Neuropsychological Perspectives On Learning Disabilities In The Era Of Rti: Recommendations For Diagnosis And Intervention by Elaine Fletcher-JanzenNeuropsychological Perspectives On Learning Disabilities In The Era Of Rti: Recommendations For Diagnosis And Intervention by Elaine Fletcher-Janzen

Neuropsychological Perspectives On Learning Disabilities In The Era Of Rti: Recommendations For…

EditorElaine Fletcher-Janzen, Cecil R. Reynolds

Paperback | February 8, 2008

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An insightful look at the role of neuroscience and neuropsychology as it relates to Response to Intervention (RTI) in learning disability diagnosis, treatment, and policy reform

Neuropsychological Perspectives on Learning Disabilities in the Era of RTI is a revolutionary new volume presenting the latest research—in question-and-answer format—from leading scholars about the contributions of neuroscience and neuropsychology as it relates to Response to Intervention (RTI) in learning disability identification, diagnosis, and recommended interventions.

This collective work includes contributions from more than thirty neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, and school psychologists with training in brain-behavior relationships, who explore the answers to questions including:
  • How do you reconcile RTI as a means of diagnosis of learning disability with knowledge from the clinical neurosciences??
  • What do you think neuroscience has to offer laws and policies associated with learning disability determination?
  • What do you think neuroscience has to offer the assessment and identification of learning disabilities?
  • What role does neurocognitive science play in designing interventions in the context of RTI?
  • What role does neuropsychology have to play in the diagnosis of learning disability?
Featuring contributions from leaders in the field of neuropsychology and school psychology, and with a Foreword from Sally Shaywitz, Neuropsychological Perspectives on Learning Disabilities in the Era of RTI illuminates the contributions of neuro-science and neuropsychology to learning disability identification and current educational reform.
Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, EdD, NCSP, has been a school psychologist in the public schools and neuropsychiatric inpatient settings for the past twenty-four years. She has coedited and authored fourteen books and reference works. Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD, is the author of more than 300 scholarly publications and author or editor of forty-fi...
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Title:Neuropsychological Perspectives On Learning Disabilities In The Era Of Rti: Recommendations For…Format:PaperbackDimensions:352 pages, 9.2 × 6.3 × 0.95 inPublished:February 8, 2008Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0470225270

ISBN - 13:9780470225271

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However)33.2(, subsequent systematic r)-9.7(eviews of 81 r)-9.7(esear)-8.7(ch)5.2( )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0145 Tw [(studies, encompassing mor)-9.8(e than 500 dif)-36.9(fer)-9.8(ent statistical comparisons, con-)]TJ T* -0.0079 Tw [(cluded that none of the tr)-9.8(eatments was par)-32.9(ticularly ef)-36.9(fective in stimulating )]TJ T* 0.0034 Tc 0.0725 Tw [(cognitive, linguistic, academic, or school r)-9.9(eadiness abilities and that ther)-9.9(e )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.05 Tw (was a serious question as to whether the training activities even have value )Tj T* 0.0005 Tc 0.056 Tw [(for enhancing visual per)-8.8(ception and/or motor skills in childr)-9.8(en indicated )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0315 Tw [(\(Hammill & Bar)-32.9(tel, 1978, p. 371\). 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In fact, several in)]TJ 19.0494 0 TD 0.003 Tc 0.0642 Tw [( )77.2(uential special educators who )]TJ -19.0494 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0.0541 Tw [(have studied SLD histor)-53(y \(e.g., Kavale & For)-13.9(ness, 1995; T)60.1(o)0(r)7.1(gesen, 1998\) )]TJ ET endstream endobj 15 0 obj >/ExtGState >>> endobj 17 0 obj >stream /GS2 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 9.5 0 0 9.5 51 623.15 Tm 0.054902 g 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(4 )-725.6(Neur)-9.8(opsychological Perspectives on Lear)-13.9(ning Disabilities in the Era of R)17.1(T)0(I)]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 51 594 Tm -0.03 Tw (believe that the )Tj 6.7098 0 TD 0 Tw (Goldstein- )Tj 4.4999 0 TD (Strauss- )Tj 3.2999 0 TD -0.03 Tw [(W)53.2(e)0(r)-13.9(ner view in)]TJ 7.1105 0 TD [( )-20(uenced the de)]TJ 6.4599 0 TD -0.01 Tw [( nition )20(of )]TJ -28.0801 -1.1905 TD 0.0028 Tc 0 Tw (speci)Tj 2.6499 0 TD 0.0573 Tw [( )70.1(c lear)-14(ning disability in federal laws and also in)]TJ 20.7771 0 TD [( )70.1(uenced U.S. public )]TJ -23.4271 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(school practices \(Shepher)-7.8(d, 2001, p. 5\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12 0 0 12 63.8972 538.5 Tm -0.006 Tw [(THE OR)16.1(TON- )]TJ 7.0778 0 TD [(HINSHEL)39.1(WOOD DEVELOPMENT)62(AL )]TJ -5.3704 -1.0417 TD (WRITTEN LANGUAGE APPROACH TO SLD)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 51 506.5 Tm -0.0038 Tw (Like the )Tj 3.7723 0 TD 0 Tw (Goldstein- )Tj 4.4999 0 TD (Strauss- )Tj 3.2999 0 TD -0.0038 Tw [(W)53.2(e)0(r)-13.9(ner appr)-9.8(oach, the Or)-32.9(ton- )]TJ 12.5118 0 TD (Hinshelwood view )Tj -24.0839 -1.1905 TD 0.0298 Tw [(of SLD had its r)-9.8(oots in the lear)-13.9(ning pr)-9.8(oblems and behaviors of adults with )]TJ T* 0.0078 Tc 0.165 Tw [(brain damage. Rather than focusing on war)30.1(- )]TJ 20.0458 0 TD [(injur)-9.7(ed soldiers, the devel-)]TJ -20.0458 -1.1905 TD 0.0076 Tc 0.1624 Tw [(opmental language pioneers wer)-9.8(e impr)-9.8(essed by late )]TJ 23.635 0 TD [(nineteenth centur)-53(y)7.6( )]TJ -23.635 -1.1905 TD 0.0068 Tc 0.1446 Tw [(accounts of adults in Gr)-9.8(eat Britain, France, and Ger)-13.9(many who suf)-36.9(fer)-9.8(ed)6.8( )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0485 Tw (known brain damage to speci)Tj 12.9039 0 TD [( )58.5(c r)-9.8(egions of the brain and lost the ability to )]TJ -12.9039 -1.1905 TD 0.0037 Tw [(r)-9.7(ead)-50()-50(despite r)-9.8(etaining writing and spelling skills \(Shepher)-7.8(d, 2001\). In the )]TJ T* 0.0408 Tw [(early par)-32.9(t of the twentieth centur)-53(y)84.2(,)0( the accounts began to include childr)-9.8(en )]TJ T* 0.0286 Tw [(who wer)-9.8(e seemingly nor)-13.9(mal with no over)-32.9(t signs of brain damage, but \(like )]TJ T* 0.0044 Tc 0.091 Tw (the )Tj 1.7486 0 TD 0 Tw (brain- )Tj 2.5663 0 TD 0.091 Tw (damaged adults\) had a speci)Tj 12.6768 0 TD 0.0911 Tw [( )105.4(c disability in r)-9.8(eading, writing, or )]TJ -16.9917 -1.1905 TD 0.0002 Tc 0.056 Tw [(arithmetic despite nor)-13.9(mal abilities in other ar)-9.8(eas of cognition and achieve-)]TJ T* 0.0013 Tc (ment. Though Hinshelwood \(1895\), an ophthalmologist, initially focused )Tj T* 0 Tc 0.0511 Tw [(on acquir)-9.7(ed wor)-7.8(d blindness based on an adult patient who could not r)-9.8(ead )]TJ T* 0.003 Tc 0.0605 Tw [(subsequent to injur)-53(y to the angular gyr)-28.8(us, he was impr)-9.8(essed by Mor)7.1(gans )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.004 Tw (\(1896\) )Tj 3.554 0 TD [( )14(rst r)-9.8(epor)-32.9(ting of congenital wor)-7.8(d blindness in childr)-9.7(en. He became )]TJ -3.554 -1.1905 TD 0.0019 Tc 0.056 Tw [(intrigued by subsequent accounts published by physicians \(including him-)]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.039 Tw [(self\) of 14 cases in Eur)-9.8(ope and Nor)-32.9(th America of childr)-9.7(en and adolescents )]TJ T* 0.0476 Tw [(with r)-9.7(eading disor)-7.8(ders that wer)-9.8(e appar)-9.7(ently congenital and not due to any )]TJ T* -0.0056 Tw [(known brain injur)-53(y \(Spr)-9.8(een, 2001\).)]TJ 1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.0082 Tc 0.1754 Tw [(This accumulation of clinical cases impelled Hinshelwood \(1917\) to)8.2( )]TJ -1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc -0.0175 Tw [(publish a widely r)-9.8(ead monograph, )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.642 0 TD -0.0163 Tw [(Congenital W)78.1(o)0(r)16.1(d)0( Blindness,)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.493 0 TD -0.0175 Tw [( that included )]TJ -26.135 -1.1905 TD -0.0307 Tw [(detailed descriptions of these childr)-9.8(en, such as a boy of 12 who was br)-9.8(ought )]TJ T* 0.0154 Tw [(by his mother to have his eyesight checked: He could bar)-9.8(ely r)-9.8(ead by sight )]TJ T* 0.0053 Tc 0.1117 Tw [(mor)-9.8(e than two or thr)-9.8(ee wor)-7.8(ds, but came to a standstill ever)-53(y second or)5.3( )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0469 Tw [(thir)-7.8(d wor)-7.8(d. )46.9(. )46.9(. )46.9(. [But he] r)-9.8(ead all combinations of )]TJ 21.91 0 TD [( )56.9(gur)-9.8(es with the gr)-9.8(eatest )]TJ -21.91 -1.1905 TD 0.0216 Tw (of )Tj 1.4316 0 TD [( )31.6(uency up to millions \(p. 21\). And just as Sally Shaywitz \(2003\) insists )]TJ -1.4316 -1.1905 TD -0.015 Tw (that the diagnosis of dyslexia is no less accurate or )Tj 21.3101 0 TD 0 Tw (science- )Tj 3.3399 0 TD -0.015 Tw (based than nearly )Tj -24.65 -1.1905 TD 0.004 Tc 0.0846 Tw [(any other medical diagnosis, Hinshelwood \(1917\) said vir)-33(tually the same )]TJ T* 0.0046 Tc 0.0968 Tw [(thing about a centur)-53(y)0( earlier)-50()-50.1(that its fairly easy to diagnose congenital )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0431 Tw [(wor)-7.8(d blindness because the condition is as )]TJ 17.9658 0 TD 0 Tw [(clear)30(- )]TJ 2.2899 0 TD -0.0431 Tw (cut and distinct as any other )Tj -20.2557 -1.1905 TD -0.0056 Tw [(medical pathology)94(.)]TJ 1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.0099 Tc 0.2129 Tw [(Or)-33(ton \(1937\) coined the ter)-13.9(m )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.659 0 TD 0.0092 Tc 0 Tw [(str)17.1(ephosymbolia)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 6.4211 0 TD 0.0099 Tc 0.2129 Tw [( \(twisted symbols\) to)9.9( )]TJ -22.2229 -1.1905 TD 0.0049 Tc 0.1012 Tw [(describe what later came to be known as )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.4241 0 TD 0.0045 Tc 0 Tw (dyslexia.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 3.5005 0 TD 0.0046 Tc 0.1015 Tw [( He pr)-10(ovided excellent )]TJ -21.9246 -1.1905 TD -0.0031 Tc -0.0604 Tw [(clinical descriptions of childr)-9.8(en with r)-9.8(eading disor)-7.8(ders who, he obser)-53(ved, had )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0203 Tw (special dif)Tj 4.4502 0 TD [( )30.3(culty with letter and wor)-7.8(d r)-9.8(eversals)-50()-50(the kinds of transpositions )]TJ -4.4502 -1.1905 TD 0.0168 Tw [(that suggested to Or)-32.9(ton that these childr)-9.8(en r)-9.8(ead fr)-9.8(om right to left. He was )]TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj >/ExtGState >>> endobj 20 0 obj >stream /GS2 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 9.5 0 0 9.5 167.691 623.15 Tm 0.054902 g 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(Neur)-9.8(opsychology and Speci)]TJ 12.1084 0 TD -0.007 Tw [( c Lear)-13.9(ning Disabilities )-727(5)]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 54 594 Tm -0.0141 Tw (a )Tj 0.9759 0 TD -0.0136 Tw [( r)-13.9(m)0( believer in thor)-9.8(ough assessment, including the r)-9.8(ecor)-7.8(ding of extensive )]TJ -0.9759 -1.1905 TD 0.003 Tc 0.0607 Tw (family and school histories and the administration of IQ and achievement )Tj T* 0.0036 Tc 0.0734 Tw [(tests. He was especially inter)-9.7(ested in childr)-9.7(ens per)-33.9(for)-13.9(mances on dif)-36.9(fer)-9.7(ent )]TJ T* 0.0055 Tc 0.1163 Tw [(ar)-9.8(eas of academic achievement to con)]TJ 17.0059 0 TD [( )131.8(r)-13.9(m)0( his belief that childr)-9.8(en with a)5.5( )]TJ -17.0059 -1.1905 TD 0.0021 Tc 0.056 Tw [(r)-9.8(eading disability would scor)-9.8(e lower on r)-9.8(eading and spelling tests than on )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0459 Tw [(arithmetic tests; and that childr)-9.8(en with writing disabilities would scor)-9.8(e lower )]TJ T* -0.0175 Tw [(on tests of spelling than on arithmetic tests. Or)-32.9(ton did not featur)-9.8(e disor)-7.8(ders )]TJ T* -0.0048 Tw [(of mood or attention as aspects of the lear)-13.9(ning disability \(as did the per)-8.8(cep-)]TJ T* -0.0348 Tw [(tual theorists\), but he noted that many of his patients with r)-9.7(eading disor)-7.8(ders )]TJ T* 0.0022 Tc 0.056 Tw [(also had speech and motor disor)-7.8(ders; they wer)-9.7(e pr)-9.7(edominantly male; they )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0499 Tw (tended to have life- )Tj 8.0901 0 TD (long dif)Tj 3.54 0 TD [( )-39.9(culties with academic skills; and he often tr)-9.8(eated )]TJ -11.6301 -1.1905 TD -0.0056 Tw [(several members of the same family)94(.)]TJ 1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.0262 Tw [(Hinshelwood \(1917\) limited the diagnosis of congenital wor)-7.8(d blindness )]TJ -1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.0034 Tw (to those who demonstrated the gravity of the defect and evidenced a purity )Tj T* 0.0424 Tw [(of symptoms, but he excluded childr)-9.8(en who wer)-9.8(e just a bit slow in acquir)30(-)]TJ T* 0.0318 Tw [(ing r)-9.8(eading skills. Or)-32.9(tons de)]TJ 12.7196 0 TD [( )41.8(nition was not as stringent: Our experience )]TJ -12.7196 -1.1905 TD 0.0074 Tw [(in studying and r)-9.8(etraining several hundr)-9.8(ed such cases has convinced us that )]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.102 Tw [(they for)-13.9(m a )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 5.5387 0 TD 0.0045 Tc 0.0948 Tw [(graded series including all degr)17(ees of severity of the handicap)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 25.9413 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj -31.48 -1.1905 TD -0.0056 Tw [(\(Spr)-9.7(een, 2001, p. 285\).)]TJ 1.1429 -1.1905 TD -0.0013 Tc -0.056 Tw [(Hinshelwood advocated assessment methods that wer)-9.7(e r)-9.7(emarkably similar )]TJ -1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.004 Tc 0.0857 Tw [(to Or)-33.1(tons and they both str)-9.9(ongly favor)-9.9(ed r)-9.9(emediation that was tar)6.9(geted )]TJ T* -0.0003 Tc -0.056 Tw [(dir)-9.7(ectly at the academic pr)-9.7(oblem. For example, they both emphasized a pho-)]TJ T* -0.0044 Tc -0.0862 Tw [(nics appr)-9.7(oach to teaching r)-9.7(eading, dif)-36.8(fering only in Hinshelwoods pr)-9.7(efer)-9.7(ence )]TJ T* -0.0024 Tc -0.056 Tw [(for teaching sound to letter cor)-15.8(r)-9.7(espondence versus Or)-32.9(tons method of teach-)]TJ T* -0.0032 Tc -0.0627 Tw [(ing letter to sound cor)-15.9(r)-9.8(espondence \(Shepher)-7.8(d, 2001\). As with the per)-8.8(ceptual )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0316 Tw [(disor)-7.8(der theorists, neur)-9.8(ology was believed to be at the r)-9.8(oot of the lear)-13.9(ning )]TJ T* 0.0023 Tw [(pr)-9.7(oblem \(brain damage to Hinshelwood and failur)-9.8(e to establish dominance )]TJ T* -0.0032 Tc -0.0639 Tw [(to Or)-32.9(ton\). However)33.3(, the brain damage or dysfunction was tied dir)-9.7(ectly to the )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (speci)Tj 2.3299 0 TD -0.007 Tw [( c language disor)-7.8(ders that the childr)-9.8(en displayed)-50()-50(not to a single pr)-9.8(o-)]TJ -2.3299 -1.1905 TD -0.0005 Tc -0.056 Tw [(cess such as visual per)-8.8(ception. And contrar)-53(y to the )]TJ 21.1111 0 TD 0 Tw (Goldstein- )Tj 4.4949 0 TD (Strauss- )Tj 3.2959 0 TD -0.0003 Tc [(W)53.4(e)0.2(r)-13.7(ner )]TJ -28.9019 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0.0537 Tw [(theorists, r)-9.8(emediation was aimed at impr)-9.8(oving the speci)]TJ 24.2653 0 TD [( )63.7(c ar)-9.8(ea of lear)-13.9(ning )]TJ -24.2653 -1.1905 TD 0 Tw (de)Tj 1.29 0 TD -0.0132 Tw [( cit \(such as spelling or r)-9.8(eading\), not at str)-9.8(engthening a supposed under)30(-)]TJ -1.29 -1.1905 TD -0.056 Tw [(lying pr)-9.7(ocess. Both theories of the historical r)-9.7(oots of SLD emphasized devel-)]TJ T* -0.0179 Tw [(opmental disor)-7.8(ders, but these )]TJ 12.8159 0 TD 0 Tw (brain- )Tj 2.5399 0 TD -0.0179 Tw [(r)-9.8(elated disor)-7.8(ders wer)-9.8(e either per)-8.8(ceptual )]TJ -15.3559 -1.1905 TD 0.0045 Tc 0.0931 Tw [(in natur)-9.7(e \(Goldstein- )]TJ 9.27 0 TD 0 Tw (Strauss- )Tj 3.3358 0 TD 0.0932 Tw [(W)53.1(e)-0.1(r)-14(ner\) or associated with written language )]TJ -12.6058 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (\(Hinshelwood- )Tj 6.4799 0 TD 0.0055 Tw [(Or)-32.9(ton\)the distinction between minimal brain dysfunction )]TJ -6.4799 -1.1905 TD -0.0056 Tw [(and developmental dyslexia, r)-9.8(espectively)94(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12 0 0 12 62.0304 113.5 Tm -0.006 Tw [(SAM KIRKS INTEGRA)62(TION OF THE TWO MODELS)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 54 94 Tm -0.0453 Tw [(Kirk \(1963\) coined the ter)-13.9(m )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.2072 0 TD -0.0421 Tw [(lear)-12(ning disabilities)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 8.1897 0 TD -0.0453 Tw [( when he deliver)-9.8(ed a speech )]TJ -20.397 -1.1905 TD -0.0024 Tc -0.056 Tw [(to a lar)7.1(ge gr)-9.8(oup of par)-9.8(ents whose childr)-9.8(en wer)-9.8(e having school dif)]TJ 27.2897 0 TD -0.0022 Tc -0.0078 Tw [( culties )48.4(and )]TJ -27.2897 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc -0.0227 Tw [(to a smaller gr)-9.8(oup of pr)-9.8(ofessionals with a keen inter)-9.8(est in the topic. All wer)-9.8(e )]TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj >/ExtGState >>> endobj 23 0 obj >stream /GS2 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 9.5 0 0 9.5 51 623.15 Tm 0.054902 g 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(6 )-725.6(Neur)-9.8(opsychological Perspectives on Lear)-13.9(ning Disabilities in the Era of R)17.1(T)0(I)]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 51 594 Tm -0.0002 Tc -0.056 Tw [(seeking a label for these childr)-9.8(en that Kirk r)-9.8(efer)-15.9(r)-9.8(ed to as having developmen-)]TJ 0 -1.1905 TD 0.0011 Tc 0.056 Tw (tal de)Tj 2.6739 0 TD [( )67.1(cits of one kind or another \(which encompasses developmental dis-)]TJ -2.6739 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0.0022 Tw [(or)-7.8(ders of both per)-8.8(ception and written language\). Kirks label had a decided )]TJ T* 0.0036 Tc 0.0728 Tw (educational )Tj 5.5491 0 TD [( )86.4(avor)33.2(, focusing on the natur)-9.8(e of the pr)-9.8(oblem rather than the )]TJ -5.5491 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0.0264 Tw [(hypothesized cause, and it was the pr)-9.8(ecursor for the federal de)]TJ 26.9636 0 TD -0.01 Tw [( nitions )-36.4(and )]TJ -26.9636 -1.1905 TD -0.0406 Tw [(laws of the late 1960s and 1970s that pr)-9.8(oclaimed )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.8237 0 TD 0 Tw (speci)Tj 2.11 0 TD -0.0377 Tw [( )-47.7(c lear)-12(ning disabilities)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 9.0663 0 TD 0 Tw ( )Tj -32 -1.1905 TD 0.0033 Tw [(as a disor)-7.8(der that entitled special education ser)-53(vices to anyone with an SLD )]TJ T* 0.0008 Tw [(diagnosis. When r)-9.8(eading the text of Kirks \(1963\) speech, it is clear that his )]TJ T* 0.0031 Tc 0.0632 Tw [(notion of lear)-13.9(ning disabilities was mor)-9.8(e aligned with )]TJ 23.1572 0 TD 0 Tw (Hinshelwood- )Tj 6.1374 0 TD 0.0025 Tc [(Or)-33.6(ton )]TJ -29.2946 -1.1905 TD 0.0009 Tc 0.056 Tw (than )Tj 2.2405 0 TD 0 Tw (Goldstein- )Tj 4.5091 0 TD (Strauss- )Tj 3.3072 0 TD 0.056 Tw [(W)53.2(e)0(r)-13.9(ner as he r)-9.8(efer)-15.9(r)-9.8(ed to a gr)-9.8(oup of childr)-9.8(en who )]TJ -10.0569 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0.047 Tw [(have disor)-7.8(ders in development in language, speech, r)-9.8(eading and associated )]TJ T* 0.0041 Tc 0.086 Tw [(communication skills needed for social interaction \(p. 3\). However)33.2(, like )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0536 Tw [(the per)-8.8(ceptual theorists, Kirk str)-9.8(essed that the disor)-7.8(der involved a pr)-9.8(ocessing )]TJ T* -0.0166 Tw [(disor)-7.8(der)59.1(. But, unlike those theorists, he believed the pr)-9.8(ocessing disor)-7.8(ders to )]TJ T* 0.0032 Tc 0 Tw (be )Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.3742 0 TD 0.003 Tc (psycholinguistic)Tj /F1 1 Tf 6.3473 0 TD 0.0031 Tc 0.0647 Tw [( in natur)-9.8(e, not visual per)-8.9(ceptual. He believed that these )]TJ -7.7215 -1.1905 TD 0.0066 Tc 0.1402 Tw [(psycholinguistic disor)-7.8(ders led dir)-9.8(ectly to disor)-7.8(ders in r)-9.8(eading, language,)6.6( )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0316 Tw [(and so for)-32.9(th)-50()-50(an appr)-9.8(oach that is consistent with the )]TJ 23.2072 0 TD 0 Tw (Hinshelwood- )Tj 6.0999 0 TD [(Or)-32.9(ton )]TJ -29.3071 -1.1905 TD 0.0107 Tw [(belief that brain damage or brain or)7.1(ganization is r)-9.8(elated speci)]TJ 26.3487 0 TD [( )20.7(cally to writ-)]TJ -26.3487 -1.1905 TD 0.0534 Tw [(ten language disabilities. Kirk, however)33.2(, was mor)-9.8(e consistent with the per)30(-)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.1056 Tw [(ceptual theorists r)-9.9(egar)-7.9(ding his model of r)-9.9(emediation: He believed that a )]TJ T* 0.0016 Tc 0.056 Tw [(childs weak psycholinguistic pr)-9.8(ocesses \(as measur)-9.8(ed by his Illinois T)60.1(est of )]TJ T* 0.0005 Tc (Psycholinguistic Abilities, described in his 1963 speech, but not published )Tj T* 0.0036 Tc 0.0763 Tw [(until 1968\) needed dir)-9.9(ect r)-9.9(emediation in or)-7.9(der to tr)-9.9(eat a childs lear)-14(ning )]TJ T* -0.0016 Tc -0.056 Tw [(disability)94(. Unfor)-33(tunately)84.2(, subsequent r)-9.8(esear)-8.8(ch on the ef)-36.9(fectiveness of psycho-)]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0279 Tw [(linguistic training yielded the same dismal conclusions that wer)-9.8(e r)-9.8(eached for )]TJ T* -0.0056 Tw [(per)-8.8(ceptual training \(Newcomer & Hammill, 1976\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12 0 0 12 105.386 249.34 Tm -0.006 Tw (THE FEDERAL DEFINITION OF SLD)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 51 229.84 Tm 0.0555 Tw (The de)Tj 3.3255 0 TD [( )65.5(nition of SLDs that was inaugurated in the Childr)-9.8(en with Speci)]TJ 27.9645 0 TD -0.01 Tw [( c )]TJ -31.29 -1.1905 TD -0.0369 Tw [(Lear)-13.9(ning Disabilities Act of 1969 was r)-9.8(etained in the Right to Education for )]TJ T* 0.0019 Tw [(All Handicapped Childr)-9.8(ens Act of 1975 and has r)-9.8(emained intact for IDEA )]TJ T* -0.0056 Tw (1997 and IDEA 2004. The )Tj 12.2219 0 TD -0.0064 Tw [( rst par)-32.9(t of this de)]TJ 7.8104 0 TD -0.0067 Tw [( nition is as follows:)]TJ 9.5 0 0 9.5 63 167.68 Tm -0.0125 Tw [(The ter)-13.9(m speci)]TJ 7.0987 0 TD -0.0122 Tw [( c lear)-13.9(ning disability means a disor)-7.8(der in one or mor)-9.8(e of the )]TJ -7.0987 -1.2105 TD 0.0059 Tw [(basic psychological pr)-9.8(ocesses involved in understanding or in using language, )]TJ T* 0.003 Tc 0.061 Tw [(spoken or written, which disor)-7.8(der may manifest itself in imper)-33.9(fect ability to )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(listen, think, speak, r)-9.8(ead, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.)]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 51 106.5201 Tm 0.0163 Tw (This de)Tj 3.4463 0 TD [( )26.3(nition is clearly a derivative of Kirks appr)-9.8(oach to the disor)-7.8(der)33.2(, but )]TJ -3.4463 -1.1905 TD 0.0013 Tc 0.056 Tw [(when it is r)-9.7(elated to the two separate historical r)-9.7(oots of SLD it is unques-)]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.04 Tw (tionably the voice of )Tj 8.7999 0 TD 0 Tw (Goldstein- )Tj 4.4999 0 TD (Strauss- )Tj 3.2999 0 TD -0.04 Tw [(W)53.2(e)0(r)-13.9(ner)33.2(, not Or)-32.9(ton or Hinshelwood. )]TJ -16.5997 -1.1905 TD 0.0003 Tc 0.056 Tw [(Pr)-9.8(ocessing disor)-7.9(ders had no r)-9.8(ole in the notion of developmental disor)-7.9(ders )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw (of written language.)Tj ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj >/ExtGState >>> endobj 26 0 obj >stream /GS2 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 9.5 0 0 9.5 167.691 623.15 Tm 0.054902 g 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(Neur)-9.8(opsychology and Speci)]TJ 12.1084 0 TD -0.007 Tw [( c Lear)-13.9(ning Disabilities )-727(7)]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 66 594 Tm 0.0054 Tc 0.1135 Tw [(The second par)-33(t of the de)]TJ 11.971 0 TD [( )128.9(nition is an amalgam of the two historical)5.4( )]TJ -13.1139 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (traditions:)Tj 9.5 0 0 9.5 66 556.5 Tm 0.0228 Tw [(DISORDERS INCLUDED)-50()-50(Such ter)-13.9(m includes such conditions as per)-8.8(cep-)]TJ 0 -1.2105 TD -0.054 Tw [(tual disabilities, brain injur)-53(y)84.2(,)0( minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and develop-)]TJ T* -0.0056 Tw (mental aphasia. \()Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.1486 0 TD -0.0052 Tw [(Federal Register)70.1(,)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 6.9246 0 TD -0.0056 Tw [( 2006\))]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 66 506.5 Tm -0.002 Tc -0.056 Tw [(The ter)-13.9(ms )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.502 0 TD -0.0018 Tc -0.052 Tw [(per)14.2(ceptual disabilities)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 8.7914 0 TD -0.002 Tc -0.056 Tw [( and )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 1.9981 0 TD -0.0018 Tc -0.052 Tw [(minimal brain dysfunction)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.0898 0 TD -0.002 Tc -0.056 Tw [( ar)-9.8(e associ-)]TJ -27.5242 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc -0.0323 Tw [(ated with Goldstein and Strauss, wher)-9.8(eas the ter)-13.9(ms )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 21.6848 0 TD 0 Tw (dyslexia)Tj /F1 1 Tf 3.2 0 TD -0.0323 Tw [( and )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 2.0553 0 TD 0 Tw (developmen-)Tj -26.9401 -1.1905 TD -0.0398 Tw (tal aphasia)Tj /F1 1 Tf 4.5602 0 TD -0.0428 Tw [( ar)-9.8(e )]TJ 1.7441 0 TD 0 Tw (Hinshelwood- )Tj 6.0999 0 TD -0.0428 Tw [(Or)-32.9(ton concepts. The de)]TJ 10.3744 0 TD [( )-32.8(nition is literally built )]TJ -22.7786 -1.1905 TD 0.0046 Tc 0.0975 Tw [(by committee, which undoubtedly accounts for much of the contr)-9.8(oversy )]TJ T* 0.0034 Tc 0.0683 Tw [(that has hounded the )]TJ 9.9574 0 TD 0.0032 Tc 0.0685 Tw [( )81.7(eld of SLD fr)-9.9(om its inception and that has gr)-9.9(own )]TJ -9.9574 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw (exponentially over the past decade.)Tj 1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.011 Tw [(Par)-32.9(t of this contr)-9.8(oversy concer)-13.9(ns the need to identify a pr)-9.8(ocessing disor)30(-)]TJ -1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.0013 Tc 0.056 Tw [(der as par)-32.9(t of the diagnostic pr)-9.7(ocess \(Hale et al., 2004\), a mandate of the )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0175 Tw (IDEA 2004 SLD de)Tj 8.9626 0 TD [( )27.5(nition that tends to be ignor)-9.7(ed or trivialized by those )]TJ -8.9626 -1.1905 TD 0.0319 Tw (who favor a )Tj 5.3355 0 TD 0 Tw (Response- )Tj 4.3599 0 TD 0.0319 Tw [(to-Inter)-53(vention \(R)17.1(TI\) only appr)-9.8(oach for diagnosing )]TJ -9.6954 -1.1905 TD 0.0011 Tc 0.056 Tw [(SLD \(e.g., Gr)-9.8(esham, 2002\). Inter)-9.8(estingly)84.2(, pr)-9.8(ocessing disor)-7.8(ders ar)-9.8(e par)-32.9(t of )]TJ T* 0.0006 Tc (the SLD de)Tj 5.3085 0 TD [( )66.6(nition fr)-9.7(om the )]TJ 7.2572 0 TD 0 Tw (Goldstein- )Tj 4.5059 0 TD (Strauss- )Tj 3.3046 0 TD 0.056 Tw [(W)53.2(e)0(r)-13.9(ner perspective, but, as )]TJ -20.3761 -1.1905 TD 0.0042 Tc 0.0864 Tw [(noted, such disor)-7.8(ders play no par)-32.9(t in the )]TJ 18.3478 0 TD 0 Tw (Hinshelwood- )Tj 6.1501 0 TD 0.0864 Tw [(Or)-32.9(ton de)]TJ 4.387 0 TD 0.0036 Tc -0.0136 Tw [( nition. )]TJ -28.8849 -1.1905 TD 0.0011 Tc 0.056 Tw [(Ther)-9.7(efor)-9.7(e, fr)-9.7(om a historical perspective, the necessity of identifying a pr)-9.7(o-)]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(cessing disor)-7.8(der r)-9.8(eceives only mixed suppor)-32.9(t.)]TJ 1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.028 Tw [(However)33.2(, with histor)-53(y as a guide to practice, the need for neur)-9.8(opsycho-)]TJ -1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.0059 Tc 0.1238 Tw [(logical assessment as par)-32.9(t of the diagnostic pr)-9.7(ocess r)-9.7(eceives )]TJ 26.7115 0 TD 0 Tw [(br)-9.7(oad- )]TJ 2.885 0 TD [(based)5.9( )]TJ -29.5965 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0.0324 Tw [(suppor)-32.9(t. Regar)-7.8(dless of the tradition with which one identi)]TJ 25.1896 0 TD [( )42.4(es most closely)84.2(, )]TJ -25.1896 -1.1905 TD -0.002 Tc -0.056 Tw [(histor)-53(y is unanimous in associating brain damage, brain dysfunction, or brain )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0554 Tw [(or)7.1(ganization with SLDs. Whether or not the pr)-9.8(oblem is a disor)-7.8(der)-9.8(ed pr)-9.8(ocess )]TJ T* -0.0536 Tw (or a kind of brain dysfunction speci)Tj 14.9284 0 TD [( )-43.6(cally associated with r)-9.7(eading, writing, or )]TJ -14.9284 -1.1905 TD -0.0032 Tw [(arithmetic, neur)-9.8(opsychological assessment is necessar)-53(y to better understand )]TJ T* 0.0036 Tc 0.0743 Tw [(the individuals lear)-13.9(ning disability and to tr)-9.8(eat it. Kirk did not speci)]TJ 29.8555 0 TD 0.0029 Tc -0.0129 Tw [( cally )]TJ -29.8555 -1.1905 TD 0.0056 Tc 0.1171 Tw [(endorse the neur)-9.7(ological basis of SLD, but he did endorse the need for)5.6( )]TJ T* 0.0037 Tc 0.0791 Tw [(assessment: The concept of lear)-14(ning disability as used in education does )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0451 Tw [(not deny or r)-9.8(eject a neur)-9.8(ological de)]TJ 15.6998 0 TD [( )55.1(cit. )45.1(. )45.1(. )45.1(. The major emphasis is on the )]TJ -15.6998 -1.1905 TD 0.0035 Tc 0.0705 Tw [(use of psychological tests and/or obser)-52.9(vation for the purpose of or)7.1(ganiz-)]TJ T* 0.0037 Tc 0.0778 Tw [(ing a r)-9.8(emedial pr)-9.8(ogram. Such a pr)-9.8(ogram is . )77.7(. )77.7(. ver)-53.1(y dependent upon the )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0459 Tw [(deter)-13.9(mination of psychological abilities and disabilities \(Kirk & Kirk, 1971, )]TJ T* 0.0281 Tw (pp. 12 )Tj 3.2881 0 TD [(13\). Indeed, all historical appr)-9.8(oaches to SLD emphasize the spar)-9.8(ed )]TJ -3.2881 -1.1905 TD -0.0123 Tw (or intact abilities that stand in stark contrast to the de)Tj 22.887 0 TD -0.0117 Tw [( cient abilities, as well )]TJ -22.887 -1.1905 TD 0.0217 Tw [(as the necessity of developing a r)-9.8(emedial pr)-9.8(ogram based to some extent on )]TJ T* 0.0029 Tc 0.0593 Tw [(test r)-9.8(esults. Although the pr)-9.8(ograms designed to r)-9.8(emediate per)-8.8(ceptual and )]TJ T* 0.003 Tc 0.0614 Tw [(psycholinguistic pr)-9.8(ocesses have not pr)-9.8(oven ef)-36.9(fective either to impr)-9.8(ove the )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0169 Tw [(disor)-7.8(der)-9.8(ed pr)-9.8(ocess or cur)-9.8(e the lear)-13.9(ning disability)84.2(, ther)-9.8(e is a gr)-9.8(owing body )]TJ T* 0.006 Tc 0.1273 Tw [(of neur)-9.8(opsychological literatur)-9.8(e that suppor)-33(ts neur)-9.8(opsychological assess-)]TJ T* 0.0044 Tc 0.0914 Tw [(ment both to map the ar)-9.8(eas of the brain that ar)-9.8(e associated with speci)]TJ 31.29 0 TD 0 Tc -0.01 Tw [( c )]TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj >/ExtGState >>> endobj 29 0 obj >stream /GS2 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 9.5 0 0 9.5 51 623.15 Tm 0.054902 g 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(8 )-725.6(Neur)-9.8(opsychological Perspectives on Lear)-13.9(ning Disabilities in the Era of R)17.1(T)0(I)]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 51 594 Tm 0.0214 Tw [(aspects of the r)-9.8(eading pr)-9.8(ocess and to infor)-13.9(m inter)-53(vention \(Shaywitz, 2003; )]TJ 0 -1.1905 TD -0.0056 Tw [(Spr)-9.7(een, 2001\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12 0 0 12 69.5899 551 Tm -0.006 Tw (NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND SLD)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10.5 0 0 10.5 51 531.5 Tm 0.0126 Tw [(Neur)-9.7(ology and neur)-9.8(opsychology have been intimately associated with SLD )]TJ T* -0.0288 Tw [(for mor)-9.8(e than a centur)-53(y)94(.)0( The wealth of neur)-9.8(opsychological r)-9.8(esear)-8.8(ch that has )]TJ T* 0.0191 Tw (blossomed steadily since the early case studies of head- )Tj 23.3122 0 TD [(injur)-9.8(ed soldiers with )]TJ -23.3122 -1.1905 TD 0.0022 Tc 0.056 Tw [(mood and per)-8.8(ceptual disor)-7.8(ders \(Goldstein\), and of adults and adolescents )]TJ T* 0.005 Tc 0.104 Tw (with speci)Tj 4.6487 0 TD [( )119(c r)-9.8(eading disabilities \(Hinshelwood\), makes it imperative that )]TJ -4.6487 -1.1905 TD 0.0044 Tc 0.093 Tw [(neur)-9.8(opsychological assessment r)-9.8(etain that intimate link to SLD diagnosis )]TJ T* 0.0039 Tc 0.0827 Tw [(and tr)-9.9(eatment. However)33.1(, fr)-9.9(om a historical perspective, it is also tr)-28.9(ue that )]TJ T* 0.0056 Tc 0.1188 Tw [(much of the association between brain damage or dysfunction and SLD)5.6( )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0519 Tw [(has been by pr)-9.8(esumption and implication. The clinical cases of adults with )]TJ T* -0.008 Tw [(r)-9.7(eading disor)-7.8(ders following known brain injur)-53(y pr)-9.8(ovided har)-7.8(d data of a link )]TJ T* 0.0298 Tw [(between brain damage and SLD. But the dozens of clinical r)-9.8(epor)-32.9(ts of chil-)]TJ T* 0.0281 Tw [(dr)-9.8(en or adolescents with so-called congenital disabilities wer)-9.7(e based on the )]TJ T* 0.056 Tw [(assumption of central ner)-53(vous system dysfunction \(i.e., soft data, not har)-7.8(d )]TJ T* -0.0031 Tc -0.0614 Tw [(science; Benton, 1982\). As r)-9.8(ecently as a decade ago, the National Joint Com-)]TJ T* 0.002 Tc 0.056 Tw [(mittee on Lear)-13.9(ning Disabilities \(1998\) emphasized that SLD was intrinsic )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0152 Tw (to the individual and )Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.059 0 TD 0 Tw [(pr)17.1(esumed)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 3.8629 0 TD -0.0152 Tw [( to be caused by CNS dysfunction. Given the )]TJ -12.9219 -1.1905 TD 0.038 Tw [(behavioral orientation of the R)17.1(TI movement during the )]TJ 24.5762 0 TD [( )48(rst decade of the )]TJ -24.5762 -1.1905 TD 0 Tw ( )Tj 0 0 TD 0.0029 Tc (twenty- )Tj 3.2604 0 TD 0 Tc ()Tj 0.2729 0 TD 0.0029 Tc 0.0587 Tw [( )71.6(rst centur)-53(y)84.2(,)0( it is impor)-33(tant to ask whether the scienti)]TJ 23.4331 0 TD 0.0026 Tc 0.059 Tw [( )71.6(c data now )]TJ -26.9664 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0.036 Tw [(suppor)-32.9(t a har)-7.8(d link between neur)-9.8(opsychology and SLD or the r)-9.8(elationship )]TJ T* -0.0056 Tw [(r)-9.7(emains pr)-9.8(esumptive.)]TJ 1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.004 Tw [(Initial evidence of a neur)-9.8(ological link focused on soft signs \(such as poor )]TJ -1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.0053 Tc 0.1114 Tw [(motor coor)-7.8(dination, left- )]TJ 11.0434 0 TD [(right confusion\), which wer)-9.8(e mor)-9.8(e pr)-9.8(evalent in)5.3( )]TJ -11.0434 -1.1905 TD -0.0023 Tc -0.056 Tw [(SLD than nor)-13.9(mal populations \(e.g., Her)-33(tzig, 1983\). Though these soft signs )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0171 Tw [(wer)-9.8(e often criticized because they wer)-9.7(e developmental in natur)-9.8(e and disap-)]TJ T* 0.0234 Tw [(pear)-9.7(ed over time, data suggested other)-53(wise: Spr)-9.8(een \(1988\), in the V)-13.9(ictoria )]TJ T* -0.0493 Tw [(study of 203 childr)-9.8(en diagnosed with SLDs, showed that soft signs obser)-53(ved )]TJ T* 0.0032 Tc 0.0653 Tw [(at ages 8 to 12 years persisted or even incr)-9.8(eased thr)-9.8(ough age 25. Despite )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0279 Tw [(Spr)-9.7(eens )]TJ 4.1476 0 TD [( )37.9(ndings of the stability of soft signs, this line of r)-9.8(esear)-8.8(ch pr)-9.8(oved a )]TJ -4.1476 -1.1905 TD 0.0315 Tw [(vir)-32.9(tual dead end because soft signs rar)-9.8(ely point to speci)]TJ 24.3957 0 TD [( )41.5(c locations in the )]TJ -24.3957 -1.1905 TD 0.0398 Tw [(cor)-32.9(tex \(Spr)-9.8(een, 2001, p. 286\). Mor)-9.8(e compelling data came fr)-9.8(om autopsy )]TJ T* -0.0156 Tw [(studies of a total of six individuals with dyslexia \(Drake, 1968; Galabur)-7.8(da & )]TJ T* -0.0305 Tw [(Kemper)33.2(, 1978; Humphr)-9.8(eys, Kaufmann, & Galabur)-7.8(da, 1990\), which consis-)]TJ T* 0.012 Tw [(tently showed dyslexic brains to dif)-36.9(fer fr)-9.7(om nor)-13.9(mal brains: The autopsy )]TJ T* -0.0013 Tc -0.056 Tw [(studies showed micr)-9.7(odysgenesis with ectopias and dysplasias bilaterally along )]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.0341 Tw (the Sylvan )Tj 4.8218 0 TD [( )-24.1(ssur)-9.8(e fr)-9.8(ontally and along the planum temporale, in the left mor)-9.8(e )]TJ -4.8218 -1.1905 TD -0.0156 Tw [(than in the right hemispher)-9.8(e \(Spr)-9.7(een, 2001, p. 287\). However)33.2(, computer)30(-)]TJ T* 0.056 Tw [(ized tomography \(CT\) studies have only occasionally suppor)-33(ted the asym-)]TJ T* 0.0032 Tc 0.0654 Tw [(metries r)-9.8(epor)-33(ted in the autopsy studies, and have sometimes contradicted )]TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj >/ExtGState >>> endobj 32 0 obj >stream /GS2 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 9.5 0 0 9.5 167.691 623.15 Tm 0.054902 g 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(Neur)-9.8(opsychology and Speci)]TJ 12.1084 0 TD -0.007 Tw [( c Lear)-13.9(ning Disabilities )-727(9)]TJ 10.5 0 0 10.5 54 594 Tm 0.0012 Tc 0.056 Tw (the )Tj 1.9719 0 TD [( )67.2(ndings, for example, when age and brain size ar)-9.7(e contr)-9.7(olled \(Schultz )]TJ -1.9719 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc -0.016 Tw [(et al., 1994\); r)-9.8(eviews of the CT literatur)-9.8(e do not consistently suppor)-32.9(t asym-)]TJ T* -0.0032 Tc -0.0624 Tw [(metr)-53(y of the plana in individuals with dyslexia \(e.g., Mor)7(gan & Hynd, 1998\). )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0364 Tw [(Another line of r)-9.8(esear)-8.8(ch suggested corpus callosum abnor)-13.9(malities in adults )]TJ T* -0.0022 Tc -0.056 Tw [(with dyslexia \(e.g., Duara et al., 1991\), but a r)-9.8(eview of per)-33(tinent studies indi-)]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.0174 Tw [(cated that the r)-9.8(esults have not been r)-9.8(eplicated acr)-9.8(oss samples of individuals )]TJ T* -0.0056 Tw (with dyslexia \(Beaton, 1997\).)Tj 1.1429 -1.1905 TD 0.0129 Tc 0.2787 Tw [(Dif)-36.9(fer)-9.8(ent avenues of r)-9.8(esear)-8.8(ch have explor)-9.8(ed )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 21.0554 0 TD 0.012 Tc 0 Tw (functional)Tj /F1 1 Tf 4.4599 0 TD 0.0129 Tc 0.2787 Tw [( abnor)-13.9(mali-)]TJ -26.6582 -1.1905 TD 0.0062 Tc 0.131 Tw [(ties in childr)-9.8(en with SLDs, using positr)-9.8(on emission tomography \(PET\),)6.2( )]TJ T* 0 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj 0 0 TD 0.0053 Tc (single- )Tj 2.8374 0 TD 0.1121 Tw [(photon emission tomography \(SPECT\), functional magnetic r)-9.8(eso-)]TJ -2.8374 -1.1905 TD 0.0097 Tc 0.2074 Tw [(nance imaging \(fMRI\), and electr)-9.7(ophysiological \(EEG\) techniques, an)9.7( )]TJ T* 0.0044 Tc 0.0917 Tw (advance over the strictly )Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.9813 0 TD 0.0041 Tc 0 Tw [(str)-9.8(uctural)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 4.2107 0 TD 0.0043 Tc 0.0918 Tw [( abnor)-14(mality appr)-9.9(oach of the CT scan )]TJ -15.192 -1.1905 TD -0.0018 Tc -0.056 Tw [(studies \(Bigler)33.2(, )]TJ 6.4839 0 TD 0 Tw (Lajiness- )Tj 3.6836 0 TD -0.056 Tw [(ONeill, & Howes, 1998; Spr)-9.7(een, 2001\). The meta-)]TJ -10.1676 -1.1905 TD 0 Tc 0.0461 Tw [(bolic imaging studies have pr)-9.8(ovided intriguing r)-9.8(esults based on changes in )]TJ T* 0.028 Tw (blood )Tj 3.078 0 TD [( )38(ow and blood oxygenation while individuals with and without dys-)]TJ -3.078 -1.1905 TD 0.0293 Tw [(lexia ar)-9.8(e per)-33.9(for)-13.9(ming speci)]TJ 11.2552 0 TD [( )39.3(c r)-9.7(eading tasks such as phonological pr)-9.8(ocessing, )]TJ -11.2552 -1.1905 TD 0 Tw ( )Tj 0 0 TD 0.0045 Tc (lexical- )Tj 2.9964 0 TD 0.0946 Tw [(semantic pr)-9.8(ocessing, )]TJ 9.2744 0 TD 0 Tw [(or)-33(thographic- )]TJ 5.9721 0 TD 0.0946 Tw [(visual pr)-9.8(ocessing, auditor)-53(y pr)-9.8(o-)]TJ -18.2428 -1.1905 TD -0.0029 Tc -0.0575 Tw [(cessing, and so for)-33(th \(e.g., Shaywitz et al., 1998; Rumsey et al., 1997\). 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The r)-9.8(elation of the planum temporale asymmetr)-53(y and mor)30(-)]TJ 1.2632 -1.2105 TD -0.0109 Tw [(phology of the corpus callosum to handedness, gender)33.2(, and dyslexia: A r)-9.8(eview of )]TJ T* -0.0056 Tw (the evidence. )Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.8487 0 TD -0.0052 Tw (Brain and Language, 60,)Tj /F1 1 Tf 10.6442 0 TD -0.0056 Tw [( 255 )]TJ 2.4544 0 TD 0 Tw (322.)Tj -20.2105 -1.2105 TD 0.0395 Tw [(Beaulieu, C., Plewes, C., Paulson, L. )39.5(A., Roy)84.2(, D., Snook. L., Concha, L., & Phil-)]TJ 1.2632 -1.2105 TD -0.0023 Tc -0.0561 Tw [(lips, L. \(2005\). Imaging brain connectivity in childr)-9.6(en with diverse r)-9.6(eading ability)94.1(. )]TJ /F2 1 Tf T* 0.0001 Tc -0.0053 Tw (NeuroImage, 25,)Tj /F1 1 Tf 7.0966 0 TD 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [( 1266 )]TJ 3.0144 0 TD 0 Tw (1271.)Tj -11.3742 -1.2105 TD -0.0012 Tc -0.056 Tw [(Benton, A. )-56(L. \(1982\). Child neur)-9.7(opsychology: Retr)-9.7(ospect and pr)-9.7(ospect. In J. de W)-13.9(i)0(t )]TJ 1.2632 -1.2105 TD -0.0019 Tc [(& A. )-56(L. Benton \(Eds.\), )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.9127 0 TD -0.0018 Tc -0.0519 Tw [(Perspectives on child study)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10.3967 0 TD -0.0019 Tc -0.056 Tw [( \(pp. 41 )]TJ 3.7911 0 TD -0.0018 Tc (46\). Lisse, Netherlands: )Tj -24.1005 -1.2105 TD 0 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(Swets & Zeitlinger)59.1(.)]TJ -1.2632 -1.2105 TD -0.0031 Tc -0.0617 Tw [(Bigler)33.2(, E. )-61.7(D., )]TJ 5.7765 0 TD 0 Tw (Lajiness- )Tj 3.6719 0 TD -0.0617 Tw (ONeill, R., & Howes, N- )Tj 10.8381 0 TD [(L. \(1998\). 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Contribution letude )Tj 19.019 0 TD 0 Tw (anatomic- )Tj 4.2399 0 TD 0.0299 Tw (pathologique et clinique des )Tj -21.9958 -1.2105 TD 0.0451 Tw [(dif)-36.9(fr)-9.8(entes varits de ccite verbale. )]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.9316 0 TD 0.0418 Tw [(Comptes Rendus des Seances et Memoir)17.1(es de )]TJ -15.9316 -1.2105 TD -0.0052 Tw (la Societ de Biologie et de Ses Filiales, 44,)Tj /F1 1 Tf 17.0181 0 TD -0.0056 Tw [( 61.)]TJ -18.2813 -1.2105 TD 0.0035 Tc 0.0731 Tw [(Deutsch, G. )73(K., Dougher)-33(ty)84.2(, R. )73(F)49(., Bammer)33.1(, R., Siok, W)80(.)-0.1( )73(T)70(., Gabrieli, J. )73(D. )73(E., & )]TJ 1.2632 -1.2105 TD -0.0018 Tc -0.0559 Tw [(W)49(a)0(ndell, B. \(2005\). 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Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Neuropsychology and Specific Learning Disabilities: Lessons from the Past as a Guide to Present Controversies and Future Clinical Practice (By Alan S. Kaufman).

Chapter 2. RTI, Neuroscience, and Sense: Chaos in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Learning Disabilities (By Cecil R. Reynolds).

Chapter 3. Neuroscience and RTI: A Complementary Role (By H. Lee Swanson).

Chapter 4. The Education Empire Strikes Back: Will RTI Displace Neuropsychology and Neuroscience from the Realm of Learning Disabilities (By Merrill Hiscock and Marcel Kinsbourne)?

Chapter 5. Nature-Nurture Perspectives in Diagnosing and Treating Learning Disabilities: Response to Questions Begging Answers That See the Forest and the Trees (By Virginia W. Berninger and James A. Holdnack).

Chapter 6. Compatibility of Neuropsychology and RTI in the Diagnosis and Assessment of Learning Disabilities (By Cynthia A. Riccio).

Chapter 7. Assessment versus Testing and its Importance in Learning Disability Diagnosis (By Julie A. Suhr).

Chapter 8. Comprehensive Assessment Must Play a Role in RTI (By Steven J. Hughes).

Chapter 9. The Need to Integrate Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology into a RTI Model (By Daniel C. Miller).

Chapter 10. Neuropsychological Assessment and RTI in the Assessment of Learning Disabilities: Are They Mutually Exclusive (By David Breiger and Lawrence V. Majovski)?

Chapter 11. Learning Disabilities: Complementary Views from Neuroscience, Neuropsychology, and Public Health (By Ronald T. Brown, Brian P. Daly, and Gerry A. Stefanatos).

Chapter 12. Integrating Science and Practice in Education (By Richard Boada, Margaret Riddle, and Bruce F. Pennington).

Chapter 13. Perspectives on RTI from Neuropsychology (By Scott L. Decker, Jessica A. Carboni, and Kimberly B. Oliver).

Chapter 14. Neuropsychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities Determination: Scientific and Cultural Considerations (By Sangeeta Dey).

Chapter 15. Identifying a Learning Disability: Not Just Product, but Process (By Colin D. Elliott).

Chapter 16. Integrating RTI with Cognitive Neuroscience in the Assessment of Learning Disabilities (By Steven G. Feifer).

Chapter 17. Neuropsychology and the Implications for Policy, Diagnosis, and RTI By Lisa A. Pass and Raymond S. Dean).

Chapter 18. Neuroscience, Neuropsychology, and Education: Learning to Work and Play Well with Each Other (By Michael D. Franzen).

Chapter 19. Diagnosing Learning Disabilities in Non-Majority Groups: The Challenges and Problems of Applying Non-Neuropsychological Approaches (By Javier Gontier and Antonio E. Puente).

Chapter 20. The Role of Neuroscience and Neuropsychology in the Diagnosis of Learning Differences and the RTI Paradigm (By Sally L. Kemp and Marit Korkman).

Chapter 21. Q & A about the Role of Neuroscience and Neuropsychology in the Assessment and Treatment of Learning Disorders (By Rosemarie Scolaro Moser).

Chapter 22. RTI and Neuropsychology: Antithesis or Synthesis (By Andrew L. Schmitt, Ronald B. Livingston, and Owen Carr).

Chapter 23. Utilizing RTI as an Opportunity to Identify and Plan More Effective Educational Interventions for Children with Learning Disabilities (By Amy Nilson Connery).

Chapter 24. Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, and Learning Disabilities: Brain Behavior Relationships (By Arthur MacNeill Horton, Jr.).

Chapter 25. Knowing Is Not Enough -- We Must Apply. Willing Is Not Enough – We Must Do (By Elaine Fletcher-Janzen).