Open Questions: An Introduction to Philosophy

Paperback | August 15, 2000

byEmmett Barcalow

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This engaging introduction to the fundamental issues of philosophy will prompt students to think actively about questions such as: Does God exist? Do we have souls? Does human life have meaning? Is there a real difference between right and wrong? and many more. Organized topically, the twelvechapters in the book focus on key philosophical questions and discuss alternative answers (solutions). Author Emmett Barcalow includes readings in every chapter by famous thinkers and well-known philosophers who offer their own answers to these questions--for example, the thoughts of Charles Darwin,Benjamin Franklin, and Mohandas K. Gandhi on the existence of God; Plato's ideas on the body/mind connection; and John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant's theories of right and wrong. As students progress through the text, they'll begin to think critically and decide for themselves which answers seemthe most reasonable to them. Definitions and other relevant information are placed in the margins for easy reference, and brain teasers--questions for class discussion and student reflection--are integrated throughout. The text also features insightful discussion and review questions at the end ofeach chapter and two valuable appendices: one on reading philosophy and the other on writing a philosophy paper. The third edition adds chapter objectives; information on philosophy's subfields; a section on self-knowledge; new material on reflective equilibrium; expanded coverage of the social justification of morality; a new discussion of equal opportunity; a discussion of Feinberg's analysis of fourliberty limiting principles; and more. It also adds readings by Rahula, Sartre, Russell, St. Augustine, Constant, Rousseau, and many others.

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This engaging introduction to the fundamental issues of philosophy will prompt students to think actively about questions such as: Does God exist? Do we have souls? Does human life have meaning? Is there a real difference between right and wrong? and many more. Organized topically, the twelvechapters in the book focus on key philosophi...

Emmett Barcalow is at Western New England College.

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Moral Philosophy: Theories And Issues
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Format:PaperbackDimensions:528 pages, 6.42 × 9.21 × 1.1 inPublished:August 15, 2000Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195155009

ISBN - 13:9780195155006

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Table of Contents

Preface1. PhilosophySubfields of PhilosophyOpen and Closed QuestionsWhat It's Most Reasonable to BelieveEvaluating ArgumentsFacts and TheoriesTwo Principal Philosophical Questions2. God and PhilosophyThe Concept of GodArguments for God's ExistenceAn Argument Against God's Existence: The Argument from EvilFaithExperiencing God's PresenceReligious Belief: Charles DarwinFranklin's Religious Principles from His Autobiography: Benjamin FranklinGandhi's Political Principles: Mohandas K. Gandhi3. Body and MindLifeSoul as the Explanation of LifePhysical Explanations of LifeMind as the Explanation of ConsciousnessMindsDescartes' Argument for DualismProblems for DescartesPhysicalismIdentity TheoriesConclusionsPhaedo: Plato4. Personal Immortality and Personal IdentityDeath and Other HappeningsWhat Role Do Our Bodies Play in Personal Identity?Same Psychological EssenceHow the Self Depends on the BodyIdentifying and Reidentifying PeopleDualism, Personal Identity, and Existence After DeathThe Doctrine of No-Soul: Anatta: Walpola Rahula5. Freedom and DeterminismCausality and Personal IdentityCausality and DeterminismDeterminismDeterminism and Human FreedomSoft Determinism/CompatibilismReasons and CausesProbalistic Causality?What Difference Does It Make Whether We Are Free?FatalismBorderline CasesAn Essay Concerning Human Understanding: John LockeThe Delusion of Free Will: Robert BlatchfordExistentialism: Jean Paul Sartre6. Knowledge, Truth, and JustificationIt's Only a BeliefBelief and TruthThree Requirements for KnowledgeJustificationReasonsSelf-Knowledge: Beliefs About Our Own Mental StatesAlternatives to PerceptionBasic JustifiersOn the Value of Scepticism: Bertrand Russell7. Knowledge and SkepticismEvaluating the Skeptic's ArgumentA Strong and Weak Sense of KnowPerception, Observation, and InductionObservation and Causal GeneralizationsThe Virtue of SkepticismMeditations on the First Philosophy: Rene DescartesAn Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding: David Hume8. MoralityMoral ObjectivismMoral NonobjectivismThe Divine Command Theory of MoralityNonobjectivist Moral TheoriesMoral EgoismThe Confessions: Saint AugustineLaws Concerning Character Traits: Moses MaimonidesThe Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha: BuddhaThe Virtue of Compassion: His Holiness the Dalai LamaRepublic: Plato9. Moral JustificationMoral JustificationEvaluating Nonmoral Reasons (Premises)Evaluating Moral PrinciplesReflective EquilibriumMoral Belief and ActionWhy Be Moral? The Challenge of AmoralismThe Object of Morality: G. J. Warnock10. Two Theories of Right and WrongConsequentialismUtilitarianismKantian Moral TheoryUtilitarianism: John Stuart MillFoundations of the Metaphysics of Morals: Immanuel Kant11. Justice and RightsAristotle's Conception of Justice: Treating Equals EquallyJustice and Relevant DifferencesLeviathan: Thomas HobbesManifesto of the Communist Party: Karl Marx and Friedrich EngelsJustice, Gender, and the Family: Susan Moller Okin12. Liberty and DemocracyLibertyIs Democracy the Best Form of Government?The Kind of Liberty Offered to Men at the End of the Last Century: Benjamin ConstantThe Social Contract: Jean Jacques RousseauAppendicesA. Reading PhilosophyB. Writing a Philosophy PaperGlossary/IndexEach chapter begins with Objectives and an Introduction and ends with Questions for Discussion and Review and Suggestions for Further Reading