The book, a joint work of the African Development Bank and the African Union, presents a comprehensive analysis of the oil and gas resources in Africa. It uniquely highlights, through country examples, and with an African focus but a global perspective, the specific challenges and constraintsfacing the continent as a whole in the exploitation and utilization of its oil and gas resources. It partly draws on a model that simulates the impact of high oil prices on African economies, a model that was developed by the Research Department of the Bank in a separate study. The roles of AfDB andAU are analyzed, considering their differing, but complementary, mandates geared towards the development of the continent. Finally, the book includes recommendations on the future directions and actions for maximizing benefits of Africa's oil and gas resources.