Oral Communication: Speaking across Cultures

Paperback | February 2, 2000

byLarry A. Samovar

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In the last 33 years this bestseller has met the needs of nearly one million students. The eleventh edition of Samovar's Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures offers a straightforward, practical approach to public speaking. The text is noted for its clear and concise writing style,abundant use of examples, and logical organization. Chapter sequencing allows students to begin making speeches within the first few days of class. In addition to its core of rhetorical training, Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures continues to stake out new territory. This new edition links three contemporary developments to the context of public speaking: * New technological advancements. * Shifting ethnic and cultural patterns. * An increased awareness of ethical issues. Special features in the new edition include: * The role of culture in listening, evidence, humor, credibility, small groups, audience analysis, and reasoning. * A chapter on critical thinking. * A discussion of ethics in each chapter. * Material on the uses of electronic tools (such as the Internet) throughout the text. * End-of-chapter discussion questions and exercises. A comprehensive Instructor's Manual/Testing Program includes course guidelines, overviews, classroom activities, examination questions, and test item files (available in book form or on disk).

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In the last 33 years this bestseller has met the needs of nearly one million students. The eleventh edition of Samovar's Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures offers a straightforward, practical approach to public speaking. The text is noted for its clear and concise writing style,abundant use of examples, and logical organizati...

Larry A. Samovar is at San Diego State University.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:526 pages, 6.89 × 9.88 × 1.18 inPublished:February 2, 2000Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195329910

ISBN - 13:9780195329919

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Table of Contents

PrefacePart I: Preliminary Considerations1. Communication: Overview and PreviewThe Importance of CommunicationCommunication and DemocracyCommunication and CareersCommunication and Social RelationshipsCommunication and CultureInternational ContactsDomestic ContactsImproving CommunicationThe Communication ProcessDefining CommunicationThe Ingredients of CommunicationCommunication and Public SpeakingPublic Speaking and WritingPublic Speaking and ConversationEthical Responsibilities of CommunicationSome Working PrinciplesEthics and Public SpeakingThe Sender's ResponsibilitiesThe Receiver's ResponsibilitiesCulture and EthicsPreview of PrinciplesOrganizing IdeasPresenting Ideas2. Your First Speeches: Getting StartedSelecting a TopicBegin With YourselfLooking ElsewhereImportant ConsiderationsNarrowing a TopicFormulating a General PurposeSpeech to InformSpeech to PersuadeSpeech to EntertainFormulating a Specific PurposeChoosing a TitleChoosing a Method of SpeakingSpeaking From a ManuscriptSpeaking From MemoryImpromptu DeliveryExtemporaneous DeliveryUsing NotecardsPracticing the SpeechGaining ConfidenceUnderstanding Communication ApprehensionDealing With Communication Apprehension3. Audience Analysis: Understanding Your ListenersThe Importance of Audience AnalysisAssessing the AudienceWhat Listeners Bring to CommunicationCultural CharacteristicsReligious CharacteristicsAge-Level CharacteristicsGender CharacteristicsOccupational CharacteristicsEducational CharacteristicsGroup CharacteristicsGeographical CharacteristicsSpecial CharacteristicsGathering Information About the AudienceBefore the SpeechDuring the SpeechAnalyzing the Speaking OccasionKind of OccasionPhysical SurroundingsTime Culture and the OccasionAdapting to Your AudienceAsk Rhetorical QuestionsFocus on the AudienceUse Personal PronounsUse the Experiences of the Audience4. Sound and Action: Presenting Your IdeasVisual Dimensions of PresentationGeneral AppearanceFacial ExpressionEye ContactMovementThe Use of SpaceVisual Dimensions and CultureAural Dimensions of PresentationLoudness (Volume)Pitch RateDistinctness (Articulation)Correctness (Pronunciation)DialectsAural Dimensions and CultureImproving Your Speech DeliveryYour BodyYour VoiceYour Confidence5. Listening: Evaluation and CriticismThe Rewards of ListeningThe Process of ListeningThe Purposes of ListeningEmpathic ListeningInformational ListeningEvaluative ListeningAppreciative ListeningMisconceptions About ListeningHearing Versus ListeningObjectivity Versus SubjectivityActive Versus PassiveListener Versus SpeakerChange Versus StaticBarriers to ListeningFaking AttentionListening Only for FactsAvoiding Difficult MaterialAvoiding the UninterestingCriticizing the SpeakerYielding to DistractionsDefensive ListeningPrejudiceConstant Self-FocusMessage OverloadThinking-Speaking RateShort Attention SpanImproving ListeningIdentify Personal Listening CharacteristicsBe Motivated to ListenMake Use of the Thinking-Speaking Time DifferenceFocus on Matter Rather Than MannerBe an Active ListenerAsk QuestionsUse Vocal and Nonverbal CuesPracticeEvaluating SpeechesPurposeSubstanceArgumentStructureStyleCredibilityDeliveryEffectsPresenting Your EvaluationListener and Speaker ResponsibilitiesListener ResponsibilitySpeaker ResponsibilityCulture and ListeningPart II: Your Ideas6. Evidence: The Foundation of Your IdeasThe Importance of EvidenceVerbal SupportIllustrationsSpecific InstancesStatisticsTestimonyAnalogyOther Forms of Verbal SupportThe Ethical Use of EvidenceThe Ethical Use of StatisticsThe Ethical Use of TestimonyWhen to Use Verbal SupportHow to Use Verbal SupportDirect Quotations and ParaphrasesTransitionsVisual SupportThe Role of Culture in the Use of Evidence7. Visual Aids: Displaying Your IdeasThe Importance of Visual AidsRetentionSupportClarityOrganizationAttentionCredibilityCultureChoosing the Appropriate AidSpecific PurposeAudience SizeAudience AnalysisTime, Money, AvailabilityExpertiseNonelectronic Visual AidsPeopleObjectsModelsPostersMapsPaintings and DrawingsPhotographsCharts and GraphsChalkboards and Dry-Erase BoardsFlip ChartsDuplicated Material (Handouts)Electronic Visual AidsSlidesVideotapeComputer ArtsCD-ROMTransparenciesAudio AidsPreparing Visual AidsUsing Visual Aids8. Research: The Content of Your IdeasHaving a Research AgendaStart EarlyDecide on a Specific PurposeUse a Variety of SourcesSelect a Research StrategyKeep Complete and Accurate RecordsSystematically Organize Your MaterialFinding MaterialPersonal ExperienceInterviewsWriting, Phoning, Faxing, and E-mailingVisual Electronic MediaUsing the LibraryUsing the InternetRecording Your MaterialPhotocopying MaterialBeing AccurateCiting Traditional SourcesCiting Internet SourcesEthical Considerations in Conducting ResearchEvaluating Your SourcesAvoiding PlagiarismUsing Copyrighted Material9. Critical Thinking: The Appraisal of Your IdeasPersonal Barriers to Critical ThinkingFrozen EvaluationsSelf-InterestEgo-DefenseEthnocentrismStereotypingPrejudiceDetecting FallaciesLanguage DeceptionsExtraneous AppealsFaulty Logic10. Organization: Assembling Your IdeasThe Importance of OrganizationCore StatementInformative Core StatementsPersuasive Core StatementsFormulating Main Points and SubpointsRelationship to the Core StatementSeparation from Other Main PointsCollective Completeness of the Main PointsOrganizational PatternsChronological PatternSpatial PatternTopical PatternCause-Effect PatternProblem-Solution PatternLevel-of-Acceptance PatternMotivated SequenceOrganizational Patterns and CultureOutlining the MessageImportance of OutliningCharacteristics of Effective OutlinesA Sample OutlineUsing Transitions11. Introductions and Conclusions: Connecting Your IdeasPreparing the IntroductionGaining AttentionGuidelines in Using IntroductionsPreparing Your Audience for the SpeechJustify the TopicDelimit the TopicPresenting Your Speaking Credentials (Establishing Credibility)Defining Your TermsProviding Background InformationEstablishing Common GroundIntroductions and CulturePreparing the ConclusionSummary QuotationsIllustration or StoryChallengeDeclaration of IntentAlluding to the IntroductionGuidelines in Using Conclusions12. Language: The Medium of Your IdeasThe Importance of LanguageUnderstanding How Language WorksWords Are Only SymbolsWords Have Many UsesWords Evoke Denotative and Connotative MeaningsWords Convey a Partial Picture of RealityWords and Their Meanings Are LearnedWords Reflect Our ExperiencesLanguage and Intercultural CommunicationIdiomsAmbiguityDirectnessLoquacityFormalityCharacteristics of Effective StyleEffective Style Is ClearEffective Style Observes the Rules of GrammarEffective Style Is VividEffective Style Is AppropriateEffective Style Is Free From DistractionsEthics and LanguageBe Accurate in Your Use of WordsBe Aware of the Emotional Impact of Your WordsDo Not Be Hateful in Your Use of WordsImproving Your Language HabitsPart III: Having an Influence13. Informative Speaking: Being UnderstoodBasic Assumptions About LearningMotivationCoupling the Known With the UnknownLogical SequenceRepetitionMultisensory StimulationCommunication OverloadDepthCentral FocusTypes of Informative SpeechesInstructionsDescriptionsExplanationsReportsPreparing a Speech to InformDetermining A PurposeChoosing and Narrowing the TopicGathering and Selecting MaterialThe Materials of Informative SpeakingContributing to ClarityContributing to Interest and AttentionOrganizing a Speech to InformIntroductionBodyConclusionSample Outline14. Persuasive Speaking: Changing Beliefs, Attitudes, Values, and BehaviorDefining PersuasionTypes of Persuasive SpeechesSpeech to ConvinceSpeech to ActuateSpeech to StimulateThe Goals of Persuasive SpeakingBeliefsAttitudesValuesBehaviorsConcerns of PersuasionQuestions of FactQuestions of ValueQuestions of PolicyPreparing a Persuasive SpeechChoosing a TopicFormulating a Specific PurposeAnalyzing an AudienceFinding MaterialConvincing ArgumentsImpelling Psychological AppealsUsing MotiveAppealsOur Desire to Maintain ConsistencyOur Susceptibility to SuggestionPersonal CredibilityOrganizing a Persuasive SpeechIntroductionBodyConclusionDesigning the Persuasive SpeechProblem-Solution PatternMonroe's Motivated SequenceDeduction InductionPersuasive StrategiesPlacing IdeasDeciding Which Argument to Place FirstPresenting Both Sides of the ArgumentMaking Your Proposition ClearCombining Evidence With Emotional AppealsCulture and PersuasionCulture and Convincing ArgumentsCultural Variations in the Use of EvidenceThe Quantity of Evidence UsedCultural Variations in ReasoningCultural and Psychological AppealsCulture and Personal CredibilityPersuasion and EthicsPart IV: Changing Environments15. Special Occasions: The Unique Communication SituationImpromptu SpeechPreparing an Impromptu SpeechDelivering an Impromptu SpeechManuscript SpeechPreparing a Manuscript SpeechDelivering a Manuscript SpeechEntertaining SpeechesCharacteristics of the Entertaining SpeechUsing HumorDeveloping an Entertaining SpeechTelevision SpeechesTelevision's Unique FeaturesPreparing for TelevisionPresenting Yourself on TelevisionControlling NervousnessPracticing Your Television PreventionEthical Considerations and TelevisionSpeeches of IntroductionQuestion-and-Answer SessionsWays to Formulate an Effective ReplyOrganizing a Reply16. Discussion: Group CommunicationThe Importance of Group CommunicationSpeech Communication and Group CommunicationTypes of Group DiscussionPublic DiscussionPrivate DiscussionCharacteristics of Problem-Solving GroupsCooperation Analysis and InvestigationSubjectivity and ObjectivityReflective ThinkingSkepticismGroup CohesionGroup NormsDemocratic ProcessPreparing for DiscussionSelecting a SubjectWording the SubjectGathering MaterialOrganizing a DiscussionRecognizing and Defining the ProblemDescription of the ProblemDiscovery of Possible SolutionsEvaluation of Solutions and Acceptance of the Best SolutionPlan of ActionBrainstorming as an Organizational PatternImpromptu SpeechPreparing an Impromptu SpeechDelivering an Impromptu SpeechManuscript SpeechPreparing a Manuscript SpeechDelivering a Manuscript SpeechEntertaining SpeechesCharacteristics of the Entertaining SpeechUsing HumorDeveloping an Entertaining SpeechTelevision SpeechesTelevision's Unique FeaturesPreparing for TelevisionPresenting Yourself on TelevisionControlling NervousnessPracticing Your Television PreventionEthical Considerations and TelevisionSpeeches of IntroductionQuestion-and-Answer SessionsWays to Formulate an Effective ReplyOrganizing a Reply16. Discussion: Group CommunicationThe Importance of Group CommunicationSpeech Communication and Group CommunicationTypes of Group DiscussionPublic DiscussionPrivate DiscussionCharacteristics of Problem-Solving GroupsCooperation Analysis and InvestigationSubjectivity and ObjectivityReflective ThinkingSkepticismGroup CohesionGroup NormsDemocratic ProcessPreparing for DiscussionSelecting a SubjectWording the SubjectGathering MaterialOrganizing a DiscussionRecognizing and Defining the ProblemDescription of the ProblemDiscovery of Possible SolutionsEvaluation of Solutions and Acceptance of the Best SolutionPlan of ActionBrainstorming as an Organizational PatternParticipating in Small GroupsFunctional and Task RolesMaintenance and Supportive RolesPresenting Your IdeasLeadership in Small GroupsLeadership TasksLeadership and CultureDealing With ConflictDefinition of ConflictCauses of ConflictManaging ConflictConflict and CultureBarriers to DiscussionApathyExcessive FormalityControlDogmatismLack of PatienceGroupthinkThe Role of Culture in Group CommunicationIndividualism or CollectivismConformityUse of LanguageUse of TimeCompromiseGroup NormsDecision MakingUncertainty and AmbiguityNonverbal CommunicationTaking Part in a VideoconferenceThe Characteristics of a VideoconferencePreparing for a VideoconferenceParticipating in a VideoconferenceEvaluating a DiscussionIndex