Opengl Es 3.0 Programming Guide

Paperback | February 28, 2014

byDan Ginsburg, Budirijanto Purnomo, Dave Shreiner

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OpenGL®  ES is the industry’s leading software interface and graphics library for rendering sophisticated 3D graphics on handheld and embedded devices. The newest version, OpenGL ES 3.0, makes it possible to create stunning visuals for new games and apps, without compromising device performance or battery life.


In the OpenGL ® ES 3.0 Programming Guide, Second Edition, the authors cover the entire API and Shading Language. They carefully introduce OpenGL ES 3.0 features such as shadow mapping, instancing, multiple render targets, uniform buffer objects, texture compression, program binaries, and transform feedback.


Through detailed, downloadable C-based code examples, you’ll learn how to set up and program every aspect of the graphics pipeline. Step by step, you’ll move from introductory techniques all the way to advanced per-pixel lighting and particle systems. Throughout, you’ll find cutting-edge tips for optimizing performance, maximizing efficiency with both the API and hardware, and fully leveraging OpenGL ES 3.0 in a wide spectrum of applications.


All code has been built and tested on iOS 7, Android 4.3, Windows (OpenGL ES 3.0 Emulation), and Ubuntu Linux, and the authors demonstrate how to build OpenGL ES code for each platform.


Coverage includes

  • EGL API: communicating with the native windowing system, choosing configurations, and creating rendering contexts and surfaces
  • Shaders: creating and attaching shader objects; compiling shaders; checking for compile errors; creating, linking, and querying program objects; and using source shaders and program binaries
  • OpenGL ES Shading Language: variables, types, constructors, structures, arrays, attributes, uniform blocks, I/O variables, precision qualifiers, and invariance
  • Geometry, vertices, and primitives: inputting geometry into the pipeline, and assembling it into primitives
  • 2D/3D, Cubemap, Array texturing: creation, loading, and rendering; texture wrap modes, filtering, and formats; compressed textures, sampler objects, immutable textures, pixel unpack buffer objects, and mipmapping
  • Fragment shaders: multitexturing, fog, alpha test, and user clip planes
  • Fragment operations: scissor, stencil, and depth tests; multisampling, blending, and dithering
  • Framebuffer objects: rendering to offscreen surfaces for advanced effects
  • Advanced rendering: per-pixel lighting, environment mapping, particle systems, image post-processing, procedural textures, shadow mapping, terrain, and projective texturing
  • Sync objects and fences: synchronizing within host application and GPU execution


This edition of the book includes a color insert of the OpenGL ES 3.0 API and OpenGL ES Shading Language 3.0 Reference Cards created by Khronos. The reference cards contain a complete list of all of the functions in OpenGL ES 3.0 along with all of the types, operators, qualifiers, built-ins, and functions in the OpenGL ES Shading Language.


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From the Publisher

OpenGL®  ES™ is the industry’s leading software interface and graphics library for rendering sophisticated 3D graphics on handheld and embedded devices. The newest version, OpenGL ES 3.0, makes it possible to create stunning visuals for new games and apps, without compromising device performance or battery life.   In the OpenGL ® ES...

Dan Ginsburg is founder of Upsample Software, LLC, a software consultancy specializing in 3D graphics and GPU computing. In previous roles he has worked on developing OpenGL drivers, desktop and handheld 3D demos, GPU developer tools, 3D medical visualization and games. He coauthored the OpenCL Programming Guide (Addison-Wesley, 2012)....

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:560 pages, 9 × 6.9 × 1.2 inPublished:February 28, 2014Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0321933885

ISBN - 13:9780321933881


Extra Content

Table of Contents

List of Figures           xvii

List of Examples        xxi

List of Tables            xxv

Foreword                  xxix

Preface                      xxxi

Intended Audience      xxxi

Organization of This Book    xxxii

Example Code and Shaders   xxxvi

Errata     xxxvi

Acknowledgments   xxxvii

About the Authors    xxxix


Chapter 1:  Introduction to OpenGL ES 3.0          1

OpenGL ES 3.0    3

What’s New in OpenGL ES 3.0   11

OpenGL ES 3.0 and Backward Compatibility   17

EGL   19

EGL Command Syntax   20

OpenGL ES Command Syntax   21

Error Handling   22

Basic State Management   23

Further Reading   25


Chapter 2:  Hello Triangle: An OpenGL ES 3.0 Example             27

Code Framework   28

Where to Download the Examples   28

Hello Triangle Example   29

Using the OpenGL ES 3.0 Framework   34

Creating a Simple Vertex and Fragment Shader   35

Compiling and Loading the Shaders   36

Creating a Program Object and Linking the Shaders   38

Setting the Viewport and Clearing the Color Buffer   39

Loading the Geometry and Drawing a Primitive   40

Displaying the Back Buffer   41

Summary   42


Chapter 3:  An Introduction to EGL            43

Communicating with the Windowing System   44

Checking for Errors   45

Initializing EGL   46

Determining the Available Surface Configurations   46

Querying EGLConfig Attributes   48

Letting EGL Choose the Configuration   51

Creating an On-Screen Rendering Area: The EGL Window   53

Creating an Off-Screen Rendering Area: EGL Pbuffers   56

Creating a Rendering Context   60

Making an EGLContext Current   62

Putting All Our EGL Knowledge Together   63

Synchronizing Rendering   66

Summary   67


Chapter 4:  Shaders and Programs            69

Shaders and Programs   69

Uniforms and Attributes   80

Shader Compiler   93

Program Binaries   94

Summary   95


Chapter 5:  OpenGL ES Shading Language         97

OpenGL ES Shading Language Basics   98

Shader Version Specification   98

Variables and Variable Types   99

Variable Constructors   100

Vector and Matrix Components   101

Constants   102

Structures   103

Arrays   104

Operators   104

Functions   106

Built-In Functions   107

Control Flow Statements   107

Uniforms   108

Uniform Blocks   109

Vertex and Fragment Shader Inputs/Outputs   111

Interpolation Qualifiers   114

Preprocessor and Directives   115

Uniform and Interpolator Packing   117

Precision Qualifiers   119

Invariance   121

Summary   123


Chapter 6:  Vertex Attributes, Vertex Arrays, and Buffer Objects          125

Specifying Vertex Attribute Data   126

Declaring Vertex Attribute Variables in a Vertex Shader   135

Vertex Buffer Objects   140

Vertex Array Objects   150

Mapping Buffer Objects   154

Copying Buffer Objects   159

Summary   160


Chapter 7:  Primitive Assembly and Rasterization          161

Primitives   161

Drawing Primitives   165

Primitive Assembly   174

Rasterization   179

Occlusion Queries   183

Summary   185


Chapter 8:  Vertex Shaders           187

Vertex Shader Overview   188

Vertex Shader Examples   196

Generating Texture Coordinates   205

Vertex Skinning   207

Transform Feedback   211

Vertex Textures   214

OpenGL ES 1.1 Vertex Pipeline as an ES 3.0 Vertex Shader   215

Summary   223


Chapter 9:  Texturing            225

Texturing Basics   226

Compressed Textures   262

Texture Subimage Specification   266

Copying Texture Data from the Color Buffer   269

Sampler Objects   273

Immutable Textures   276

Pixel Unpack Buffer Objects   277

Summary   278


Chapter 10:  Fragment Shaders           279

Fixed-Function Fragment Shaders   280

Fragment Shader Overview   282

Implementing Fixed-Function Techniques Using Shaders   286

Summary   295


Chapter 11:  Fragment Operations               297

Buffers   298

Fragment Tests and Operations   303

Blending   311

Dithering   314

Multisampled Anti-Aliasing   314

Reading and Writing Pixels to the Framebuffer   316

Multiple Render Targets   320

Summary   324


Chapter12:  Framebuffer Objects             325

Why Framebuffer Objects?   325

Framebuffer and Renderbuffer Objects   327

Creating Framebuffer and Renderbuffer Objects   329

Using Renderbuffer Objects   330

Using Framebuffer Objects   335

Framebuffer Blits   342

Framebuffer Invalidation   344

Deleting Framebuffer and Renderbuffer Objects   346

Examples   348

Performance Tips and Tricks   354

Summary   355


Chapter 13:  Sync Objects and Fences             357

Flush and Finish   357

Why Use a Sync Object?   358

Creating and Deleting a Sync Object   358

Waiting for and Signaling a Sync Object   359

Example   360

Summary   361


Chapter 14:  Advanced Programming with OpenGL ES 3.0           363

Per-Fragment Lighting   363

Environment Mapping   370

Particle System Using Transform Feedback   380

Image Postprocessing   387

Projective Texturing   390

Noise Using a 3D Texture   397

Procedural Texturing   404

Rendering Terrain with Vertex Texture Fetch   410

Shadows Using a Depth Texture   414

Summary   420


Chapter 15:  State Queries            421

OpenGL ES 3.0 Implementation String Queries   421

Querying Implementation-Dependent Limits   423

Querying OpenGL ES State   429

Hints   435

Entity Name Queries   436

Nonprogrammable Operations Control and Queries   436

Shader and Program State Queries   438

Vertex Attribute Queries   440

Texture State Queries   441

Sampler Queries   442

Asynchronous Object Queries   442

Sync Object Queries   443

Vertex Buffer Queries   444

Renderbuffer and Framebuffer State Queries   445

Summary   446


Chapter 16:  OpenGL ES Platforms          447

Building for Microsoft Windows with Visual Studio   447

Building for Ubuntu Linux   449

Building for Android 4.3+ NDK (C++)   450

Building for Android 4.3+ SDK (Java)   452

Building for iOS 7   453

Summary   455


Appendix A:  GL_HALF_FLOAT            457

16-Bit Floating-Point Number   458

Converting a Float to a Half-Float   459


Appendix B:  Built-In Functions          463

Angle and Trigonometry Functions   465

Exponential Functions   466

Common Functions   467

Floating-Point Pack and Unpack Functions   471

Geometric Functions   472

Matrix Functions   474

Vector Relational Functions   475

Texture Lookup Functions   476

Fragment Processing Functions   483


Appendix C:  ES Framework API           485

Framework Core Functions   485

Transformation Functions   490


Index             495


Editorial Reviews

“As a graphics technologist and intense OpenGL ES developer, I can honestly say that if you buy only one book on OpenGL ES 3.0 programming, then this should be the book. Dan and Budirijanto have written a book clearly by programmers for programmers. It is simply required reading for anyone interested in OpenGL ES 3.0. It is informative, well organized, and comprehensive, but best of all practical. You will find yourself reaching for this book over and over again instead of the actual OpenGL ES specification during your programming sessions. I give it my highest recommendation.” –Rick Tewell, Graphics Technology Architect, Freescale   “This book provides outstanding coverage of the latest version of OpenGL ES, with clear, comprehensive explanations and extensive examples. It belongs on the desk of anyone developing mobile applications.” –Dave Astle, Graphics Tools Lead, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and Founder,   “The second edition of OpenGL® ES™ 3.0 Programming Guide provides a solid introduction to OpenGL ES 3.0 specifications, along with a wealth of practical information and examples to help any level of developer begin programming immediately. We’d recommend this guide as a primer on OpenGL ES 3.0 to any of the thousands of developers creating apps for the many mobile and embedded products using our PowerVR Rogue graphics.” –Kristof Beets, Business Development, Imagination Technologies   “This is a solid OpenGL ES 3.0 reference book. It covers all aspects of the API and will help any developer get familiar with and understand the API, including specifically the new ES 3.0 functionality.” –Jed Fisher, Managing Partner, 4D Pipeline   “This is a clear and thorough reference for OpenGL ES 3.0, and an excellent presentation of the concepts present in all modern OpenGL programming. This is the guide I’d want by my side when diving into embedded OpenGL.” –Todd Furlong, President & Principal Engineer, Inv3rsion LLC