emphasis, but also adequate animal examples." --Barry Condron, University of Virginia