Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture, Forestry, Ecology, and the Environment by Dietrich WernerNitrogen Fixation in Agriculture, Forestry, Ecology, and the Environment by Dietrich Werner

Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture, Forestry, Ecology, and the Environment

EditorDietrich Werner, William E. Newton

Paperback | October 28, 2010

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This book is the self-contained fourth volume of a seven-volume comprehensive series on nitrogen fixation. The outstanding aspect of this book is the integration of basic and applied work on biological nitrogen fixation in the fields of agriculture, forestry, and ecology in general. Nowadays, the concept of sustainability, which originated in agriculture and land use, is reaching many other areas of society and industry. Sustainability has a major part to play in the global challenge of continued development of regions, countries, and continents all around the World and biological nitrogen fixation has a key role in this process. This volume begins with chapters specifically addressing crops of major global importance, such as soybeans, rice, and sugar cane. It continues with a second important focus, agroforestry, and describes the use and promise of both legume trees with their rhizobial symbionts and other nitrogen-fixing trees with their actinorhizal colonization. An over-arching theme of all chapters is the interaction of the plants and trees with microbes and this theme allows other aspects of soil microbiology, such as interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact of soil-stress factors on biological nitrogen fixation, to be addressed. Furthermore, a link to basic science occurs through the inclusion of chapters describing the biogeochemically important nitrogen cycle and its key relationships among nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification. The volume then provides an up-to-date view of the production of microbial inocula, especially those for legume crops. No other available work provides the up-to-date and in-depth coverage of this volume, which is intended to serve as an indispensable reference work for academic, government, and industrial scientists working in the applied areas of agronomy, plant breeding, plant nutrition, ecology, and forestry as well as those in the basic science areas of plant physiology, soil microbiology, and related environmental disciplines. This volume will be an invaluable tool for students entering this challenging area of research and will provide science administrators with ready access to vital relevant information.
Title:Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture, Forestry, Ecology, and the EnvironmentFormat:PaperbackDimensions:369 pagesPublished:October 28, 2010Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:904816897X

ISBN - 13:9789048168972

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Series. Preface. List of Contributors.1: Production and Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Tropical Legumes; D. Werner1. Introduction2. Phaseolus sp. and Vigna sp. (Beans)3. Arachis hypogaea (Groundnut, Peanut)4. Cicer arietinum (Chickpea)5. Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea)6. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Other LegumesAcknowledgementsReferences 2: Nitrogen Fixation by Soybean in North America; S. G. Pueppke1. Soybean: Pathways to North America and Establishment as a Crop2. Soybean Production in North America3. Major Soybean Cropping Systems4. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Soybean in North America5. PerspectivesAcknowledgementsReferences3: The Importance of Nitrogen Fixation to Soybean Cropping in South America; M. Hungria, J. C. Franchini, R. J. Campo and P. H. Graham1. Introduction2. Taxonomy, Origins, and Importance of Soybean3. Biological Nitrogen Fixation4. Economic Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in South America5. Crop Management in South America6. Final ConsiderationsAcknowledgementReferences 4: Production, Regional Distribution of Cultivars, and Agricultural Aspects of Soybean in India; S. K. Mahna1. Introduction and Historical Background2. All-India Area Coverage, Productivity, and Production of Soybean between 1970- 20033. All-India State-wise Area Coverage, Productivity, and Production of Soybean4. Regional Distribution of Soybean Cultivars5. Regional Agricultural Aspects of Soybean CultivationAcknowledgementsReferences 5: Soybean Cultivation and BNF in China; J. E. Ruiz Sainz, J. C. Zhou, D.-N. Rodriguez-Navarro, J. M. Vinardell and J. E. Thomas-Oates1. Summary2. Soybean Cultivation in China: Historical Aspects and Current Situation3. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria that Nodulate Soybean4. The Soybean Germplasm Collection in China5. Soybean in Crop Rotation and in Continuous Culture6. ConclusionsAcknowledgementReferences 6: Soil Stress Factors Influencing Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation; M. J. Sadowsky1. Introduction2. Importance of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation3. Symbiotic Interaction of Legumes with Rhizobia4. Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Genetics in the Rhizobia and Bradyrhizobia5. Rhizobia in the Soil Environment6. Stress Factors in the Soil Environment that Influence N2 Fixation7. Concluding RemarksReferences7: Nodulated Legume Trees; J. I. Sprent1. Introduction2. Leguminosae3. Rhizobia that Nodulate Legume Trees4. Types of Nodules formed on Trees5. Mycorrhizas and Other Nutrient-Acquisition Systems6. Measurement of Nitrogen Fixation by Trees7. Role of Legume Trees in Natural and Managed SystemsReferences 8. Nitrogen Fixing Trees with Actinorhiza in Forestry and Agroforestry; R. O. Russo1. Introduction2. General Characteristics of the Actinorhizal Symbiosis3. Host Botanical Families4. Nitrogen Fixation in Actinorhizal Trees5. Mycorrhizal Associations with Actinorhizal Trees6. Actinorhizal Trees in Agroforestry7. The Genus Casaurina8. The Experience of the Central America Fuelwood Project9. The Case of Alnus acuminata in Tropical Highlands10. Other Uses of Actinorhizal Trees11. Concluding ConsiderationsReferences 9: Molecular Ecology of N2-fixing Microbes Associated with Gramineous Plants: Hidden Activities of Unknown Bacteria; T. Hurek and B. Reinhold-Hurek1. Introduction2. The Problem of Identifying Key Diazotrophic Bacteria in Gramineous Plants: The Classical Approach3. The Significance of Diazotrophic Grass Endophytes4. The Significance of Culture-Independent Methods5. The Significance of nifH-Targeted Methods6. Limitations of nifH-Targeted Methods7. Many Diazotrophs Defy Cultivation8. Diazotrophic Grass Endophytes as Key Organisms for BNF in Gramineous Plants9. Summary and OutlookReferences 10: Interactions of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiosis in Sustainable Agriculture; J. M. Barea, D. Werner, C. Azcón-Guilar and R. Azcón1. Introduction2. Purpose of Review3. Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses4. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza5. Interactions between AM Fungi and Rhizobia to Improve Legume Productivity in Agriculture6. ConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferences 11: Inoculant Preparation, Production and Application; M. Hungria, M. F. Loureiro, I. C. Mendes, R. J. Campo and P. H. Graham1. Introduction2. Strain Selection3. Inoculant Production4. Inoculant Application5. Factors Affecting the Success of Inoculation6. Main ConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferences12: Nitrifying Bacteria; C. Fiencke, E. Spieck and E. Bock1. Nitrification as Part of the Nitrogen Cycle2. Two Physiological Groups of Bacteria Contribute to Nitrification3. Ecology and Detection of Nitrifying Bacteria4. Metabolism of Nitrifying BacteriaReferences 13: The Nitrogen Cycle: Denitrification and its Relationship to N2 Fixation; R. J. M. van Spanning, M. J. Delgado and D. J. Richardson1. Introduction2. The Nitrogen Cycle3. Denitrification4. Bacterial Respiratory Nitrate Reductases5. Nitrite Reductases6. Nitric Oxide Reductases7. Nitrous Oxide Redutase8. Linkage of the Denitrification Gene Clusters9. Bioenergetics of Denitrification10. Regulation of Transcription of Denitrification Genes11. Regulation of Denitrification by Environmental Factors12. Diversity of Denitrification13. Yeast and Fungal Denitrification14. Concluding RemarksAcknowledgementsReferencesSubject Index