Operational Organic Chemistry

Paperback | July 16, 2008

byJohn W. Lehman

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This comprehensive laboratory text provides a thorough introduction to all of the significant operations used in the organic lab and includes a large selection of traditional-scale experiments and minilabs. Its unique problem-solving approach encourages students to think in the laboratory by solving a scientific problem in the process of carrying out each experiment.

 

The Fourth Edition contains a new introductory section, “Chemistry and the Environment,” which includes a discussion of the principles of green chemistry. Several green experiments have been added, and some experiments from the previous editions have been revised to make them greener.

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This comprehensive laboratory text provides a thorough introduction to all of the significant operations used in the organic lab and includes a large selection of traditional-scale experiments and minilabs. Its unique problem-solving approach encourages students to think in the laboratory by solving a scientific problem in the process ...

From the Jacket

This comprehensive laboratory text provides a thorough introduction to all of the significant operations used in the organic lab and includes a large selection of traditional-scale experiments and minilabs. Its unique problem-solving approach encourages students to think in the laboratory by solving a scientific problem in the process ...

John W. Lehman received his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Colorado in Boulder. He has taught chemistry for 35 years at Lake Superior State University, a small university in Michigan's scenic Upper Peninsula. In recognition of his teaching skills, he received the State of Michigan's Teaching Excellence Award in 1990. In 2001...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:912 pages, 9.9 × 7.9 × 1.7 inPublished:July 16, 2008Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0136000924

ISBN - 13:9780136000921

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Preface

To the Instructor

Acknowledgments

 

Introduction

Problem Solving in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

Scientific Methodology

Organization of This Book

A Guide to Success in the Organic Chemistry Lab

 

Laboratory Safety

Safety Standards

Protecting Yourself

Preventing Laboratory Accidents

Reacting to Accidents: First Aid

Reacting to Accidents: Fire

Chemical Hazards

Finding and Using Chemical Safety Information

 

Chemistry and the Environment

Disposal of Hazardous Wastes

Green Chemistry

 

Part I Mastering the Operations

1. The Effect of pH on a Food Preservative

2. Separating the Components of “Panacetin”

3. Identifying a Constituent of “Panacetin”

4. Synthesis of Salicylic Acid from Wintergreen Oil

5. Preparation of Synthetic Banana Oil

6. Separation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

7. A Green Synthesis of Camphor

8. Identification of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon

9. Isolation and Isomerization of Lycopene from Tomato Paste

10. Isolation and Identification of the Major Constituent of Clove Oil

11. Identification of Unknown Ketones

12. The Optical Activity of -Pinene: A Chemical Mystery

 

Part II Correlated Laboratory Experiments

13. Investigation of a Chemical Bond by Infrared Spectrometry

14. Properties of Common Functional Groups

15. Thin-Layer Chromatographic Analysis of Drug Components

16. Separation of an Alkane Clathrate

17. Isomers and Isomerization Reactions

18. Structures and Properties of Stereoisomers

19. Bridgehead Reactivity in an SN1Solvolysis Reaction

20. Reaction of Iodoethane with Sodium Saccharin, an Ambident Nucleophile

21. Dehydration of Methylcyclohexanols and the Evelyn Effect

22. Testing Markovnikov’s Rule

23. Stereochemistry of Bromine Addition to trans-Cinnamic Acid

24. A Green Synthesis of Adipic Acid

25. Preparation of Bromotriphenylmethane and the Trityl Free Radical

26. Chain-Growth Polymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate

27. Synthesis of Ethanol by Fermentation

28. Reaction of Butanols with Hydrobromic Acid

29. Borohydride Reduction of Vanillin to Vanillyl Alcohol

30. Synthesis of Triphenylmethanol and the TritylCarbocation

31. An Unexpected Reaction of 2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-butanediol

32. Identification of a Conjugated Diene from Eucalyptus Oil

33. Spectral Identification of Monoterpenes

34. Synthesis and Spectral Analysis of Aspirin

35. Directive Effects in the Bromination of Vanillin

36. Mechanism of the Nitration of Arenes by Nitronium Fluoborate

37. Friedel—Crafts Acylation of Anisole

38. Determination of the Structure of a Natural Product in Anise Oil

39. Identification of an Oxygen-Containing Organic Compound

40. Oxidation of the Insect Repellent “6-12”

41. Isomerization of a Cyclic Ketone

42. A Wittig Reaction of trans-Cinnamaldehyde

43. Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Condensation of Furfural with Cyclopentanone

44. Electronic Effect of a para-Iodo Substituent

45. Synthesis and Identification of an Unknown Carboxylic Acid

46. Preparation of the Insect Repellent N,N-Diethyl-metatoluamide

47. Synthesis of Dimedone and Measurement of Its Tautomeric Equilibrium Constant

48. Preparation of Para Red and Related Azo Dyes

49. Reaction of Phthalimide with Sodium Hypochlorite

50. Identification of an Unknown Amine

51. Preparation and Mass Spectrum of 2-Phenylindole

52. Nucleophilic Strength and Reactivity in SNAr Reactions

53. Structure of an Unknown D-Hexose

54. Fatty Acid Content of Commercial Cooking Oils

55. Structure of an Unknown Dipeptide

56. Multistep Synthesis of Benzilic Acid from Benzaldehyde

57. Using the Chemical Literature in an Organic Synthesis

58. A Research Project in Organic Chemistry

 

Part III Minilabs

1. Making Useful Laboratory Items

2. Extraction of Iodine by Dichloromethane

3. Purification of an Unknown Compound by Recrystallization

4. Developing and Testing a Hypothesis

5. Preparation of Acetate Esters

6. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Commercial Xylene

7. Isolation of an Expectorant from Cough Capsules

8. A Missing-Label Puzzle

9. Paper Chromatography of Dyes in Commercial Drink Mixes

10. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of an Essential Oil from Orange Peel

11. Identification of an Unknown Felt-Tip Pen Ink by TLC

12. Optical Rotation of Turpentine

13. The Structures of Organic Molecules

14. Who Else Has My Compound?

15. Isomers and Molecular Structure

16. Reactivities of Alkyl Halides in Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

17. An SN1 Reaction of Bromotriphenylmethane

18. Preparation and Properties of a Gaseous Alkene

19. Addition of Iodine to a-Pinene

20. Unsaturation in Commercial Products

21. Free-Radical Stability

22. The Nylon Rope Trick

23. Nucleophilic Substitution Rates of Alcohols

24. Photoreduction of Benzophenone

25. Oxidation of Alcohols by Potassium Permanganate

26. Preparation of a Fluorescent Dye

27. Diels–Alder Reaction of Maleic Anhydride and Furan

28. Identification of an Unknown Arene by NMR Spectrometry

29. Interpretation of a Mass Spectrum

30. Nitration of Naphthalene

31. Preparation of Carbocations by the Friedel–Crafts Reaction

32. Air Oxidation of Fluorene to 9-Fluorenone

33. A Nucleophilic Addition–Elimination Reaction of Benzil

34. Preparation of Aldol Condensation Products

35. A Spontaneous Reaction of Benzaldehyde

36. Acid–Base Strengths of Organic Compounds

37. Hydrolysis Rates of Esters

38. Preparation of Benzamide

39. Synthesis of Dimedone Derivatives of Benzaldehyde

40. A Diazonium Salt Reaction of 2-Aminobenzoic Acid

41. Beckmann Rearrangement of Benzophenone Oxime

42. Dyeing with Indigo

43. Reactions of Monosaccharides with Phenols

44. Isolation of Trimyristin from Nutmeg

45. Preparation of a Soap Using a Phase-Transfer Catalyst

46. Isolation of a Protein from Milk

 

Part IV Qualitative Organic Analysis

An Overview of Qual Organic

 

Preliminary Work

Purification

Measurement of Physical Constants

Physical Examination

Ignition Test

 

Classification

Solubility Tests

Classification Tests

 

Spectral Analysis

Infrared Spectra

NMR Spectra

 

Identification

List of Possibilities

Additional Tests and Data

Preparation of Derivatives

Report

 

Exercises

 

Part V Laboratory Operations

A) Basic Operations

1. Cleaning and Drying Glassware

2. Using Specialized Glassware

3. Using Glass Rod and Tubing

4. Weighing

5. Measuring Volume

6. Making Transfers

 

B) Operations for Conducting Chemical Reactions

7. Heating

8. Cooling

9. Temperature Monitoring

10. Mixing

11. Addition of Reactants

12. Excluding Water from Reaction Mixtures

13. Excluding Air from Reaction Mixtures

14. Trapping Gases

 

C) Separation Operations

15. Gravity Filtration

16. Vacuum Filtration

17. Centrifugation

18. Extraction

19. Evaporation

20. Steam Distillation

21. Column Chromatography

22. Thin-Layer Chromatography

23. Paper Chromatography

 

D) Washing and Drying Operations

24. Washing Liquids

25. Drying Liquids

26. Washing and Drying Solids

27. Cleaning and Drying Gases

 

E) Purification Operations

28. Recrystallization

29. Sublimation

30. Simple Distillation

31. Vacuum Distillation

32. Fractional Distillation

 

F) Measuring Physical Constants

33. Melting Point

34. Boiling Point

35. Refractive Index

36. Optical Rotation

 

G. Instrumental Analysis

37. Gas Chromatography

38. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

39. Infrared Spectrometry

40. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry

41. Ultraviolet–Visible Spectrometry

42. Mass Spectrometry

 

Appendixes and Bibliography

I Laboratory Equipment

II Keeping a Laboratory Notebook

III Writing a Laboratory Report

IV Calculations for Organic Synthesis

V Planning an Experiment

VI Properties of Organic Compounds

VII The Chemical Literature

 

Bibliography

Index