On-Site Drug Testing by Amanda J. JenkinsOn-Site Drug Testing by Amanda J. Jenkins

On-Site Drug Testing

EditorAmanda J. Jenkins, Bruce Goldberger

Paperback | November 19, 2010

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Today on-site drug testing is used widely in the workplace, the justice system (probation and parole), hospital emergency rooms, physician offices, and rehabilitation programs. In On-Site Drug Testing, scientists and forensic toxicologists critically evaluate the on-site devices currently available, their validation studies, and their use in a variety of settings. For each device, the expert contributors discuss its principles, materials and reagents, procedures and interpretation, and performance. The tests applied include both therapeutic drugs (lipid-lowering medications, antithrombotic medications, and anticoagulant drugs) at the point of clinical care and drugs of abuse (alcohol, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opiates) in the workplace and the criminal justice system. The well-versed contributors also address critical issues in sample collection and adulteration, and in program standards and legal requirements in workplace testing. Comprehensive and authoritative, On-Site Drug Testing illuminates the state of on-site drug testing today, and provides all those responsible a firm basis for choosing the best test devices and techniques most suited to their purposes.
Title:On-Site Drug TestingFormat:PaperbackDimensions:298 pages, 9.02 × 5.98 × 0.07 inPublished:November 19, 2010Publisher:Humana PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1617372315

ISBN - 13:9781617372315

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1Clinical Point-of-Care Testing for Drugs of AbuseJimmie L. Valentine1 General Considerations2 Pediatric Clinical Considerations3 Adolescent Clinical Considerations4 Adult Clinical Considerations5 Physiological Considerations for Clinical Testing6 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 2:On-Site Tests for Therapeutic DrugsAlan H. B. Wu1 Rationale for Therapeutic Monitoring and Need for On-Site Drug Testing2 On-Site and Point-of-Care (POC) Drug Testing3 Direct On-Site Testing Instruments and Devices for Therapeutic Drugs4 Indirect On-Site Testing for Therapeutic Drugs4.1 Monitoring of Lipid Lowering Medications4.2 Monitoring of Antithrombotic Medications4.2.1 Heparin4.2.2 Oral Antithrombotic Therapy4.2.3 On-Site Testing for Anticoagulant Drugs5 ConclusionReferencesChapter 3:On-Site Workplace Drug TestingDavid Armbruster1 Background2 Conducting On-Site Workplace Drug Testing3 The Future of On-Site Workplace Drug TestingReferencesChapter 4:Program Requirements, Standards, and Legal Considerations for On-Site Drug Testing Devices in Workplace Testing ProgramsTheodore F. Shults and Yale H. Caplan1 Introduction2 What Is "On-Site" Testing from a Standards Perspective?3 Establishing Federal Standards for On-Site Drug Testing3.1 Drug Testing Advisory Board (DTAB)3.1.1 Collection Site3.1.2 Collector/Tester3.1.3 Collection Device/Test Device3.1.4 Specimen3.1.5 Collection Procedure3.1.6 On-Site Testing3.1.7 Laboratory Testing3.1.8 Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA)3.1.9 Reporting3.1.10 Medical Review Officer3.2 The DTAB End Game4 The Legal Requirements for Confirmatory Testing in Private Sector On-Site Testing5 The Legal Requirements for a Medical Review Officer in Private Sector On-Site Testing6 New Liability Risks of Drug Testing Providers and On-Site Drug Testing-Another Factor in Establishing Standards7 ConclusionNotesChapter 5:On-Site Testing Devices in the Criminal Justice SystemLeo J. Kadehjian and James Baer1 Drug Testing in the Criminal Justice Arena1.1 Introduction1.2 On-Site Testing1.3 Use of Noninstrument Drug Testing Devices2 Legal Admissibility, Evidentiary Weight, and Due Process2.1 Standards for Admissibility of Scientific Evidence2.2 Cases Addressing the Use of Noninstument Drug Testing Devices2.3 Requirements for Repeat and/or Confirmation Testing3 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 6:On-Site Testing Devices and Driving-Under-the-Influence CasesJ. Michael Walsh1 Introduction2 On-Site Testing in DUI Cases3 SummaryReferencesChapter 7Analysis of Ethanol in SalivaKurt M. Dubowski1 Introduction2 Saliva as a Specimen; Saliva Collection; Relationship of Saliva and Blood-Alchohol2.1 Saliva Collection2.2 Relation of Saliva-Alcohol to Alcohol in Other Body Fluids3 Saliva-Alcohol Testing Principles and Procedures4 Commercial Saliva-Alcohol Screening Test Devices5 Quality Assurance5.1Testing Personnel6 Interpretation and Use of ResultsReferencesChapter 8: Analysis of Drugs in SalivaVina Spiehler, Dene Baldwin, and Christopher Hand1 Roadside or On-Site Saliva Drug Testing1.1 Introduction1.2 Saliva Collection1.3 Cutoff Concentrations in Saliva1.4 Amphetamines1.5 Benzodiazepines1.6 Cannabinoids1.7 Cocaine1.8 Opiates1.9 Conclusion2 Cozart RapiScan Saliva Drug Test System2.1 Introduction2.2 Testing Principle2.3 Quality Control2.4 Interpretation2.5 Performance2.6 Adulteration2.7 Unique FeaturesReferencesChapter 9:AccuSign Drugs of Abuse TestJohannes J. W. Ros and Marinus G. Pelders1 Introduction2 The AccuSign Test Slide3 Summary of Studies3.1 Nonpublished Pilot-Study3.2 Duo Research Report3.3 Performance of AccuSign, Slide Test Near the Cutoff4 Discussion5 Conclusions6 Product Contact InformationReferencesChapter 10:The EZ-SCREEN and RapidTest Devices for Drugs of AbuseSanto Davide Ferrara, Luciano Tedeschi, and Franca Castagna1 Introduction2 EZ-SCREEN2.1 Principle2.2 Materials and Reagents2.3 Procedure and Interpretation2.4 Performance Characteristics3 Rapid Test3.1 Principle3.2 Materials and Reagents3.3 Procedure and Interpretation3.4 Performance CharacteristicsReferencesChapter 11:Frontline Testing for Drugs of AbuseSerge Schneider and Robert Wennig1 Introduction2 Test Principle and Test Instructions2.1 Test Principle2.2 Test Instructions3 Evaluation of the Frontline Tests3.1 Crossreactivity and Cutoff Concentrations3.2 Influence of Temperature3.3 Evaluation of Frontline Tests4 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 12:Abuscreen ONTRAK Tests for Drugs of AbuseLaurel J. Farrell1 Introduction2 Principle of Abuscreen ONTRAK2.1 Procedure2.2 Quality Control2.3 PerformanceReferencesChapter 13: The OnTrak TesTcup® SystemDennis J. Crouch1 Introduction2 Product Design and Theory of Drug Detection3 Analysis Method and Analysis Precautions3.1 Method3.2 Precautions4 Interpretation of Results5 Review and Discussion of the Literature5.1 Study #15.1.1 Methods5.1.2 Results5.1.3 Discussion5.2 Study #25.2.1 Methods5.2.2 Results5.2.3 Discussion5.3 Study #35.3.1 Methods5.3.2 Results5.3.3 Discussion5.4 Study #45.4.1 Methods5.4.2 Results5.4.3 Discussion5.5 Study #55.5.1 Methods5.5.2 Results5.5.3 Discussion5.6 Study #65.6.1 Methods5.6.2 Results5.6.3 Discussion5.7 Study #75.7.1 Methods5.7.2 Results5.7.3 Discussion6 Conclusions7 AcknowledgmentReferencesChapter 14:OnTrak TesTstik DeviceSalvatore J. Salamone and Jane S-C. Tsai1 Introduction2 Materials and Methods2.1 Instrumentation and Reagents2.2 Precision Study Methods2.3 Clinical Evaluation and Comparative Study2.4 Specificity3 The TesTstik Device4 Principle of Procedure5 Procedure6 Performance7 Availability8 AcknowledgmentsReferencesChapter 15:Triage® Device for Drug AnalysisRafael de la Torre1 Introduction2 Test Procedure2.1 Solution-Phase Reaction2.2 Solid-Phase Reaction2.3 Cutoff Definition2.4 Internal Quality Control3 Clinical and Laboratory EvaluationsReferencesChapter 16:Visualine IIT Drugs-of-Abuse Test KitsScott A. Kuzdzal and James H. Nichols1 Introduction2 Principle3 Description of Test Kits4 Performance Evaluation5 Management and Clinical Utility6 ConclusionsChapter 17:Drugs-of-Abuse Test Devices: A ReviewRobert E. Willette and Leo J. Kadehjian1 Introduction1.1 Background1.2 Study Design1.3 Study Devices2 Results2.1 Introduction2.2 Analysis of Results2.3 Interpretation of the Results2.4 Operator Variability2.5 Operational Characteristics3 SummaryTable 1. Drug CutoffsTable 2. Amphetamine Test Results vs GC/MS-AOC Study, HHS CutoffsTable 3. Amphetamine Test Results vs GC/MS-AOC Study, AOC CutoffsTable 4. Cocaine Test Results vs GC/MS-AOC Study, HHS/AOC CutoffsTable 5. Opiates Rest Results vs GC/MS-AOC Study, HHS CutoffsTable 6. Opiates Rest Results vs GC/MS-AOC Study, AOC CutoffsTable 8. Phencyclidine Test Results vs GC/MS-AOC Study, HHS/AOC CutoffsTable 9. All Drugs Test Results vs GC/MS-AOC Study, HHS CutoffsTable 10. All Drugs Test Results vs GC/MS-AOC Study, AOC CutoffsTable 11. Amphetamines Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, HHS CutoffsTable 12. Amphetamines Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, AOC CutoffsTable 13. Cocaine Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, HHS/AOC CutoffsTable 14. Opiates Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, HHS CutoffsTable 15. Opiates Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, AOC CutoffsTable 16. Cannabinoids Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, HHS/AOC CutoffsTable 17. Phencyclidine Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, HHS/AOC CutoffsTable 18. All Drugs Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, HHS CutoffsTable 19. All Drugs Test Results vs GC/MS-HHS Study, AOC CutoffsTable 20. Variation in Test Results for Products Manufactured by the Same Company (from HHS Study, HHS Cutoffs)Table 21. Product Descriptions, Operation, and Distributor Information AOC amd DWP StudiesAOC StudyDWP StudyChapter 18:Sample Adulteration and On-Site Drug Tests,John T. Cody1 Introduction2 Dilution3 Adulterants3.1 Acid3.2 Chromate3.3 Glutaraldehyde3.4 Nitrite3.5 Other Adulterants4 On-Site Adulteration Tests5 Conclusions6 References

Editorial Reviews

Foreword by Dr. Bryan Finkle"This book would appeal to anyone with an interest in on-site drug testing -- from employers to worried parents, criminal justice workers, anxious new employees, laboratorians (all levels, from technical staff up to directors of laboratories), toxicologists, etc. This book contains 18 chapters that cover in detail all available on-site drug testing devices and relevant aspects. A nice feature is an early chapter discussing the pharmacokinetics of the drugs assayed, and interpretation of results depending on the time of ingestion versus the time of testing. As a laboratory director, I greatly appreciate the discussion regarding nonlaboratorian test personnel and the as-to-be-expected relatively worse performance when compared to laboratorians (i.e., more result variability and related issues including substandard documentation). As a parent, I enjoyed reading the many chapters devoted to specific devices, discussions of the underlying technology, and review of the devices' performance in actual use. There is a great final chapter listing all the various substances that can cause interference and alter the test result. This book should really be titled "Anything you ever wanted to know about do-it-yourself drug testing." The book is easy to read and understand, and would appeal to nontechnically trained audience (e.g., parents, police officers, lawyers, etc.). I really like this book! It's going up on the bookshelf for easy access next time I have to discuss the results of an on-site test relative to that generated by my clinical laboratory."-Doody's Health Sciences Book Review Journal"On -Site Drug Testing is the only current reference book devoted to this topic. The book has 18 chapters, each written by one or more well-known experts in workplace drug testing. The book's editors and most of the chapters authors are forensic toxicologists....On-Site Drug Testing is a reference book that will be most useful for forensic toxicologists." - Medical Review Officer Update"...The eighteen chapters successfully review all aspects of on-site drug testing from the needs of many various programs, evaluation of devices and and test kits, and the legal and medical contexts that form the background against which this science must be applied. The authors are international authorities with a huge aggregate professional experience in analytical toxicology of alcohol and drug detection in biological specimens. They provide for the careful reader a critical review, conclusions, and recommendations concerning the present status and future viability of point-of-care, on-site testing...On-Site Drug Testing is timely and will serve as a landmark in the progress of this science."-From the Foreword by Bryan S. Finkle, PhD, DABFT, Consulting Forensic Toxicologist, Cameron, MT"On-Site Drug Testing is a reference book that will be most useful for forensic toxicologists. MROs who provide consultative services, including program development and expert testimony, will also find it a useful and perhaps necessary part of their library." -MRO Update"The book is also to be commended on its use of product contact details and on the clarity of its writing throughout. It is well writtena nd very readbale and so is auseful first text for anyone wanting to gain more general information on on-site testing or when selecting which of the test kis they are considering . " -British Toxicological Society Newsletter"The book is also to be commended on its use of product contact details and on the clarity of its writing throughout. It is well written and very readable and so is a useful first text for anyone wanting to gain more general information on on-site testing or when selecting which of the test kits they are considering using. I thought the length was appropriate and price reasonable..." - Newsletter of the British Toxicological Society"Comprehensive and authoritative, On-Site Drug Testing illuminates the state of on-site drug testing today, and provides all those responsible a firm basis for choosing the best test devices and techniques most suited to their purposes." -Clinical Laboratory"...collects writings from some of the foremost experts in analytic toxicology and the jurisprudence of drug testing. This collected work adequately covers the subject. It provides a source book for persons interested in what products are available to accomplish the testing, as well as a general framework for some of the issues involved in accomplishing the testing. It is also an important source of data for the attorney defending or attacking the credibility of on-site testing." -Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology