Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor

Hardcover | October 24, 2010

byYannis P. Tsividis, Colin McAndrew

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The MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) transistor is the most important building block of modern silicon integrated circuits. This book fills an important gap in the literature by presenting a unified treatment of the operation and modeling of the MOS transistor that is complemented withextensive intuitive discussions.The MOS transistor is the dominant VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) device, and understanding of this device is mandatory for those people planning a career in device physics and modeling as well as in circuit design. Especially important for university courses,there is a logical, systematic and progressive description that starts with semiconductor fundamentals and builds up to a comprehensive understanding of the basics of MOS transistors. For practicing professionals there are details of nuances observed in MOS transistor behavior, and variousapproaches to modeling these are presented. Detailed derivations are given for modeling dc currents, charges for large-signal operation, small-signal operation at low frequencies and high frequencies, and noise.

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The MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) transistor is the most important building block of modern silicon integrated circuits. This book fills an important gap in the literature by presenting a unified treatment of the operation and modeling of the MOS transistor that is complemented withextensive intuitive discussions.The MOS transistor i...

Yannis Tsividis is Charles Batchelor Professor of Electrical Engineering at Columbia University.

other books by Yannis P. Tsividis

Format:HardcoverDimensions:752 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.98 inPublished:October 24, 2010Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195170156

ISBN - 13:9780195170153

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Table of Contents

1. Semiconductors, Junctions, and Mosfet Overview1.1 Introduction1.2 Semiconductors1.2.1 Intrinsic Semiconductors, Free Electrons, and Holes1.2.2 Extrinsic Semiconductors1.2.3 Equilibrium in the Absence of Electric Field1.2.4 Equilibrium in the Presence of Electric Field1.2.5 Semiconductors in Nonequilibrium; Quasi-Fermi Levels1.2.6 Relations between Charge Density, Electric Field, and Potentials; Poisson's Equation1.3 Conduction1.3.1 Transit Time1.3.2 Drift1.3.3 Diffusion1.3.4 Total Current1.4 Contact Potentials1.5 Thepn Junction1.6 Overview of the MOS Transistors1.6.1 Basic Structure1.6.2 A Qualitative Description of MOS Transistor Operation1.6.3 A Fluid Dynamical Analog1.6.4 MOS Transistor Characteristics1.7 Fabrication Processes and Device Features1.8 A Brief Overview of This BookReferencesProblems2. The Two Terminal MOS Structure2.1 Introduction2.2 The Flat-Band Voltage2.3 Potential Balance and Charge Balance2.4 Effect of Gate - Body Voltage on Surface Condition2.4.1 Flat - Band Condition2.4.2 Accumulation2.4.3 Depletion and Inversion2.4.4 General Analysis2.5 Accumulation and Depletion2.6 Inversion2.6.1 General Relations and Regions of Inversion2.6.2 Strong Inversion2.6.3 Weak Inversion 2.6.4 Moderate Inversion2.7 Small - Signal Capacitance2.8 Summary of Properties of the Regions of InversionReferencesProblems3. The Three Terminal MOS Structure3.1 Introduction3.2 Contacting the Inversion Layer3.3 The Body Effect3.4 Regions of Inversion3.4.1 Approximate Limits3.4.2 Strong Inversion3.4.3 Weak Inversion3.5 A "VCB Control" Point of View3.5.1 Fundamentals3.5.2 the "pinchoff voltage"ReferencesProblems4. The Four - Terminal MOS Transistor4.1 Introduction4.2 Transistor Regions of Operation4.3 Complete All - Region Model4.3.1 Current Equations4.4 Simplified All - Region Models4.4.1 Linearizing the Depletion Region Charge4.4.2 Body -Referenced Simplified All - Region Models4.4.3 Source - Referenced Simplified All - Region Models4.4.4 Charge Formulation of Simplified All-Region models4.5 Models Based on Quasi - Fermi Potentials4.6 Regions of Inversion in Terms of Terminal Voltages4.7 Strong Inversion4.7.1 Complete Strong -Inversion Model4.7.2 Body - Referenced Simplified Strong Inversion Model4.7.3 Source - Referenced Simplified Strong - Inversion Model4.7.4 Model Origin Summary4.8 Weak Inversion4.8.1 Special Conditions in Weak Inversion4.9 Moderate Inversion and Single - Piece Models4.10 Source - Referenced vs. Body - Referenced Modeling4.11 Effective Mobility4.12 Effect of Extrinsic Source and Drain Series Resistances4.13 Temperature Effects4.14 Breakdown4.15 The p-Channel MOS Transistor4.16 Enhancement - Mode and Depletion - Mode Transistors4.17 Model Parameter Values, Model Accuracy, and Model ComparisonReferencesProblems5. Small Dimension Effects5.1 Introduction5.2 Carrier Velocity Saturation5.3 Channel Length Modulation5.4 Charge Sharing5.4.1 Introduction5.4.2 Short - Channel Devices5.4.3 Narrow- Channel Devices5.4.4 Limitations of Charge Sharing Models5.5 Drain - Induced Barrier Lowering5.6 Punchthrough5.7 Combining Several Small - Dimension Effects Into One Model - A Strong Inversion Example5.8 Hot Carrier Effects; Impact Ionization5.9 Velocity Overshoot and Ballistic Opeation5.10 Polysilicon Depletion5.11 Quantum Mechanical Effects5.12 DC Gate Current5.13 Junction Leakage; Band - to - Band Tunneling; GIDL5.14 Leakage Currents - Examples5.15 The Quest for Ever - Smaller Devices5.15.1 Introduction5.15.2 Classical Scaling5.15.3 Modern ScalingReferencesProblems6. The MOS Transistor In Dynamic Operation - Large Signal Modeling6.1 Introduction6.2 Quasi - Static Operation6.3 Terminal Currents in Quasi - Static Operation6.4 Evaluation of Intrinsic Chargers in Quasi - Static Operation6.4.1 Introduction6.4.2 Strong Inversion6.4.3 Moderate Inversion6.4.4 Weak Inversion6.4.5 All - Region Model6.4.6 Depletion and Accumulation6.4.7 Plots of Chargers versus VGS6.4.8 Use of Intrinsic Chargers in Evaluation the Terminal Currents6.5 Transit Time Under DC Conditions6.6 Limitations of the Quasi - Static Model6.7 Non - Quasi - Static Modeling6.7.1 Introduction6.7.2 The Continuity Equation6.7.3 Non - Quasi - Static Analysis6.8 Extrinsic Parasitics6.8.1 Extrinsic Capacitances6.8.2 Extrinsic Resistance6.8.3 Temperature Dependence6.8.4 Simplified ModelsReferencesProblems7. Small - Signal Modeling for Low and Medium Frequencies7.1 Introduction7.2 A Low - Frequency Small - Signal Model for the Intrinsic Part7.2.1 Introduction7.2.2 Small - Signal Model for the Drain - Source Current7.2.3 Small - Signal Model for the Gate and Body Current7.2.4 Complete Low - Frequency Small - Signal Model for the Intrinsic Part7.2.5 Strong Inversion7.2.6 Weak Inversion7.2.7 Moderate Inversion7.2.8 All - Region Models7.3 A Medium - Frequency Small - Signal Model for the Intrinsic Part7.3.1 Introduction7.3.2 Intrinsic Capacitances7.4 Including the Extrinsic Part7.5 Noise7.5.1 Introduction7.5.2 White Noise7.5.3 Flicker Noise7.5.4 Noise in Extrinsic Resistances7.5.5. Including Noise in Small - Signal Circuits7.6 All - Region ModelsReferencesProblems8. High Frequency Small - Signals Models8.1 Introduction8.2 A Complete Quasi - Static Model8.2.1 Complete Description of Intrinsic Capacitance Effects8.2.2 Small - Signal Equivalent Circuit Topologies8.2.3 Evaluation of Capacitances8.2.4 Frequency Region of Validity8.3 y- Parameter Models8.4 Non - Quasi - Static Models8.4.1 Introduction8.4.2 A Non - Quasi - Static Strong - Inversion Model8.4.3 Other Approximation and Higher - Oder Models8.4.4 Model Comparison8.5 High - Frequency Noise8.6 Consideration In MOSFet Modeling for RF ApplicationsReferencesProblems9. Substrate Nonuniformity and Structural Effects9.1 Introduction9.2 Ion Implantation and Substrate Nonuniformity9.3 Substrate Transverse Nonuniformity9.3.1 Preliminaries9.3.2 Threshold Voltage9.3.3 Drain Current9.3.4 Buried Channel Devices9.4 Substrate Lateral Nonuniformity9.5 Well Proximity Effect9.6 Stress Effects9.7 Statistical VariabilityReferencesProblems10. MOSFET Modeling for Circuit Simulation10.1 Introduction10.2 Types of Models10.2.1 Models for Device Analysis and Design10.2.2 Device Models for Circuit Simulation10.3 Attributes of Good Compact Models10.4 Model Formulation10.5 Model Implementation in Circuit Simulators10.6 Model Testing10.7 Parameter Extraction10.8 Simulation and Extraction for RF Applications10.9 Common MOSFET Models Available in Circuit Simulators10.9.1 BSIM10.9.2 EKV10.9.3 HiSIM210.9.4 PSPReferencesProblemsAppendices:A Basic Laws of Electrostatic in One DimensionB Quasi - Fermi Levels and CurrentsC General Analysis of the Two - Terminal MOS StructureD Careful Definitions for the Limits of Moderate InversionE General Analysis of the Three - Terminal MOS StructureF Drain Current Formulation Using Quasi - Fermi PotentialsG Modeling Based on Pinchoff Voltage and Related TopicsH Evaluation of the Intrinsic Transient Source and Drain CurrentI Quantities Use in the Derivation of the Non-Quasi -StaticY-Parameter ModelK Analysis of Buried Channel DevicesL MOSFET Model Benchmark Tests