Nuclear Geophysics: Applications in Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Science by V.I. FerronskyNuclear Geophysics: Applications in Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Science by V.I. Ferronsky

Nuclear Geophysics: Applications in Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology, Agriculture and…

byV.I. Ferronsky

Hardcover | January 26, 2015

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The fundamentals of methods in nuclear geophysics and their practical applications in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, agriculture and environmental science are discussed in this book. The methods and apparatus based on absorption and scattering of gamma and neutron radiation for determination of density and soil moisture in natural conditions are presented in Chapters 2, 3, and 4. The theoretical fundamentals and installations of the penetration logging techniques where gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron logging in combination with static penetration form common complexes for engineering geology and hydrogeology exploration without boring holes are described. The developed constructions and practical use penetration logging installations for applications on land and marine shelves are described in Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8. The physical fundamentals for the use of the natural stable and radioactive isotopes for study of the global hydrological cycle are provided. The experimental data, origin and distribution of cosmogenic and radiogenic isotopes in the oceans, atmospheric moisture, surface and underground waters are presented in Chapters 9, 10, and 11. The sources and conditions of the radioactive contamination of the natural waters are discussed in Chapters 12 and 13.

This book will be of interest to scientists and researchers who use nuclear geophysics methods in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeoecology. Lecturers, students, and postgraduates in these subjects will also find it useful.

Title:Nuclear Geophysics: Applications in Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology, Agriculture and…Format:HardcoverDimensions:522 pagesPublished:January 26, 2015Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3319124501

ISBN - 13:9783319124506

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction: Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics

1.1 Natural Stable and Radioactive Isotopes

1.2 Nuclear Reactions and Sources of Radioactivity

1.3 Laws of Radioactive Decay and Attenuation of Radiation

1.4 Measurement Techniques and Health Hazards

Part I Use of Nuclear Techniques for Determination of Soil Properties

2 Methods Based on the Absorption of the Gamma-Ray Beam by Matter

2.1 Main Principles

2.2 Transmission of Narrow and Broad Gamma-Ray Beams through Matter

2.3 Mass Absorption Coefficients of Rocks

2.4 Sensitivity of the Method

2.5 Deviations from the Mean Density

2.6 Determination of Soil Density by Gamma-Ray Absorption

2.7 Studies of Moisture Content Dynamics in Soil

2.8 Determination of the Amount of Water Stored in Snow Cover

2.9 Studies of the Evaporation Process

3 The Gamma-Ray Back-Scattering Method

3.1 Principles and Range of Application

3.2 Optimal Parameters of Measuring Probe

3.3 Design of Gamma-Ray Density Gauges and the Range of their Application

3.3.1 Surface Type Gamma Ray Density Gauges

3.3.2 Gamma-Ray Density Gauges Used in Wells

3.3.3 Gamma-Ray Density Gauges for Direct Insertion into the Ground

3.4 Technological Aspects of Measurement and Calibration

4 Neutron Back-Scattering Method

4.1 Principles and Range of Application

4.2 Optimal Parameters of Measuring Probe

4.2.1 Sensitivity of the Method

4.2.2 Maximum Working Depth

4.2.3 Effects of Parameters of the Medium

4.3 Design of Neutron Moisture Gauges

4.4 Possible Errors in the Moisture Content Measured by the Neutron Method

4.5 Calibration of Neutron Moisture Gauges

Part II Penetration Logging Techniques

5 Penetration Logging Methods and Equipment

5.1 Essence of Penetration Logging Techniques and Conditions of Application

5.2 Experimental Penetration Logging Rig SUGP-10

5.3 The Penetration Logging Rig and Equipment SPK

5.4 The Submerged Penetration Logging Rig PSPK-69 Mounted on

the Exploration Catamaran Type Ship "Geologist-1"

6 Theoretical Basis of Penetration Logging Tests

6.1 Solutions Based on the Theory of Ultimate Equilibrium

6.2 Imbedding of Spherical Probe into an Infinite Elastic Medium

6.3 Imbedding of Spherical Probe into Elastic- Creeping Medium

6.4 Two-Dimensional Axis-Symmetric Problem of Relaxation Stress

6.5 Conditions for Measuring Ground Parameters by Static Penetration

7 Experimental Studies and Interpretation of Penetration Logging Data

7.1 Density, Moisture, Porosity, Groundwater Level

7.2 Influence of Sounding Parameters on Ground Resistance and Friction

7.3 Modulus of Ground Compressibility

7.4 Ground Shear and Rheology Parameters

7.5 Normal Pressure

7.6 Lithology Stratification

8 Application of Penetration Logging Techniques in Geoengineering Exploration

8.1Geological and Geographical Conditions for Application of Penetration Logging

8.2 Practical Applications

8.3 Engineering Geological and Hydrogeological Mapping

8.3.1 Study for Irrigation Land Projects

8.3.2 Study for Drainage Land Projects

8.3.3 Geoengineering Studies in a Region of Glacial Sediments

8.3.4 Prospecting for Building Construction

8.3.5 Study of a Landslide Slope

8.3.6 Study of Bottom Marine Sediments at Novorossiysk Port

8.3.7 Study of Novorossiysk Oil Jetty Structures

8.4 Combined Application of Penetration Logging and Traditional

Geophysical Methods

Part III Natural Isotopes in Environmental Studies

9 Stable Isotopes in Study of Global Hydrological Cycle

9.1 Separation of Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes at Phase Transition of Water

9.2 Isotopic Composition of Ocean Water

9.3 Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Moisture

9.4 Isotopic Composition of Continental Surface Waters

9.5 Isotopic Composition of Water in Evaporating Basins

9.6 Isotopic Composition of Water in Unsaturated and Saturated Zones

9.7. Isotopic Composition of Formation Waters

9.8 Isotopic Composition of Groundwater in Volcanic Regions

9.8.1 Isotopes in Studying the Origin of Thermal Waters

9.8.2 Isotopic Geothermometers

10 Cosmogenic Radioisotopes for Study of the Genesis and Dynamics of Water

10.1 Origin and Distribution of Cosmogenic Radioisotopes

10.2 Sources of Tritium Discharge into Natural Waters

10.3 Global Circulation of Tritium Water

10.3.1 Tritium in Atmospheric Hydrogen and Methane

10.3.2 Tritium in Atmospheric Water Vapour

10.3.3 Tritium in Precipitation

10.3.4 Formation of Tritium Concentrations in the Atmosphere

10.4 Tritium in Ocean Waters

10.5 Tritium in Continental Surface Waters

10.5.1 Tritium Contents in River Water

10.5.2 Tritium in Lakes and Reservoirs

10.6 Tritium in Groundwaters

10.7 Dating by Tritium

10.7.1 Piston Flow Model

10.7.2 Dispersive Model

10.7.3 Complete Mixing Model

10.7.4 Symmetrical Binominal Age Distribution Model

10.7.5 Model of Mixing Waters of Different Ages

10.7.6 Complicated Model

10.8 Radiocarbon in Natural Waters

10.8.1 Origin and Distribution of Radiocarbon in Nature

10.8.2 Natural Variations of Radiocarbon in the Atmosphere and Biosphere

10.8.3 Natural Radiocarbon in Oceans

10.8.4 Technogenic Radiocarbon in the Atmosphere and Oceans

10.8.5 Forecast of Carbon Dioxide Increase in the Atmosphere

10.8.6 Principles of Radiocarbon Dating

10.8.7 Radiocarbon Dating of Groundwater

10.9 Other Cosmogenic Radioisotopes

11 Radiogenic Isotopes in Dating of Natural Waters and Sediments

11.1 Production and Distribution of Radiogenic Isotopes

11.2 Separation of Radiogenic Isotopes

11.2.1 Separation of Uranium Isotopes

11.2.2 Separation of Thorium Isotopes

11.2.3 Separation of Radium Isotopes

11.3 Distribution of Radiogenic Isotopes in Natural Waters

11.3.1 Uranium Isotopes in Natural Waters

11.3.2 Thorium Isotopes in Natural Waters

11.4 Dating of Surface and Groundwaters

11.4.1 Dating of Closed Reservoirs

11.4.2 Dating of Groundwater

11.5 Dating of Sediments

11.5.1 Uranium-Uranium Method

11.5.2 Uranium-Ionium Method

11.6 Radiogenic Isotopes as Indicators of Hydrologic Processes

Part IV Other Applications

12 Radioactive Contamination of Natural Waters

12.1 Sources of Radioactive Contamination of Water

12.1.1 Nature and Properties of Radioactive Effluents

12.1.2 Future Developments in Nuclear Technology and

Disposal of Effluents

12.2 Migration of Radioactive-Effluent Components through Soil and Ground

12.2.1 Migration Activity

12.2.2 Natural Mineral Sorbents

12.2.3 Natural Organic Sorbents

12.3 Estimation of Absorbing Properties of Soil and Ground and Migration

Activity of Radioactive Micro-components

12.3.1 Determining the Absorption Capacity

12.3.2 Absorption Capacity of Soil and Ground for Components of

Contaminants

12.3.3 Absorption of Radioactive Components under Dynamic Conditions

13 Induced-Activity Method for Analysis of Rocks and Groundwaters

13.1 Principles and Range of Application

13.2 Activation Reactions in Principal Rock-Forming Elements and Water

13.3 Theory of the Method

13.4 Laboratory Activation Analysis for Aluminium and Silicon

Conclusions

Subject index