Outpacing the Competition: Patent-Based Business Strategy by Robert L. CantrellOutpacing the Competition: Patent-Based Business Strategy by Robert L. Cantrell

Outpacing the Competition: Patent-Based Business Strategy

byRobert L. Cantrell

Hardcover | March 30, 2009

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Praise for Outpacing the Competition Patent-Based Business Strategy

"Outpacing the Competition provides a useful IP management framework for rapidly evolving and inherently unpredictable R&D environments where companies are partners, customers, and competitors at the same time." –Marshall Phelps, Corporate Vice President for IP Policy & Strategy, Microsoft

"Robert Cantrell's book Outpacing the Competition: Patent-Based Business Strategy?should be read by?anyone?involved in the practice of litigating or licensing patent rights or policymakers responsible for patent issues. Mr. Cantrell provides a cogent approach for applying decisional methodology and game theory to enhance the utilization and understanding of patent rights."–Bradley J. Olson, Esq., patent attorney, Washington, DC

"Robert Cantrell makes a compelling case for using intellectual property as a core for building solid business strategy. He provides a unique and valuable perspective on competitive advantage, as delivered through patent-based business strategy. This is an excellent addition to anyone's business strategy arsenal." –Jeff Hovis, Managing Principal, Product Genesis, Innovation Genesis LLC

"Robert truly treats patents and related intellectual property as both a weapon and a shield to help the reader use patents to out-maneuver global competitors of all kinds—the low-cost producer, the high-end innovator, etc. CEOs, attorneys, business and engineering professionals and the like will enjoy the military imagery and flavor provided by Robert. Thanks for clarifying how critical it is to have an understanding of patents in running a truly competitive global business today." –José W. Jimenez, Esq., Chief Intellectual Property Officer,AMS Research Corporation

ROBERT L. CANTRELL is a professional strategist and Director of Consulting at Landon IP, Inc. He has managed multiple consulting and analytical engagements across a wide range of technology sectors that include the communications, electronics, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, energy, and consumer goods fields. For Landon IP customers,...
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Title:Outpacing the Competition: Patent-Based Business StrategyFormat:HardcoverDimensions:343 pages, 9.1 × 6.2 × 1.4 inPublished:March 30, 2009Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0470390859

ISBN - 13:9780470390856

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[(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-402(in)40(v)40(estment)-402(is)-402(unpr)20(edictab)15(le)30(,)-402(the)-402(ambiguity)-402(is)-402(often)-402(high.)]TJ T* [(Y)160(o)0(u)-391.8(cannot)-391.8(r)20(eliab)15(ly)-391.8(for)20(ecast)-391.8(impor)-25(tant)-391.8(pr)30(oducts)-391.8(and)-391.8(ser)-25(vices)-391.8(that)]TJ T* [(people)-278(ha)30(v)40(e)-278(not)-278(y)40(e)0(t)-278(i)0(n)40(v)40(ented)-278(and)-278(the)-278(mark)30(et)-278(has)-278(not)-278(y)40(e)0(t)-278(seen.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(In)-318.4(patent)-318.4(strategy)120(,)-318.4(p)0(r)30(ociently)-318.4(mo)40(ving)-318.4(thr)30(ough)-318.4(decision)-318.4(cycles)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(in)40(v)40(olv)40(es)-472.7(pr)30(ociently)-472.7(cr)20(eating)-472.7(or)-472.7(obtaining)-472.7(in)40(v)40(entions,)-472.7(adv)30(ancing)]TJ T* [(those)-380.5(in)40(v)40(entions)-380.5(into)-380.5(the)-380.5(mark)30(et,)-380.5(and)-380.5(defending)-380.5(those)-380.5(in)40(v)40(entions)]TJ T* [(fr)30(om)-621.9(competitor)-20(s)-621.9(h)0(o)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)-621.9(the)-621.9(mark)30(et)-621.9(ultimately)-621.9(de)20(v)40(elops.)-621.9(It)]TJ T* [(also)-550.1(in)40(v)40(olv)40(es)-550.1(cr)20(eating)-550.1(the)-550.1(or)-45(ientation)-550.1(in)-550.1(the)-550.1(mind)-550.1(of)-550.1(decision)]TJ T* [(mak)30(er)-20(s)-443.6(that)-443.6(patents)-443.6(can)-443.6(ser)-25(v)40(e)-443.6(as)-443.6(impor)-25(tant)-443.6(tools)-443.6(fr)30(om)-443.6(which)-443.6(to)]TJ T* [(gain)-343.3(competiti)20(v)40(e)-343.3(adv)30(antage)30(.)-343.3(The)-343.3(main)-343.3(body)-343.3(of)-343.3(this)-343.3(book)-343.3(uses)-343.3(the)]TJ T* [(decision)-417.7(cycle)-417.7(as)-417.7(the)-417.7(pr)-45(imar)-30(y)-417.7(guideline)-417.7(for)-417.7(ho)40(w)-417.7(a)0(n)-417.7(organization)]TJ T* [(should)-214.4(plan)-214.4(patent)-214.5(strategy)-214.5(and)-214.5(organize)-214.5(its)-214.5(intellectual)-214.5(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-214.4(\(IP\))]TJ T* [(depar)-25(tment.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (3.)Tj /F5 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(The)-180.5(inter)-25(pla)30(y)-180.5(between)-180.5(inter)20(action)-180.5(and)-180.5(isolation)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 16.0784 0 TD [(.)-180.5(P)30(atent)-180.5(strategy)-180.5(is)-180.5(an)-180.5(inter-)]TJ -16.0784 -1.2174 TD [(pla)30(y)-347.4(betw)40(een)-347.4(interaction)-347.4(and)-347.4(isolation.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 329.9042 224.5726 Tm (2)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 338.3118 220.4137 Tm [(The)-347.4(patent)-347.4(itself)-347.4(is)-347.4(a)-347.4(tool)]TJ -16.2761 -1.2174 TD [(that)-308.8(foster)-20(s)-308.8(both)-308.8(interaction)-308.8(and)-308.8(isolation.)-308.8(F)20(o)0(r)-308.8(example)30(,)-308.8(the)-308.8(patent)]TJ T* [(pr)30(o)40(vides)-275.6(a)-275.5(denab)15(le)-275.5(asset)-275.6(fr)30(om)-275.5(which)-275.6(to)-275.6(ar)-40(range)-275.5(licenses,)-275.6(a)-275.5(for)-45(m)-275.5(o)0(f)]TJ ET endstream endobj 15 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 16 0 obj > endobj 17 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (4)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 141.4944 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(interaction,)-185.3(and)-185.3(it)-185.3(pr)30(o)40(vides)-185.3(a)-185.3(tool)-185.3(with)-185.3(which)-185.3(to)-185.3(exclude)-185.3(competitor)-20(s)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(fr)30(om)-231.3(making,)-231.3(using,)-231.3(or)-231.3(selling)-231.3(an)-231.3(in)40(v)40(ention)-231.3(in)-231.3(a)-231.3(mark)30(etplace)30(,)-231.3(a)-231.3(for)-45(m)]TJ T* [(of)-419.5(isolation.)-419.5(This)-419.5(inter)-40(pla)30(y)-419.4(p)0(r)30(o)40(vides)-419.5(the)-419.5(pr)-45(imar)-30(y)-419.4(four)-419.4(r)-25(ules)-419.5(fr)30(om)]TJ T* [(which)-358.6(y)40(o)0(u)-358.6(can)-358.6(b)15(uild)-358.6(e)20(v)40(en)-358.6(the)-358.6(most)-358.6(complex)-358.6(and)-358.6(n)15(uanced)-358.6(patent)]TJ T* [(strateg)-30(ies.)-175(The)-175(r)-25(ules)-175(ar)20(e)-175(simple)30(,)-175(b)15(ut)-175(master)-45(ing)-175(the)-175(r)-25(ules)-175(tak)30(es)-175(practice)30(,)]TJ T* [(exper)-45(ience)30(,)-301.2(and)-301.2(a)-301.2(willingness)-301.2(to)-301.2(r)20(ene)-301.2(that)-301.2(practice)-301.2(thr)30(oughout)-301.2(an)]TJ T* [(entir)20(e)-278(car)20(eer)40(.)]TJ -.1857 -1.9652 TD [(Although)-273.3(this)-273.3(book)-273.3(is)-273.3(about)-273.3(the)-273.3(b)15(usiness)-273.3(side)-273.3(of)-273.3(patent)-273.3(strategy)120(,)-273.3(i)0(t)-273.3(i)0(s)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(not)-227.5(specically)-227.5(just)-227.5(about)-227.5(patents.)-227.5(Instead,)-227.5(it)-227.5(co)40(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)-227.5(all)-227.5(aspects)-227.5(of)-227.5(b)15(usiness)]TJ T* [(strategy)-409.2(in)-409.2(which)-409.2(patents)-409.2(pla)30(y)-409.2(a)-409.2(par)-25(tnamely)120(,)-409.2(the)-409.2(cr)20(eation,)-409.2(use)30(,)-409.2(and)]TJ T* [(defense)-313.7(of)-313.7(technical)-313.7(ideas.)-313.7(T)150(o)-313.7(tr)-30(y)-313.7(t)0(o)-313.7(explain)-313.7(patent)-313.7(strategy)-313.7(outside)-313.7(the)]TJ T* [(context)-295.2(of)-295.2(b)15(usiness)-295.2(strategy)-295.2(w)40(ould)-295.2(be)-295.2(lik)30(e)-295.2(t)0(r)-30(ying)-295.2(to)-295.2(explain)-295.2(the)-295.2(wr)-45(itten)]TJ T* [(w)40(o)0(r)20(d)-358.8(without)-358.8(sho)40(wing)-358.8(its)-358.8(g)-30(r)20(eater)-358.8(utility)-358.8(in)-358.8(sentences,)-358.8(parag)-30(raphs,)-358.8(and)]TJ T* [(books.)-300.3(A)-300.2(single)-300.3(enfor)20(ceab)15(le)-300.3(patent,)-300.3(lik)30(e)-300.3(a)-300.3(single)-300.3(w)40(o)0(r)20(d)0(,)-300.3(can)-300.3(ha)30(v)40(e)-300.3(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)-25(;)]TJ T* [(that)-188(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)40(,)-188(ho)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-188(is)-188(minor)-188(compar)20(ed)-188(to)-188(the)-188(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)-188(a)30(v)30(ailab)15(le)-188(when)-188(that)]TJ T* [(patent)-256.2(w)40(orks)-256.2(in)-256.2(concer)-25(t)-256.2(with)-256.2(other)-256.2(enfor)20(ceab)15(le)-256.2(patents)-256.2(and)-256.2(all)-256.2(the)-256.2(other)]TJ T* [(sour)20(ces)-224(of)-224(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)-224(that)-224(people)-224(can)-224(use)-224(to)-224(adv)30(ance)-224(and)-224(defend)-224(an)-224(in)40(v)40(ention)]TJ T* [(in)-269.4(the)-269.4(mark)30(etplace)30(.)-269.4(Fur)-25(ther)-45(mor)20(e)30(,)-269.4(it)-269.4(is)-269.4(also)-269.4(impor)-25(tant)-269.4(to)-269.4(under)-20(stand)-269.4(that)]TJ T* [(this)-322.1(is)-322.1(a)-322.1(book)-322.1(about)-322.1(what)-322.1(to)-322.1(do)-322.1(in)-322.1(patent)-322.1(strategy)120(,)-322.1(not)-322.1(necessar)-45(ily)-322.1(ho)40(w)]TJ T* [(to)-373.7(do)-373.7(it.)-373.7(Although)-373.7(it)-373.7(sho)40(ws)-373.7(man)20(y)-373.7(examples)-373.7(of)-373.7(ho)40(w)-373.7(t)0(o)-373.7(enact)-373.7(a)-373.7(patent)]TJ T* [(strategy)120(,)-407.1(i)0(f)-407.1(this)-407.1(w)30(a)0(s)-407.1(mer)20(ely)-407.1(a)-407.1(ho)40(w)-407.1(to)-407.1(book,)-407.1(it)-407.1(w)40(ould)-407.1(not)-407.1(be)-407.1(about)]TJ T* [(strategy)120(.)-352.7(Each)-352.7(stratagem)-352.7(is)-352.7(a)-352.7(unique)-352.7(cr)20(eation)-352.7(of)-352.7(the)-352.7(human)-352.7(mind)-352.7(that,)]TJ T* [(while)-385(using)-385(common)-385(ideas,)-385(addr)20(esses)-385(situations)-385(that)-385(ar)20(e)-385(n)0(e)20(v)40(er)-385(exactly)]TJ T* [(alik)30(e)30(.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 230.4837 328.6245 Tm [(Strate)15(gy)-333(Dened)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 302.8213 Tm [(Befor)20(e)-373.9(w)40(e)-373.9(discuss)-373.9(patent)-373.9(strategy)120(,)-373.9(w)40(e)-373.9(need)-373.9(to)-373.9(dene)-373.9(specically)-373.9(what)]TJ T* [(w)40(e)-342.1(mean)-342.1(b)25(y)-342.1(strategy)120(.)125()-342.1(Strategy)-342.1(is)-342.1(a)-342.1(solution)-342.1(that)-342.1(tak)30(es)-342.1(y)40(o)0(u)-342.1(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-342.1(y)40(our)]TJ T* [(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-312.5(situation)-312.5(A)-312.5(to)-312.5(a)-312.5(n)0(e)20(w)-312.5(situation)-312.5(B)40(.)125()-312.5(Strategy)-312.5(is)-312.5(nothing)-312.5(mor)20(e)]TJ T* [(than)-346.6(that,)-346.6(y)40(e)0(t)-346.6(that)-346.6(simple)-346.6(denition)-346.6(still)-346.6(confounds)-346.6(people)-346.6(in)-346.6(practice)30(.)]TJ T* [(P)50(eople)-316.2(often)-316.2(do)-316.2(not)-316.2(mak)30(e)-316.2(p)0(r)30(oper)-316.2(assessments)-316.2(of)-316.2(their)-316.2(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-316.2(situation)]TJ T* [(A,)125()-222.6(leading)-222.6(them)-222.6(to)-222.6(tak)30(e)-222.6(actions)-222.6(the)20(y)-222.6(might)-222.6(not)-222.6(ha)30(v)40(e)-222.6(tak)30(en)-222.6(if)-222.6(the)20(y)-222.6(had)-222.6(a)]TJ T* [(better)-232.8(under)-20(standing)-232.8(of)-232.8(that)-232.8(situation.)-232.8(B)-232.8(can)-232.8(pr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-232.8(e)20(v)40(en)-232.8(mor)20(e)-232.8(difcult)]TJ T* [(to)-350.7(g)-30(rasp)-350.7(than)-350.7(A,)125()-350.7(since)-350.7(life)30(,)-350.7(i)0(n)-350.7(patent)-350.7(strategy)-350.7(and)-350.7(otherwise)30(,)-350.7(i)0(s)-350.7(lled)]TJ T* [(with)-310.7(randomness)-310.7(that)-310.7(does)-310.7(not)-310.7(abide)-310.7(b)25(y)-310.7(a)-310.7(r)20(eliab)15(le)-310.7(plot)-310.7(line)30(.)-310.7(Y)160(ou)-310.7(might)]TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 19 0 obj > endobj 20 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11731.3(5)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 694.6357 Tm [(kno)40(w)-302.5(what)-302.5(y)40(o)0(u)-302.5(w)40(ould)-302.5(lik)30(e)-302.5(B)-302.5(to)-302.5(be)30(,)-302.5(b)15(ut)-302.5(in)-302.5(practice)-302.5(y)40(o)0(u)-302.5(will)-302.5(need)-302.5(to)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(tak)30(e)-248.2(dened)-248.2(action)-248.2(to)-248.2(get)-248.2(close)-248.2(enough)-248.2(to)-248.2(wher)20(e)-248.2(a)-248.2(mor)20(e)-248.2(ambiguous)-248.2(b)15(u)0(t)]TJ T* [(satisf)-25(actor)-30(y)-209.5(B)-209.4(is)-209.5(in)-209.5(or)20(der)-209.5(to)-209.5(tak)30(e)-209.5(adv)30(antage)-209.5(of)-209.5(the)-209.5(outcome)-209.5(that)-209.5(actually)]TJ T* [(de)20(v)40(elops.)-203.6(This)-203.6(becomes)-203.6(a)-203.6(balance)-203.6(betw)40(een)-203.6(dening)-203.6(B)-203.5(so)-203.6(nar)-40(r)30(o)40(wly)-203.6(that)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-334.3(cannot)-334.3(hit)-334.3(it,)-334.3(or)-334.3(dening)-334.3(B)-334.2(so)-334.3(br)30(oadly)-334.3(that)-334.3(succeeding)-334.3(depends)]TJ T* [(almost)-330.7(entir)20(ely)-330.7(on)-330.7(good)-330.7(for)-25(tune)30(.)-330.7(S)0(o)50(,)-330.7(bottom)-330.7(line:)-330.7(Strategy)-330.7(is)-330.7(a)-330.7(type)-330.7(of)]TJ T* [(solution)-236.6(that,)-236.6(in)-236.6(the)-236.6(end,)-236.6(will)-236.6(w)40(ork)-236.6(as)-236.6(planned)-236.6(or)-236.6(pr)30(o)40(vide)-236.6(an)-236.6(unexpected)]TJ T* [(r)20(esult;)-359.2(in)-359.2(either)-359.2(case)30(,)-359.2(i)0(t)-359.2(should)-359.2(not)-359.2(ha)30(v)40(e)-359.2(so)-359.2(constrained)-359.2(a)-359.2(denition)-359.2(of)]TJ T* [(success)-217.6(within)-217.6(it)-217.6(that)-217.6(the)-217.6(strateg)-30(ist)-217.6(cannot)-217.6(tak)30(e)-217.6(the)-217.6(best)-217.6(adv)30(antage)-217.6(of)-217.6(both)]TJ T* (outcomes.)Tj 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(T)150(o)-278(succeed)-278(at)-278(strategy)120(,)-278(y)40(ou)-278(need)-278(to)-278(kno)40(w)-278(h)0(o)40(w)-278(to)-278(mak)30(e:)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.0621 -1.8696 TD (1.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(An)-278(accurate)-278(assessment)-278(of)-278(y)40(our)-278(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-278(situation)-278(A.)125()]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (2.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(An)-314.6(accurate)-314.6(and)-314.6(r)20(ealistic)-314.6(conception)-314.6(of)-314.6(y)40(our)-314.6(desir)20(ed)-314.6(ne)20(w)-314.6(situation)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(B)-207.5(that)-207.6(is)-207.6(nar)-40(r)30(o)40(w)-207.6(enough)-207.6(to)-207.6(be)-207.6(useful)-207.6(b)15(u)0(t)-207.6(b)0(r)30(oad)-207.6(enough)-207.6(to)-207.6(account)]TJ T* [(for)-278(unkno)40(wns.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (3.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(A)-293.3(cor)-40(r)20(ect)-293.3(decision)-293.3(on)-293.3(ho)40(w)-293.3(t)0(o)-293.3(get)-293.3(fr)30(om)-293.3(A)-293.3(to)-293.3(B)-293.3(that)-293.3(adjusts)-293.3(for)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(uncer)-25(tainties)-278(that)-278(become)-278(kno)40(wn.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (4.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(A)-278(w)30(a)30(y)-278(to)-278(measur)20(e)-278(y)40(our)-278(pr)30(o)20(g)-30(r)20(ess)-278(or)-278(an)20(y)-278(lack)-278(ther)20(eof)-30(.)]TJ -.1857 -1.8783 TD [(Uncer)-25(tainty)-265.1(is)-265.1(wher)20(e)-265.1(strategy)120(,)-265.1(a)0(s)-265.1(a)-265.1(solution,)-265.1(star)-25(ts)-265.1(to)-265.1(differ)-265.1(fr)30(om,)-265.1(sa)30(y)120(,)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(a)-287.4(technical)-287.4(solution)-287.4(or)-287.4(a)-287.4(mathematical)-287.4(solution.)-287.4(The)-287.4(dynamic)-287.4(natur)20(e)-287.4(o)0(f)]TJ T* [(strategy)-370.2(complicates)-370.2(y)40(our)-370.2(task)-370.2(of)-370.2(nding)-370.2(a)-370.2(successful)-370.2(solution)-370.2(because)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-276(cannot)-276(necessar)-45(ily)-276(test)-276(out)-276(uncer)-25(tainties.)-276(Y)160(o)0(u)-276(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-276(t)0(o)-276(addr)20(ess)-276(acti)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(and)-334.6(often)-334.6(intelligent)-334.6(opposition)-334.6(fr)30(om)-334.6(people)-334.6(who)-334.6(do)-334.6(not)-334.6(w)30(ant)-334.6(y)40(o)0(u)-334.6(t)0(o)]TJ T* [(succeed,)-265.4(and)-265.4(who)-265.4(ma)30(y)-265.4(not)-265.4(themselv)40(es)-265.4(kno)40(w)-265.4(h)0(o)40(w)-265.4(the)20(y)-265.4(will)-265.4(r)20(eact)-265.4(to)-265.4(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(until)-280.4(y)40(o)0(u)-280.4(tak)30(e)-280.4(action.)-280.4(Y)160(o)0(u)-280.4(also)-280.4(m)15(ust)-280.4(contend)-280.4(with)-280.4(the)-280.4(f)-25(act)-280.4(that,)-280.4(outside)]TJ T* [(the)-246.2(ar)-25(ticial)-246.2(w)40(orld)-246.2(of)-246.2(games)-246.2(perhaps,)-246.2(time)-246.2(in)-246.2(strategy)-246.2(does)-246.2(not)-246.2(stop)60(.)-246.2(Y)160(ou)]TJ T* [(ar)20(e)-226.2(contin)15(ually)-226.2(ex)40(ecuting)-226.2(a)-226.2(strategy)-226.2(that)-226.2(tak)30(es)-226.2(y)40(o)0(u)-226.2(t)0(o)-226.2(a)-226.2(n)0(e)20(w)-226.2(situation)-226.2(B)]TJ T* [(in)-275.5(the)-275.5(sense)-275.5(that)-275.5(e)20(v)40(en)-275.5(doing)-275.5(nothing)-275.5(tak)30(es)-275.5(y)40(o)0(u)-275.5(some)20(wher)20(e)30(.)-275.5(Y)160(o)0(u)-275.5(will)-275.5(go)]TJ T* [(to)-247.6(a)-247.6(n)0(e)20(w)-247.6(situation)-247.6(B)-247.6(e)20(v)40(en)-247.6(if)-247.6(y)40(o)0(u)-247.6(d)0(o)-247.6(not)-247.6(kno)40(w)-247.6(what)-247.6(B)-247.6(is)-247.6(and)-247.6(cannot)]TJ T* [(ar)-25(ticulate)-294.1(y)40(our)-294.1(strategy)-294.1(to)-294.1(get)-294.1(ther)20(e)30(.)-294.1(A)-294.1(ship)-294.1(with)-294.1(wind)-294.1(in)-294.1(its)-294.1(sail)-294.1(will)-294.1(go)]TJ T* [(some)20(wher)20(e)30(.)-205.6(A)-205.5(good)-205.6(strateg)-30(ist)-205.6(needs)-205.6(to)-205.6(get)-205.6(a)-205.6(handle)-205.6(on)-205.6(the)-205.6(situation)-205.6(he)-205.6(or)]TJ T* [(she)-277.1(f)-25(aces)-277.1(in)-277.1(or)20(der)-277.1(to)-277.1(ar)-40(r)-45(i)20(v)40(e)-277.1(at)-277.1(a)-277.1(desirab)15(le)-277.1(destination)-277.1(thr)30(ough)-277.1(something)]TJ T* [(other)-333.6(than)-333.6(the)-333.6(mer)20(e)-333.6(v)30(agar)-45(ies)-333.6(of)-333.6(the)-333.6(wind,)-333.6(while)-333.6(r)20(ealizing,)-333.6(lik)30(e)-333.6(ancient)]TJ T* [(seaf)-25(ar)20(er)-20(s,)-335.3(that)-335.3(the)-335.3(outcome)-335.3(of)-335.3(an)20(y)-335.3(g)-30(i)20(v)40(en)-335.3(jour)-40(ne)20(y)-335.3(t)0(o)-335.3(nd)-335.3(ne)20(w)-335.3(land,)-335.3(no)]TJ T* [(matter)-261.3(ho)40(w)-261.3(w)40(ell)-261.3(planned,)-261.3(depends)-261.3(on)-261.3(the)-261.3(land)-261.3(that)-261.3(is)-261.3(actually)-261.3(ther)20(e)30(,)-261.3(not)]TJ T* [(the)-278(land)-278(that)-278(the)-278(strateg)-30(ist)-278(w)40(ould)-278(lik)30(e)-278(t)0(o)-278(b)0(e)-278(ther)20(e)30(.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 22 0 obj > endobj 23 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (6)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 260.5968 692.9645 Tm 0 Tc (Results)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 667.1613 Tm [(T)150(o)-317.5(go)-317.5(wher)20(e)-317.5(y)40(ou)-317.5(w)30(ant)-317.5(to)-317.5(go)50(,)-317.5(y)40(ou)-317.5(need)-317.5(to)-317.5(focus)-317.5(on)-317.5(the)-317.5(r)20(esults)-317.5(of)-317.5(y)40(our)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(actions.)-275.1(An)20(y)-275.1(strategy)-275.1(will)-275.1(cr)20(eate)-275.1(pr)20(edicted)-275.1(and)-275.1(unpr)20(edicted)-275.1(r)20(esults,)-275.1(both)]TJ T* [(benecial)-278.4(and)-278.4(har)-45(mful.)-278.4(Y)160(our)-278.4(capacity)-278.4(to)-278.4(cr)20(eate)-278.4(a)-278.4(benecial)-278.4(r)20(esult)-278.4(that)-278.4(is)]TJ T* [(pr)20(eferab)15(ly)-270.8(also)-270.8(y)40(our)-270.8(pr)20(edicted)-270.8(r)20(esult)-270.8(will)-270.8(depend)-270.8(on)-270.8(y)40(our)-270.8(under)-20(standing)]TJ T* [(of)-186.6(y)40(our)-186.6(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-186.6(situation)-186.6(A,)125()-186.6(y)40(our)-186.6(desir)20(ed)-186.6(situation)-186.6(B)40(,)125()-186.6(and)-186.6(the)-186.6(pr)30(os)-186.6(and)]TJ T* [(cons)-202.8(of)-202.8(y)40(our)-202.8(chosen)-202.8(method)-202.8(of)-202.8(getting)-202.8(fr)30(om)-202.8(A)-202.7(to)-202.8(B)40(.)125()-202.8(One)-202.8(of)-202.8(the)-202.8(hall-)]TJ T* [(marks)-256.3(of)-256.3(intelligence)-256.3(in)-256.3(strategy)-256.3(is)-256.3(the)-256.3(strateg)-30(ist)100(s)-256.3(capacity)-256.3(to)-256.3(mak)30(e)-256.3(accu-)]TJ T* [(rate)-282.5(pr)20(edictions)-282.5(about)-282.5(potential)-282.5(outcomes)-282.5(most)-282.5(of)-282.5(the)-282.5(time)30(.)-282.5(Y)160(our)-282.5(accu-)]TJ T* [(racy)-183(when)-183(making)-183(such)-183(pr)20(edictions,)-183(as)-183(w)40(ell)-183(as)-183(y)40(our)-183(capacity)-183(to)-183(act)-183(quickly)]TJ T* [(and)-242.8(decisi)20(v)40(ely)-242.8(on)-242.8(unexpected)-242.8(r)20(esults,)-242.8(will)-242.8(depend)-242.8(on)-242.8(y)40(our)-242.8(ha)30(ving)-242.8(a)-242.8(solid)]TJ T* [(g)-30(rasp)-276.9(of)-276.9(A,)125()-276.9()0(B)40(,)125()-276.9(and)-276.9(ho)40(w)-276.9(y)40(ou)-276.9(plan)-276.9(to)-276.9(get)-276.9(to)-276.9(B)40(.)125()-276.9(On)-276.9(the)-276.9(latter)-276.9(point,)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-246.2(should)-246.2(seek)-246.2(to)-246.2(craft)-246.2(a)-246.2(decision)-246.2(on)-246.2(ho)40(w)-246.2(t)0(o)-246.2(get)-246.2(to)-246.2(B)-246.2(fr)30(om)-246.2(the)-246.2(foun-)]TJ T* [(dation)-225.9(of)-225.9(the)-225.9(past)-225.9(exper)-45(iences)-225.9(that)-225.9(got)-225.9(y)40(o)0(u)-225.9(t)0(o)-225.9(y)40(our)-225.9(pr)20(esent)-225.9(situation)-225.9(A.)125()]TJ T* [(Y)160(our)-205.6(past)-205.6(exper)-45(iences,)-205.6(along)-205.6(with)-205.6(the)-205.6(v)30(alue)-205.6(y)40(o)0(u)-205.6(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-205.6(r)20(etained)-205.6(fr)30(om)-205.6(those)]TJ T* [(exper)-45(iences,)-288.8(pr)30(o)40(vide)-288.8(the)-288.8(base)-288.8(fr)30(om)-288.8(which)-288.8(y)40(o)0(u)-288.8(can)-288.8(mo)40(v)40(e)-288.8(forw)30(ar)20(d.)-288.8(Y)160(our)]TJ T* [(patents)-278(themselv)40(es)-278(literally)-278(encapsulate)-278(v)30(alue)-278(captur)20(ed)-278(fr)30(om)-278(y)40(our)-278(past.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(W)15(ith)-220.6(y)40(our)-220.6(desir)20(ed)-220.6(r)20(esults)-220.6(in)-220.6(mind,)-220.6(y)40(our)-220.6(strateg)-30(ic)-220.6(pr)30(o)40(w)40(ess)-220.6(is)-220.6(anchor)20(ed)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(on)-278(y)40(our)-278(capacity)-278(to:)]TJ /F4 1 Tf .5031 -1.9565 TD (1.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(Achie)20(v)40(e)-278(y)40(our)-278(pr)20(edicted)-278(and)-278(useful)-278(r)20(esults)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (2.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(Reco)20(gnize)-278(and)-278(exploit)-278(y)40(our)-278(unpr)20(edicted)-278(useful)-278(r)20(esults)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (3.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(Mitigate)-278(or)-278(a)30(v)40(oid)-278(y)40(our)-278(pr)20(edicted)-278(har)-45(mful)-278(r)20(esults)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (4.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(Mitigate)-278(or)-278(a)30(v)40(oid)-278(unpr)20(edicted)-278(har)-45(mful)-278(r)20(esults)]TJ -.1857 -1.9652 TD [(In)-562.7(the)-562.7(de)20(v)40(elopment)-562.7(of)-562.7(the)-562.7(phar)-45(maceutical)-562.7(compound)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 23.4725 0 TD (sildenal)Tj /F1 1 Tf -25.0377 -1.2174 TD [(that)-271.5(became)-271.5(the)-271.5(commer)20(cial)-271.5(phar)-45(maceutical)-271.5(Viag)-30(ra)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 353.5803 333.4868 Tm ()Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 360.1736 329.3279 Tm [(,)-271.5(Pzer)-271.5(r)20(esear)20(cher)-20(s)]TJ -20.8378 -1.2174 TD [(achie)20(v)40(e)0(d)-374.8(a)-374.8(p)0(r)20(edicted)-374.8(and)-374.8(useful)-374.8(r)20(esult)-374.8(of)-374.8(incr)20(easing)-374.8(b)15(lood)-374.8(o)40(w)-374.8(t)0(o)-374.8(the)]TJ T* [(hear)-25(t)-460.5(t)0(o)-460.5(t)0(r)20(eat)-460.5(hear)-25(t)-460.5(conditions.)-460.5(The)-460.5(compound)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 20.1013 0 TD (sildenal)Tj /F1 1 Tf 3.5965 0 TD [(w)30(a)0(s)-460.5(only)-460.5(a)]TJ -23.6978 -1.2174 TD [(marg)-30(inal)-242.1(impr)30(o)40(v)40(ement)-242.1(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-242.1(existing)-242.1(tr)20(eatments,)-242.1(and)-242.1(so)-242.1(while)-242.1(useful,)-242.1(the)]TJ T* [(pr)20(edicted)-214.3(r)20(esult)-214.3(had)-214.3(little)-214.3(commer)20(cial)-214.3(v)30(alue)30(.)-214.3(A)0(n)-214.3(unpr)20(edicted)-214.3(r)20(esult,)-214.3(ho)40(w-)]TJ T* [(e)20(v)40(er)40(,)-319.9(allo)40(w)40(e)0(d)-319.9(the)-319.9(same)-319.9(compound)-319.9(to)-319.9(be)-319.9(used)-319.9(for)-319.9(tr)20(eating)-319.9(male)-319.9(er)20(ectile)]TJ T* [(dysfunction.)-190.7(Pzer)-190.7(patented)-190.7(the)-190.7(method)-190.7(of)-190.7(use)-190.7(and)-190.7(successfully)-190.7(exploited)]TJ T* (it.)Tj 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 130.7376 235.8529 Tm (3)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 138.6559 231.694 Tm [(So)-304.6(while)-304.6(w)40(e)-304.6(need)-304.6(to)-304.6(kno)40(w)-304.6(our)-304.6(desir)20(ed)-304.6(ne)20(w)-304.6(situation,)-304.7(B)40(,)125()-304.6(w)40(e)-304.6(also)]TJ -1.5031 -1.2174 TD [(need)-313.8(to)-313.8(pa)30(y)-313.8(attention)-313.8(to)-313.8(the)-313.8(unpr)20(edicted)-313.8(useful)-313.8(r)20(esults)-313.8(that)-313.8(might)-313.8(offer)]TJ T* [(us)-278(an)-278(e)20(v)40(en)-278(better)-278(outcome)-278(than)-278(expected.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(In)-404.7(contrast)-404.7(to)-404.7(Viag)-30(ra)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 237.1762 194.0097 Tm ()Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 243.7694 189.8508 Tm [(,)-404.7(which)-404.7(had)-404.7(useful)-404.7(unpr)20(edicted)-404.7(r)20(esults,)-404.7(the)]TJ -10.6777 -1.2174 TD [(po)40(w)40(erful)-280.6(painkiller)-280.6(Vio)40(xx)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 237.632 180.062 Tm ()Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 247.4397 175.9031 Tm [(sho)40(w)40(e)0(d)-280.6(e)20(vidence)-280.6(of)-280.6(pr)30(oducing)-280.6(har)-45(mful)-280.6(and)]TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj > endobj 25 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11731.3(7)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 694.6357 Tm [(unpr)20(edicted)-455.8(r)20(esults.)-455.8(Dur)-45(ing)-455.8(its)-455.8(de)20(v)40(elopment,)-455.8(Mer)20(ck)-455.8(r)20(esear)20(cher)-20(s)-455.8(p)0(r)20(e)0(-)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(dicted)-213.3(that)-213.3(Vio)40(xx)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 209.1507 684.8469 Tm ()Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 218.1875 680.688 Tm [(w)40(ould)-213.3(pr)30(oduce)-213.3(manageab)15(le)-213.3(har)-45(mful)-213.3(side)-213.3(effects,)-213.3(such)]TJ -7.5422 -1.2174 TD [(as)-404.8(abdominal)-404.8(pain,)-404.8(dizziness,)-404.8(and)-404.8(f)-25(atigue)30(.)-404.8(The)20(y)-404.8(consider)20(ed)-404.8(these)-404.8(side)]TJ T* [(effects)-232.2(to)-232.2(be)-232.2(acceptab)15(le)-232.2(when)-232.2(w)40(eighed)-232.2(against)-232.2(the)-232.2(signicantly)-232.2(impr)30(o)40(v)40(e)0(d)]TJ T* [(capacity)-381.8(of)-381.8(Vio)40(xx)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 213.4814 643.0038 Tm ()Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 224.4486 638.8449 Tm [(to)-381.8(r)20(elie)20(v)40(e)-381.8(pain.)-381.8(The)-381.8(mark)30(et)-381.8(ag)-30(r)20(eed)-381.8(and)-381.8(made)-381.8(the)]TJ -8.0887 -1.2174 TD [(dr)-25(ug)-298.5(a)-298.5(commer)20(cial)-298.5(success.)-298.5(Things)-298.6(changed,)-298.5(ho)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-298.5(when)-298.5(an)-298.5(unpr)20(e-)]TJ T* [(dicted)-252.5(and)-252.5(har)-45(mful)-252.5(r)-45(ise)-252.5(in)-252.5(hear)-25(t)-252.5(attack)-252.5(and)-252.5(str)30(ok)30(e)-252.5(appear)20(ed)-252.5(among)-252.5(some)]TJ T* [(patients)-305.5(using)-305.5(Vio)40(xx.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 227.4859 601.1606 Tm .0621 Tc (4)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 242.0067 597.0018 Tm 0 Tc [(T)150(o)-305.5(add)-305.5(to)-305.4(this,)-305.5(Mer)20(ck)100(s)-305.5(handling)-305.4(of)-305.5(the)-305.5(unpr)20(e-)]TJ -9.6212 -1.2174 TD [(dicted)-256.7(har)-45(m,)-256.7(while)-256.7(not)-256.7(necessar)-45(ily)-256.7(the)-256.7(case)-256.7(in)-256.7(r)20(eality)120(,)-256.7(appear)20(ed)-256.7(to)-256.7(be)-256.7(the)]TJ T* [(actions)-331.4(of)-331.4(a)-331.4(compan)20(y)-331.4(mor)20(e)-331.4(concer)-40(ned)-331.4(about)-331.4(defending)-331.4(a)-331.4(line)-331.4(of)-331.4(pr)30(of-)]TJ T* [(itability)-223(than)-223(the)-223(w)40(ell-being)-223(of)-223(its)-223(customer)-20(s.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 330.4877 559.3176 Tm (5)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 337.471 555.1587 Tm [(Mer)20(ck)-223(w)30(a)0(s)-223(sued)-223(under)-223(the)]TJ -17.9536 -1.2174 TD [(accusation)-327.9(that)-327.9(its)-327.9(management)-327.9(had)-327.9(deliberately)-327.9(co)40(v)40(e)0(r)20(e)0(d)-327.9(u)0(p)-327.9(test)-327.9(r)20(esults)]TJ T* [(that)-324.3(w)40(ould)-324.3(ha)30(v)40(e)-324.3(led)-324.3(to)-324.3(an)-324.3(earlier)-324.3(withdra)30(w)30(a)0(l)-324.3(o)0(f)-324.3(Vio)40(xx)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 378.9088 531.4221 Tm ()Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 389.2174 527.2632 Tm [(fr)30(om)-324.3(the)-324.3(mar-)]TJ -22.4702 -1.2174 TD [(k)30(et.)-293.9(Unpr)20(edicted)-293.9(har)-45(mful)-293.9(r)20(esults)-293.9(ar)30(ose)30(,)-293.9(and)-293.9(although)-293.9(Mer)20(ck)-293.9(w)30(a)0(s)-293.9(for)20(ced)]TJ T* [(to)-383.8(abandon)-383.8(its)-383.8(or)-45(ig)-30(inally)-383.8(concei)20(v)40(e)0(d)-383.8(and)-383.8(desir)20(ed)-383.8(r)20(esult)-383.8(B)40(,)125()-383.8(addr)20(essing)]TJ T* 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> stream h6THLIQ00P-QH/V0T3DR+3p(*.MdR2j  endstream endobj 28 0 obj > endobj 29 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11731.3(9)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 694.6357 Tm [(mor)20(e)30(,)-362.1(not)-362.1(less,)-362.1(transpar)20(ent)-362.1(with)-362.1(the)-362.1(incr)20(eased)-362.1(accessibility)-362.1(and)-362.1(perfor-)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD 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T* [(oped)-364.3(into)-364.3(a)-364.3(positi)20(v)40(e)-364.3(clich)]TJ 10.3257 .015 TD ()Tj -.0525 -.015 TD [(e)-531(i)0(n)-364.3(the)-364.3(English)-364.3(language)30(,)-364.3(ignorance)-364.3(should)]TJ -10.2732 -1.2174 TD [(not)-278(be)-278(consider)20(ed)-278(an)-278(asset.)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 227.443 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 304.762 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 418.433 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 399.7534 Tm [(The)-333(Pr)-45(ior)-333(Ar)-25(t)-333(Sear)20(ch)]TJ /F1 1 Tf T* [(The)-336.7(pr)-45(ior)-336.7(ar)-25(t)-336.7(sear)20(ch)-336.7(is)-336.7(a)-336.7(sear)20(ch)-336.7(of)-336.7(an)20(y)-336.7(infor)-45(mation)-336.7(sour)20(ce)-336.7(that)]TJ T* [(could)-273.6(sho)40(w)-273.6(that)-273.7(a)-273.6(concei)20(v)40(e)0(d)-273.6(i)0(n)40(v)40(ention)-273.6(alr)20(eady)-273.6(exists)-273.7(and)-273.6(at)-273.6(best)]TJ T* 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endstream endobj 30 0 obj > endobj 31 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (10)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 129.494 w q 1 0 0 1 121.435 637.576 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S Q BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 684.0918 Tm 0 Tc [(the)-345.6(r)-20(st)-345.6(line)-345.6(of)-345.6(defense)-345.6(is)-345.6(to)-345.6(in)40(v)30(alidate)-345.6(the)-345.6(plaintiff)-125()100(s)-345.6(patents,)-345.6(a)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(pr)-45(ior)-228.9(ar)-25(t)-228.9(sear)20(ch)-228.9(becomes)-228.9(an)-228.9(in)40(v)30(alidity)-228.9(sear)20(ch)-228.9(wher)20(eb)25(y)-228.9(the)-228.9(defen-)]TJ T* [(dant)-237(ma)30(y)-237(scour)-237(the)-237(ear)-25(th)-237(for)-237(pr)-45(ior)-237(ar)-25(t)-237(that)-237(could,)-237(for)-237(example)30(,)]TJ T* [(be)-374.4(hidden)-374.4(in)-374.4(an)-374.4(otherwise)-374.4(forgotten)-374.4(r)20(esear)20(ch)-374.4(paper)-374.4(at)-374.4(a)-374.5(Rus-)]TJ T* [(sian)-333.1(uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sity)-333.1(wr)-45(itten)-333.1(in)-333.1(the)-333.1(Cyr)-45(illic)-333.1(alphabet.)-333.1(Such)-333.1(in)40(v)30(alidity)]TJ T* [(sear)20(ches)-293.9(can)-293.8(tak)30(e)-293.8(quite)-293.8(a)-293.8(bit)-293.8(of)-293.9(detecti)20(v)40(e)-293.8(w)40(ork,)-293.9(including)-293.8(inter-)]TJ T* [(vie)20(wing)-388.8(sour)20(ces)-388.8(who)-388.8(ma)30(y)-388.8(kno)40(w)-388.8(wher)20(e)-388.8(t)0(o)-388.8(nd)-388.8(mor)20(e)-388.8(obscur)20(e)]TJ T* [(pr)-45(ior)-278(ar)-25(t)-278(r)20(efer)20(ences.)]TJ ET 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 121.684 572.829 cm 0 0 m 0 129.494 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 129.494 l S Q BT 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 554.059 Tm [(Complicating)-323.3(the)-323.3(issue)-323.3(of)-323.3(ignorance)-323.3(in)-323.3(patent)-323.3(strategy)120(,)-323.3(some)-323.3(com-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(panies)-345.3(w)40(ork)-345.3(under)-345.3(an)-345.3(institutionalized)-345.3(for)-45(m)-345.3(o)0(f)-345.3(ignorance)-345.3(is)-345.3(b)15(liss,)125()-345.3(o)0(r)]TJ T* [(plausib)15(le)-206.2(deniability)120(,)-206.2(i)0(n)-206.2(a)0(n)-206.2(attempt)-206.2(to)-206.2(a)30(v)40(oid)-206.2(tr)20(eb)15(le)-206.2(damage)-206.2(a)30(w)30(a)0(r)20(d)0(s)-206.2(i)0(f)-206.2(found)]TJ T* [(to)-273.4(ha)30(v)40(e)-273.4(willfully)-273.4(infr)-45(inged)-273.4(another)-273.4(organization)100(s)-273.4(patents.)-273.4(The)20(y)-273.4(deliber-)]TJ T* [(ately)-202.9(do)-202.9(not)-202.9(perfor)-45(m)-202.9(p)0(r)-45(ior)-202.9(ar)-25(t)-202.9(sear)20(ches.)-202.9(The)20(y)-202.9(often)-202.9(tak)30(e)-202.9(this)-202.9(cour)-20(se)-202.9(when)]TJ T* [(the)20(y)-198.7(assess)-198.7(the)-198.7(r)-45(isk)-198.7(of)-198.7(infr)-45(ingement)-198.7(as)-198.7(high)-198.7(because)-198.7(of)-198.7(the)-198.7(cr)30(o)40(wded)-198.7(natur)20(e)]TJ T* [(of)-187.2(the)-187.2(eld,)-187.2(and)-187.2(then)-187.2(addr)20(ess)-187.2(ine)20(vitab)15(le)-187.2(infr)-45(ingements)-187.2(as)-187.2(the)20(y)-187.2(occur)40(,)-187.2(often)]TJ T* [(with)-287.8(other)-287.8(patents)-287.8(in)-287.8(their)-287.8(por)-25(tfolio)-287.8(as)-287.8(intended)-287.8(bargaining)-287.8(chips.)-287.8(In)-287.8(so)]TJ T* [(doing,)-259.4(ho)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-259.4(the)20(y)-259.4(r)-25(un)-259.4(the)-259.4(r)-45(isk)-259.4(of)-259.4(r)20(ein)40(v)40(enting)-259.4(existing)-259.4(in)40(v)40(entions)-259.4(and)]TJ T* [(incur)-40(r)-45(ing)-251.9(the)-251.9(costs)-251.9(and)-251.9(the)-251.9(lost)-251.9(pr)30(oducti)20(vity)-251.9(associated)-251.9(with)-251.9(that.)-251.9(Unless)]TJ T* [(y)40(our)-351.4(w)40(ork)-351.4(is)-351.4(tr)-25(uly)-351.4(at)-351.4(the)-351.4(cutting)-351.4(edge)-351.4(of)-351.4(ne)20(w)-351.4(technolo)20(gy)120(,)-351.5(r)20(ein)40(v)40(enting)]TJ T* [(costs)-407.7(caused)-407.7(b)25(y)-407.7(an)-407.7(ignorance)-407.7(of)-407.7(the)-407.7(pr)-45(ior)-407.7(ar)-25(t)-407.7(can)-407.7(exceed)-407.7(the)-407.7(sa)30(vings)]TJ T* [(pr)30(oduced)-224(b)25(y)-224(possib)15(ly)-224(a)30(v)40(oiding)-224(tr)20(eb)15(le)-224(damages)-224(for)-224(willful)-224(patent)-224(infr)-45(inge-)]TJ T* [(ment.)-253.7(This)-253.7(is)-253.7(par)-25(ticularly)-253.7(tr)-25(ue)-253.7(consider)-45(ing)-253.7(that)-253.7(a)-253.7(r)20(e)20(vie)20(w)-253.7(o)0(f)-253.7(the)-253.7(pr)-45(ior)-253.7(ar)-25(t,)]TJ T* [(as)-300(a)-300(par)-25(t)-300(o)0(f)-300(r)20(educing)-300(ignorance)30(,)-300(can)-300(in)-300(itself)-300(help)-300(y)40(o)0(u)-300(t)0(o)-300(a)30(v)40(oid)-300(a)-300(charge)]TJ T* [(of)-312.2(patent)-312.2(infr)-45(ingement)-312.2(in)-312.2(the)-312.2(r)-20(st)-312.2(place)30(.)-312.2(Each)-312.2(situation)-312.2(is)-312.2(differ)20(ent)-312.2(and)]TJ T* [(should)-278(be)-278(consider)20(ed)-278(on)-278(its)-278(o)40(w)0(n)-278(mer)-45(its)-278(as)-278(opposed)-278(to)-278(a)-278(b)15(lank)30(et)-278(policy)120(.)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 129.992 w q 1 0 0 1 121.435 256.037 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 121.435 320.983 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 302.3028 Tm [(F)20(ail-Safe)]TJ /F1 1 Tf T* [(A)-221.3(f)-25(ail-safe)-221.3(strategy)-221.3(is)-221.3(a)-221.3(strategy)-221.3(that)-221.3(will)-221.3(pr)30(oduce)-221.3(a)-221.3(deniti)20(v)40(e)-221.3(out-)]TJ T* [(come)-183.4(at)-183.4(some)-183.4(tr)-45(igger)-183.5(point,)-183.5(no)-183.4(matter)-183.4(what)-183.5(y)40(our)-183.5(opposition)-183.4(does)]TJ T* [(after)-322.5(acti)20(v)30(ating)-322.5(that)-322.5(tr)-45(igger)40(.)-322.5(F)20(or)-322.5(example)30(,)-322.5(i)0(n)-322.5(a)-322.5(p)0(r)30(operly)-322.5(secur)20(ed)]TJ T* [(house)30(,)-208(once)-208(a)-208(thief)-208(tr)-45(igger)-20(s)-208(the)-208(house)-208(alar)-45(m,)-208(the)-208(police)-208(will)-208(sho)40(w)]TJ T* [(up)-181.2(to)-181.2(in)40(v)40(estigate)30(,)-181.2(r)20(egar)20(dless)-181.2(of)-181.2(what)-181.2(the)-181.2(thief)-181.2(does)-181.2(next.)-181.2(A)-181.1(f)-25(ail-safe)]TJ T* [(strategy)-199.4(that)-199.4(some)-199.4(organizations)-199.4(emplo)40(y)-199.4(t)0(o)-199.4(defend)-199.4(against)-199.4(poten-)]TJ T* [(tial)-348.4(tr)20(eb)15(le)-348.3(damages)-348.4(in)-348.3(a)-348.3(patent)-348.4(infr)-45(ingement)-348.3(la)30(wsuit)-348.3(is)-348.4(a)-348.4(policy)]TJ ET q 1 0 0 1 121.684 191.041 cm 0 0 m 0 129.992 l S 1 0 0 1 322.79 .199 cm 0 0 m 0 129.992 l S Q endstream endobj 32 0 obj > endobj 33 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(11)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 322.79 w q 1 0 0 1 293.171 188.455 cm 0 0 m 0 513.869 l S Q BT 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 684.0918 Tm [(of)-253.8(not)-253.8(looking)-253.7(at)-253.7(patent)-253.7(claims)-253.7(belong)-30(ing)-253.7(to)-253.7(competitor)-20(s)-253.7(s)0(o)-253.7(that)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(the)-447.5(cour)-25(t,)-447.5(as)-447.5(the)-447.5(pr)30(o)40(vider)-447.5(of)-447.5(the)-447.5(deniti)20(v)40(e)-447.5(outcome)30(,)-447.5(cannot)]TJ T* [(declar)20(e)-424(a)0(n)-423.9(infr)-45(ingement)-424(as)-424(willful.)-423.9(The)-423.9(idea)-423.9(is)-424(that)-423.9(y)40(o)0(u)-423.9(can-)]TJ T* [(not)-333(willfully)-333(infr)-45(inge)-333(on)-333(a)-333(patent)-333(claim)-333(y)40(o)0(u)-333(did)-333(not)-333(kno)40(w)-333(w)30(as)]TJ T* [(ther)20(e)30(,)-278(e)20(v)40(en)-278(if)-278(y)40(o)0(u)-278(kne)20(w)-278(that)-278(it)-278(could)-278(be)-278(ther)20(e)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Man)20(y)-344.9(successful)-344.9(organizations)-344.9(contin)15(ue)-344.9(as)-344.9(a)-344.9(general)-344.9(policy)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(to)-243.2(a)30(v)40(oid)-243.2(sear)20(ching)-243.2(for)-243.2(pr)-45(ior)-243.2(ar)-25(t)-243.2(o)0(r)-243.2(r)20(eading)-243.2(patent)-243.2(claims,)-243.2(and)-243.2(this)]TJ T* [(contin)15(uity)-283.8(of)-283.8(practice)-283.8(ser)-25(v)40(e)0(s)-283.8(a)0(s)-283.8(e)20(vidence)-283.8(that)-283.8(the)-283.8(strategy)-283.8(w)40(orks)]TJ T* [(for)-224.7(them.)-224.7(Ther)20(e)-224.6(i)0(s)-224.6(cer)-25(tainly)-224.6(an)-224.6(argument,)-224.6(par)-25(ticularly)-224.6(at)-224.7(the)-224.6(v)40(e)0(r)-30(y)]TJ T* [(cutting)-283.1(edge)-283.1(of)-283.2(technolo)20(gy)120(,)-283.2(that)-283.1(a)-283.2(p)0(r)-45(ior)-283.1(ar)-25(t)-283.1(sear)20(ch)-283.1(cannot)-283.1(r)20(e)20(v)40(eal)]TJ T* [(the)-309.2(most)-309.2(lik)30(ely)-309.2(sour)20(ce)-309.2(of)-309.2(patent)-309.3(infr)-45(ingement)-309.2(in)-309.2(the)-309.2(r)-20(st)-309.2(place)30(.)]TJ T* [(Since)-288.6(it)-288.6(tak)30(es)-288.6(18)-288.6(months)-288.6(for)-288.6(most)-288.6(patent)-288.6(ofces)-288.6(to)-288.6(pub)15(lish)-288.6(led)]TJ T* [(patent)-261(applications,)-261(a)-261(p)0(r)-45(ior)-261.1(in)40(v)40(ention)-261(that)-261(might)-261(pr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-261(to)-261(be)-261(the)]TJ T* [(basis)-411.4(of)-411.4(a)-411.4(futur)20(e)-411.4(patent)-411.4(infr)-45(ingement)-411.4(la)30(wsuit)-411.4(b)25(y)-411.4(a)-411.4(competitor)]TJ T* [(could)-306(simply)-306(be)-306(una)30(v)30(ailab)15(le)-306(for)-306(r)20(e)20(vie)20(w)-306(a)0(t)-306(the)-306(time)-306(y)40(o)0(u)-306(need)-306(to)]TJ T* [(decide)-175.7(whether)-175.7(to)-175.7(pr)30(oceed)-175.7(with)-175.7(y)40(our)-175.7(o)40(w)0(n)-175.7(i)0(n)40(v)40(ention.)-175.7(Then,)-175.7(once)]TJ T* [(y)40(our)-273.5(in)40(v)40(ention)-273.5(is)-273.6(w)40(ell)-273.6(into)-273.5(de)20(v)40(elopment)-273.5(or)-273.6(use)-273.6(within)-273.5(an)-273.5(actual)]TJ T* [(pr)30(oduct,)-342.4(ther)20(e)-342.3(w)40(ould)-342.3(be)-342.3(a)-342.3(fur)-25(ther)-342.3(disincenti)20(v)40(e)-342.3(to)-342.3(look)-342.3(back)-342.3(at)]TJ T* [(the)-233.8(pr)-45(ior)-233.8(ar)-25(t.)-233.8(This)-233.8(is)-233.8(because)-233.8(the)-233.8(only)-233.8(outcome)-233.8(a)-233.8(p)0(r)-45(ior)-233.8(ar)-25(t)-233.8(sear)20(ch)]TJ T* [(w)40(ould)-243.3(lik)30(ely)-243.3(induce)-243.3(is)-243.3(the)-243.4(discontin)15(uation)-243.3(of)-243.4(the)-243.3(pr)30(oduct)-243.3(so)-243.3(that)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-298.4(d)0(o)-298.4(not)-298.4(infr)-45(inge)30(,)-298.4(the)-298.4(need)-298.4(to)-298.4(obtain)-298.4(a)-298.4(license)-298.4(fr)30(om)-298.4(the)-298.4(less-)]TJ T* [(than-f)-25(a)30(v)40(orab)15(le)-349.4(negotiation)-349.4(stance)-349.4(of)-349.4(ha)30(ving)-349.4(alr)20(eady)-349.4(in)40(v)40(ested)-349.4(in)]TJ T* [(the)-383.3(in)40(v)40(ention,)-383.4(or)-383.4(the)-383.4(cr)20(eation)-383.3(of)-383.4(the)-383.3(situation)-383.3(wher)20(e)-383.4(a)-383.4(patent)]TJ T* [(infr)-45(ingement)-414.3(will)-414.4(no)40(w)-414.3(b)0(e)-414.3(willful)-414.4(if)-414.4(the)-414.3(holder)-414.3(of)-414.4(that)-414.4(patent)]TJ T* [(decides)-278(to)-278(sue)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(An)20(y)40(one)-332.3(consider)-45(ing)-332.3(whether)-332.3(to)-332.3(conduct)-332.3(a)-332.3(p)0(r)-45(ior)-332.3(ar)-25(t)-332.3(sear)20(ch)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(could)-409.4(see)-409.4(all)-409.4(this)-409.4(as)-409.4(entir)20(ely)-409.4(negati)20(v)40(e)30(,)-409.4(par)-25(ticularly)-409.4(if)-409.4(competi-)]TJ T* [(tor)-20(s)-379.7(sho)40(w)-379.6(themselv)40(es)-379.7(to)-379.6(be)-379.6(less)-379.7(than)-379.6(vig)-30(ilant)-379.7(in)-379.7(policing)-379.6(their)]TJ T* [(o)40(w)0(n)-246.8(patents)-246.8(and)-246.8(ther)20(efor)20(e)-246.8(less)-246.8(lik)30(ely)-246.8(to)-246.8(sue)30(.)-246.8(After)-246.8(all,)-246.8(the)20(y)-246.8(might)]TJ T* [(not)-400.1(notice)-400(an)-400(infr)-45(ingement)-400.1(an)20(yw)30(a)30(y)120(,)-400(o)0(r)-400(e)20(v)40(e)0(n)-400(i)0(f)-400.1(the)20(y)-400(did,)-400.1(the)20(y)]TJ T* [(might)-232.5(not)-232.5(enfor)20(ce)-232.5(their)-232.5(position.)-232.5(Also)50(,)-232.5(since)-232.5(the)-232.5(r)20(ein)40(v)40(ention)-232.5(r)-45(isk)]TJ T* [(diminishes)-391.7(at)-391.7(the)-391.7(cutting)-391.7(edge)-391.7(of)-391.7(technolo)20(gy)120(,)-391.7(the)-391.7(commer)20(cial)]TJ T* [(argument)-282(to)-282(conduct)-282(pr)-45(ior)-282(ar)-25(t)-282.1(sear)20(ches)-282(in)-282(or)20(der)-282.1(to)-282(r)20(educe)-282(r)20(ein-)]TJ T* [(v)40(ention)-332(costs)-332.1(also)-332(car)-40(r)-45(ies)-332.1(less)-332.1(w)40(eight)-332(in)-332(ne)20(w)40(e)0(r)-332.1(lines)-332(of)-332.1(r)20(esear)20(ch)]TJ T* [(and)-278(de)20(v)40(elopment.)]TJ 20.4588 -.6957 TD (\()Tj /F5 1 Tf .302 0 TD (Continued)Tj /F1 1 Tf 3.9806 0 TD (\))Tj ET 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 132.025 188.455 cm 0 0 m 0 513.869 l S 1 0 0 1 322.79 .199 cm 0 0 m 0 513.869 l S Q endstream endobj 34 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 35 0 obj > endobj 36 0 obj > endobj 37 0 obj > endobj 38 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (12)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 322.79 w q 1 0 0 1 282.829 191.26 cm 0 0 m 0 511.063 l S Q BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 157.3001 684.0917 Tm 0 Tc [(In)-195.8(actual)-195.8(practice)30(,)-195.8(the)-195.8(question)-195.8(of)-195.8(whether)-195.8(to)-195.8(conduct)-195.8(a)-195.8(p)0(r)-45(ior)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(ar)-25(t)-352.9(sear)20(ch)-352.8(and)-352.8(r)20(ead)-352.8(existing)-352.8(patent)-352.8(claims)-352.8(befor)20(e)-352.8(i)0(n)40(v)40(esting)-352.8(in)-352.9(a)]TJ T* [(cour)-20(se)-347.3(of)-347.3(action)-347.3(is)-347.3(r)20(eally)-347.3(not)-347.3(a)-347.3(b)15(lack-and-white)-347.3(issue)30(.)-347.3(Organi-)]TJ T* [(zations)-367.7(tak)30(e)-367.6(man)20(y)-367.6(actions)-367.7(that)-367.7(both)-367.6(raise)-367.6(and)-367.6(lo)40(w)40(e)0(r)-367.7(the)-367.6(actual)]TJ T* [(need)-314(for)-314(a)-314(p)0(r)-45(ior)-314(ar)-25(t)-314(sear)20(ch)-314(or)-314(at)-314(least)-314(change)-314(the)-314(arguments)-314(for)]TJ T* [(or)-396.8(against)-396.8(a)-396.8(p)0(r)-45(ior)-396.8(ar)-25(t)-396.8(sear)20(ch)-396.8(in)-396.8(each)-396.8(situation.)-396.8(In)-396.8(an)-396.8(en)40(vir)30(on-)]TJ T* [(ment)-248.7(wher)20(e)-248.7(competitor)-20(s)-248.7(acti)20(v)40(ely)-248.7(enfor)20(ce)-248.7(their)-248.7(patents,)-248.7(the)-248.7(need)]TJ T* [(for)-386.8(a)-386.8(p)0(r)-45(ior)-386.8(ar)-25(t)-386.8(sear)20(ch)-386.8(r)-45(ises,)-386.8(since)-386.8(it)-386.8(affor)20(ds)-386.8(the)-386.8(oppor)-25(tunity)-386.8(to)]TJ T* [(deal)-303.8(with)-303.8(a)-303.8(lik)30(ely)-303.8(thr)20(eat)-303.8(early)-303.8(and)-303.8(perhaps)-303.8(on)-303.8(better)-303.8(ter)-45(ms)-303.8(than)]TJ T* [(otherwise)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(In)-324(an)-324(en)40(vir)30(onment)-324(with)-324(extensi)20(v)40(e)-324(cr)30(oss-licensing)-324(or)-324(patent)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(pools,)-232.5(the)-232.5(need)-232.5(for)-232.5(pr)-45(ior)-232.5(ar)-25(t)-232.6(sear)20(ching)-232.5(can)-232.5(diminish;)-232.5(as)-232.6(organiza-)]TJ T* [(tions)-309.8(become)-309.8(mor)20(e)-309.8(closely)-309.8(integ)-30(rated)-309.8(technically)-309.8(and)-309.8(ther)20(efor)20(e)]TJ T* [(economically)120(,)-207.3(the)20(y)-207.2(will)-207.3(ha)30(v)40(e)-207.2(less)-207.2(incenti)20(v)40(e)-207.2(to)-207.2(sue)-207.2(each)-207.2(other)-207.2(e)20(v)40(en)]TJ T* [(when)-236(an)-236(infr)-45(ingement)-236(occur)-20(s.)-236(As)-236(a)-236(note)30(,)-236(this)-236(is)-236(a)-236(common)-236(pr)-45(in-)]TJ T* [(ciple)-393.9(in)-393.9(strategy)-393.9(that)-393.9(explains)-393.9(outside)-393.9(the)-393.9(patent)-393.9(eld,)-393.9(among)]TJ T* [(other)-470.3(things,)-470.3(wh)30(y)-470.3(the)-470.3(no)40(w)-470.3(integ)-30(rated)-470.3(economies)-470.3(of)-470.3(Eur)30(ope)]TJ T* [(mak)30(e)-404.1(the)-404.1(w)30(a)0(r)-20(s)-404.1(of)-404.1(the)-404.1(pr)20(e)20(vious)-404.1(centur)-45(ies,)-404.1(as)-404.1(a)-404.1(means)-404.1(to)-404.1(solv)40(e)]TJ T* [(g)-30(r)-45(ie)20(v)30(ances,)-319.8(highly)-319.8(impr)30(obab)15(le)30(.)-319.8(F)20(ollo)40(wing)-319.8(the)-319.8(same)-319.8(pr)-45(inciple)30(,)-319.8(a)]TJ T* [(patent)-371.4(infr)-45(ingement)-371.4(la)30(wsuit,)-371.4(which)-371.4(is)-371.4(patent)-371.4(strategy)100(s)-371.4(equi)20(v)30(a)0(-)]TJ T* [(lent)-241.4(to)-241.4(w)30(a)0(r)40(,)-241.4(becomes)-241.4(less)-241.4(lik)30(ely)-241.4(when)-241.4(tw)40(o)-241.4(o)0(r)-241.4(mor)20(e)-241.4(organizations)]TJ T* [(ha)30(v)40(e)-391.1(a)-391.1(lot)-391.1(to)-391.1(lose)-391.1(fr)30(om)-391.1(an)20(y)-391.1(ill)-391.1(will)-391.1(that)-391.1(such)-391.1(an)-391.1(infr)-45(ingement)]TJ T* [(la)30(wsuit)-299.2(could)-299.2(cause)30(.)-299.2(H)0(o)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-299.2(e)20(v)40(en)-299.2(in)-299.2(the)-299.2(case)-299.2(of)-299.2(patent)-299.2(pools,)]TJ T* [(and)-255.1(sometimes)-255.1(because)-255.1(of)-255.1(them,)-255.1(since)-255.1(the)20(y)-255.1(affor)20(d)-255.1(the)-255.1(possibility)]TJ T* [(to)-218(sue)-218.1(m)15(ultiple)-218.1(organizations)-218.1(for)-218.1(the)-218.1(same)-218(offense)30(,)-218.1(ther)20(e)-218(i)0(s)-218(a)0(l)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)]TJ T* [(the)-265.7(outlier)-265.7(issue)-265.7(that)-265.7(can)-265.7(pr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-265.7(highly)-265.7(pr)30(ob)15(lematic)-265.7(if)-265.7(missed)-265.7(in)-265.7(a)]TJ T* [(pr)-45(ior)-278(ar)-25(t)-278(sear)20(ch.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(So)-400.3(in)-400.3(the)-400.3(end,)-400.3(the)-400.3(decisions)-400.3(about)-400.3(whether)-400.3(to)-400.3(conduct)-400.3(a)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(pr)-45(ior)-326.4(ar)-25(t)-326.4(sear)20(ch)-326.4(and)-326.4(who)50(,)-326.5(i)0(f)-326.5(a)0(n)20(y)40(one)30(,)-326.5(should)-326.4(r)20(ead)-326.4(patent)-326.5(claims,)]TJ T* [(r)20(eally)-240.9(do)-240.9(not)-240.9(lend)-240.9(themselv)40(es)-240.9(to)-240.9(a)-240.9(policy)120(.)-240.9(I)0(t)-240.9(i)0(s)-240.9(a)-240.9(judgment)-240.9(call)-240.9(for)]TJ T* [(the)-227.7(situation.)-227.7(The)-227.7(author)-227.7(does)-227.7(maintain,)-227.7(ho)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-227.7(that)-227.7(g)-30(i)20(v)40(e)0(n)-227.7(the)]TJ T* [(o)40(v)40(erall)-321.6(strateg)-30(ic)-321.6(adv)30(antage)-321.6(of)-321.6(kno)40(wing)-321.6(what)-321.6(is)-321.6(out)-321.6(ther)20(e)-321.6(v)40(er)-20(sus)]TJ T* [(not)-262.1(kno)40(wing,)-262.1(that)-262.1(an)20(y)-262.1(decision)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 12.4926 0 TD (not)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.3871 0 TD [(to)-262.1(conduct)-262.1(a)-262.1(p)0(r)-45(ior)-262.1(ar)-25(t)-262.1(sear)20(ch)]TJ -13.8797 -1.2174 TD [(in)-186.2(an)20(y)-186.2(g)-30(i)20(v)40(en)-186.2(cir)20(cumstance)-186.2(should)-186.2(be)-186.2(accompanied)-186.2(b)25(y)-186.2(a)-186.2(v)40(er)-30(y)-186.2(good)]TJ T* [(r)20(eason)-278(for)-278(not)-278(doing)-278(so)50(.)]TJ ET 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 121.684 191.26 cm 0 0 m 0 511.063 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 511.063 l S Q endstream endobj 39 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 40 0 obj > endobj 41 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(13)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 694.6357 Tm [(Ev)40(en)-490.7(if)-490.7(y)40(o)0(u)-490.7(can)-490.7(r)20(educe)-490.7(ignorance)-490.7(concer)-40(ning)-490.7(a)-490.7(decision,)-490.7(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(r)20(emains)-223(a)-223(f)-25(actor)-223(in)-223(strategy)120(.)-223(E)0(r)-40(r)30(or)-223(happens)-223(when)-223(an)-223(organization)-223(or)-223(indi-)]TJ T* [(vidual)-367(tak)30(es)-367(an)-367(inappr)30(opr)-45(iate)-367(action)-367(or)-367(ex)40(ecutes)-367(an)-367(appr)30(opr)-45(iate)-367(action)]TJ T* [(poorly)120(.)-247.9(I)0(t)-247.9(i)0(s)-247.9(the)-247.9(second)-247.9(of)-247.9(Mer)-25(ton)100(s)-247.9(r)20(easons)-247.9(for)-247.9(unexpected)-247.9(r)20(esults.)-247.9(Er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)]TJ T* [(can)-239(occur)-239(as)-239(a)-239(dir)20(ect)-239(r)20(esult)-239(of)-239(ignorance)-239(or)-239(misapplication)-239(of)-239(skills.)-239(It)-239(can)]TJ T* [(also)-353(occur)-353(when)-353(per)-20(sonal)-353(and)-353(emotional)-353(elements)-353(of)-353(decision)-353(making)]TJ T* [(tak)30(e)-260.4(p)0(r)20(ecedence)-260.4(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-260.4(l)0(o)20(g)-30(ic)-260.4(and)-260.4(common)-260.4(sense)30(.)-260.4(The)-260.4(demise)-260.4(of)-260.5(the)-260.4(or)-45(ig-)]TJ T* [(inal)-352.3(F)20(o)0(r)20(d)-352.3(T)110(aur)-25(us)-352.3(model,)-352.3(which)-352.3(had)-352.3(been)-352.3(the)-352.3(best-selling)-352.3(sedan)-352.3(in)-352.3(the)]TJ T* [(United)-278(States,)-278(pr)30(o)40(vides)-278(an)-278(example)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Consumer)-20(s,)-257.5(the)-257.5(ultimate)-257.5(decider)-20(s)-257.5(o)0(f)-257.5(the)-257.5(success)-257.5(of)-257.5(a)-257.5(p)0(r)30(oduct)-257.5(or)-257.5(ser-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(vice)30(,)-240.5(lik)30(ed)-240.5(the)-240.5(early)-240.5(T)110(aur)-25(us)-240.5(designs)-240.5(because)-240.5(the)20(y)-240.5(offer)20(ed)-240.5(a)-240.5(contemporar)-30(y)]TJ T* [(look)-194.7(on)-194.7(a)-194.7(r)20(eliab)15(le)-194.7(and)-194.7(affor)20(dab)15(le)-194.7(platfor)-45(m.)-194.7(F)20(o)0(r)20(d)0(,)-194.7(i)0(n)-194.7(a)0(n)-194.7(attempt)-194.7(to)-194.7(k)30(eep)-194.7(the)]TJ T* [(T)110(aur)-25(us)-208.4(on)-208.4(the)-208.4(cutting)-208.4(edge)-208.4(of)-208.4(designits)-208.4(competitor)-20(s)-208.4(had)-208.4(imitated)-208.4(or)-45(ig-)]TJ T* [(inal)-263.2(elements)-263.2(of)-263.2(style)-263.2(that)-263.2(had)-263.2(made)-263.2(the)-263.2(T)110(aur)-25(us)-263.2(populardecided)-263.2(to)-263.2(do)]TJ T* [(a)-214.4(complete)-214.4(r)20(edesign)-214.4(of)-214.4(the)-214.4(car)100(s)-214.4(inter)-45(ior)-214.4(and)-214.4(exter)-45(ior)40(.)-214.4(Their)-214.4(implementa-)]TJ T* [(tion)-212(of)-212(that)-212(decision)-212(ultimately)-212(cr)20(eated)-212(a)-212(car)-212(consumer)-20(s)-212(did)-212(not)-212(lik)30(ethe)]TJ T* [(thir)20(d-generation)-333.4(T)110(aur)-25(us,)-333.4(model)-333.4(y)40(ear)-20(s)-333.4(1996)-333.4(thr)-25(u)-333.4(1999.)-333.4(F)20(o)0(r)20(d)-333.4(ex)40(ecuti)20(v)40(e)0(s)]TJ T* [(accepted)-333(a)-333(design)-333(that)-333(consumer)-20(s)-333(did)-333(not)-333(accept.)-333(The)-333(ex)40(ecuti)20(v)40(es)-333(pr)20(e-)]TJ T* [(dicted)-226.5(r)20(esult)-226.5(did)-226.5(not)-226.5(match)-226.5(the)-226.5(actual)-226.5(r)20(esult)-226.5(pr)30(oduced)-226.5(b)25(y)-226.5(consumer)-20(s,)-226.5(and)]TJ T* [(that)-278(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)-278(essentially)-278(killed)-278(the)-278(pr)30(oduct)-278(line)-278(for)-278(the)-278(follo)40(wing)-278(decade)30(.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 442.7968 433.7883 Tm (8)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 415.6817 Tm [(Similarly)120(,)-280.1(the)-280.1(effor)-25(t)-280.1(tak)30(en)-280.1(to)-280.1(pur)-20(sue)-280.1(an)-280.1(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)-280.1(i)0(n)-280.1(patent)-280.1(strategyfor)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(example)30(,)-210.8(t)0(o)-210.8(i)0(n)40(v)40(ent)-210.8(and)-210.8(patent)-210.8(ar)30(ound)-210.8(the)-210.8(wr)30(ong)-210.8(technical)-210.8(standar)20(dcan)]TJ T* [(lea)30(v)40(e)-342.2(y)40(o)0(u)-342.2(w)40(or)-20(se)-342.2(off)-342.2(than)-342.2(if)-342.2(y)40(o)0(u)-342.2(had)-342.2(done)-342.2(nothing.)-342.2(Ho)40(w)-342.2(does)-342.2(such)-342.2(an)]TJ T* [(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)-336.5(occur?)-336.5(Decision)-336.5(mak)30(er)-20(s)-336.5(m)0(a)30(y)-336.5(not)-336.5(kno)40(w)-336.5(which)-336.5(standar)20(d)-336.5(will)-336.5(suc-)]TJ T* [(ceed,)-300.4(either)-300.4(because)-300.4(the)-300.4(mark)30(et)-300.5(has)-300.4(tr)-25(uly)-300.4(not)-300.4(dened)-300.4(the)-300.4(standar)20(d)-300.4(\(this)]TJ T* [(being)-400.1(a)-400.1(d)0(e)-400.1(f)-25(acto)-400.1(standar)20(d)-400.1(such)-400.1(as)-400.1(Adobe)-400.1(PDF\),)-400.1(or)-400.1(the)-400.1(cour)-25(t)-400.2(has)-400.2(not)]TJ T* [(dened)-268.4(the)-268.4(standar)20(d)-268.4(\(this)-268.4(being)-268.4(a)-268.4(d)0(e)-268.4(jur)20(e)-268.4(standar)20(d,)-268.4(such)-268.4(as)-268.4(W)15(i-Fi)-268.4(de)20(v)40(el-)]TJ T* [(oped)-397.9(b)25(y)-397.9(IEEE\).)-397.9(In)-397.9(this)-397.9(case)30(,)-397.9(the)20(y)-397.9(tak)30(e)-397.9(a)-397.9(gamb)15(le)30(,)-397.9(and)-397.9(sometimes)-397.9(that)]TJ T* [(gamb)15(le)-390.3(is)-390.3(necessar)-30(y)120(.)-390.3(In)-390.3(f)-25(act,)-390.3(when)-390.3(a)-390.3(str)30(ong)-390.3(enough)-390.3(pla)30(y)40(e)0(r)-390.3(does)-390.3(mak)30(e)]TJ T* [(a)-415.3(commitment,)-415.3(it)-415.3(can)-415.3(inuence)-415.3(the)-415.3(deciding)-415.3(par)-25(ties)-415.3(of)-415.3(the)-415.3(standar)20(d,)]TJ T* [(whether)-258.5(the)20(y)-258.5(a)0(r)20(e)-258.5(the)-258.5(mark)30(et)-258.5(or)-258.5(a)-258.5(g)0(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(ning)-258.5(body)120(.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 355.4262 280.3635 Tm (9)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 362.8157 276.2046 Tm [(Consider)-258.5(the)-258.5(uncer-)]TJ -20.1658 -1.2174 TD [(tainty)-344.9(that)-344.9(occur)-40(r)20(e)0(d)-344.9(betw)40(een)-344.9(the)-344.9(HD-D)75(VD)-344.8(and)-344.9(Blu-Ra)30(y)-344.9(standar)20(ds)-344.9(of)]TJ T* [(high-denition)-263.4(tele)20(vision)-263.4(displa)30(y)-263.4(a)0(s)-263.4(a)0(n)-263.4(example)-263.4(of)-263.4(a)-263.4(mark)30(et-dened)-263.4(\(de)]TJ T* [(f)-25(acto\))-267.3(standar)20(d.)-267.3(It)-267.3(w)30(a)0(s)-267.3(difcult)-267.3(to)-267.3(kno)40(w)-267.3(which)-267.3(standar)20(d)-267.3(w)40(ould)-267.3(win,)-267.3(and)]TJ T* [(ther)20(efor)20(e)-347(difcult)-347(to)-347(deter)-45(mine)-347(which)-347(w)30(a)30(y)-347(to)-347(use)-347(limited)-347(r)20(esour)20(ces)-347(in)]TJ T* [(r)20(esear)20(ch)-210(and)-210(de)20(v)40(elopment.)-210(This)-210(w)30(a)0(s)-210(a)-210(classic)-210(hor)-40(ns)-210(of)-210(a)-210(dilemma)-210(pr)30(ob-)]TJ T* [(lem)-260.2(in)-260.2(that)-260.2(splitting)-260.2(r)20(esour)20(ces)-260.2(to)-260.2(focus)-260.2(on)-260.2(both)-260.2(could)-260.2(lead)-260.2(to)-260.2(inadequate)]TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 43 0 obj > endobj 44 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (14)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(r)20(esour)20(ces)-290.3(being)-290.3(used)-290.3(to)-290.3(suppor)-25(t)-290.3(either)40(.)-290.3(Less)-290.3(forg)-30(i)20(v)30(ab)15(le)30(,)-290.3(h)0(o)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-290.3(w)40(ould)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(be)-214.1(to)-214.1(gamb)15(le)-214.1(unnecessar)-45(ily)-214.1(when)-214.1(a)30(v)30(ailab)15(le)-214.1(b)15(u)0(t)-214.1(not)-214.1(studied)-214.1(or)-214.1(appr)20(eciated)]TJ T* [(tr)20(ends)-219.2(do)-219.2(f)-25(a)30(v)40(o)0(r)-219.2(one)-219.2(standar)20(d)-219.2(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-219.2(the)-219.2(other)40(,)-219.2(o)0(r)-219.2(w)40(or)-20(se)30(,)-219.2(simply)-219.2(because)-219.2(the)]TJ T* [(compan)20(y)-223.9(has)-223.9(a)-223.9(g)-30(r)20(eater)-223.9(stak)30(e)-223.9(i)0(n)-223.9(the)-223.9(chosen)-223.9(standar)20(d)-223.9(than)-223.9(consumer)-20(s)-223.9(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Thir)20(d)-408.2(o)0(n)-408.2(Mer)-25(ton)100(s)-408.2(list,)-408.2(immediacy)-408.2(bias,)-408.2(b)15(uilds)-408.2(on)-408.2(the)-408.2(pr)30(opensity)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(for)-229.4(people)-229.4(to)-229.4(er)-40(r)-229.4(based)-229.4(on)-229.4(emotional)-229.4(decision)-229.4(making.)-229.4(Compan)20(y)-229.4(leader)-20(s)]TJ T* [(who)-209.9(ha)30(v)40(e)-209.9(a)-209.9(lot)-209.9(in)40(v)40(ested)-209.9(in)-209.9(a)-209.9(cour)-20(se)-209.9(of)-209.9(action)-209.9(ma)30(y)-209.9(desir)20(e)-209.9(t)0(o)-209.9(see)-209.9(that)-209.9(cour)-20(se)]TJ T* [(of)-266(action)-266(thr)30(ough,)-266(e)20(v)40(en)-266(though)-266(the)-266(f)-25(acts)-266(clearly)-266(indicate)-266(that)-266(their)-266(or)-45(ig-)]TJ T* [(inal)-297(desir)20(ed)-297(r)20(esult)-297(is)-297(not)-297(attainab)15(le)-297(or)-297(no)-297(longer)-297(desirab)15(le)30(.)-297(The)-297(emotion)]TJ T* [(of)-250.2(desir)-45(ing)-250.2(to)-250.2(complete)-250.2(the)-250.2(task)-250.2(can)-250.2(easily)-250.2(o)40(v)40(erwhelm)-250.2(the)-250.2(lo)20(g)-30(i)0(c)-250.2(o)0(f)-250.2(aban-)]TJ T* [(doning)-295.4(it.)-295.4(United)-295.4(T)150(echnolo)20(g)-30(ies)-295.4(contin)15(ued,)-295.4(with)-295.4(the)-295.4(encouragement)-295.4(of)]TJ T* [(the)-329.9(P)50(entagon,)-329.9(to)-329.9(r)20(esear)20(ch)-329.9(and)-329.9(de)20(v)40(elop)-329.9(a)-329.9(n)0(e)20(w)-329.9(Cr)-25(usader)-329.9(mobile)-329.9(track)30(ed)]TJ T* [(ar)-25(tiller)-30(y)-298.9(w)40(eapon)-298.9(system)-298.9(w)40(ell)-298.9(into)-298.9(2002.)-298.9(This)-298.9(lumber)-45(ing)-298.9(hea)30(vy-w)40(eapon)]TJ T* [(system)-170.8(w)30(a)0(s)-170.8(designed)-170.8(to)-170.8(addr)20(ess)-170.8(a)-170.8(S)0(o)40(viet)-170.8(land)-170.8(thr)20(eat)-170.8(that)-170.8(had)-170.8(ended)-170.8(10)-170.8(y)40(ear)-20(s)]TJ T* [(earlier)40(.)-343.8(T)150(o)-343.8(its)-343.8(cr)20(edit,)-343.8(United)-343.8(T)150(echnolo)20(g)-30(ies)-343.8(cr)20(eated)-343.8(a)-343.8(n)0(e)20(w)-343.8(and)-343.8(desirab)15(le)]TJ T* [(r)20(esult)-296(B)-296(that)-296(used)-296(intellectual)-296(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-296(cr)20(eated)-296(fr)30(om)-296(Cr)-25(usader)-296(system)]TJ T* [(r)20(esear)20(ch)-312.9(and)-312.9(de)20(v)40(elopment)-312.9(when)-312.9(it)-312.9(designed)-312.9(a)-312.9(lighter)-312.9(and)-312.9(mor)20(e)-312.9(mobile)]TJ T* [(ar)-25(tiller)-30(y)-194.5(unit)-194.5(suitab)15(le)-194.5(for)-194.5(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-194.5(conditions.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 315.6465 461.6837 Tm (10)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 326.2325 457.5248 Tm [(P)50(e)0(r)-20(sonal)-194.5(attachment)-194.5(to)-194.5(the)]TJ -17.8753 -1.2174 TD [(or)-45(ig)-30(inal)-223.4(goal,)-223.4(both)-223.4(within)-223.4(the)-223.4(pr)30(oduct)-223.4(mak)30(er)-223.4(and)-223.4(the)-223.4(pr)30(oduct)-223.4(consumer)40(,)]TJ T* [(appear)20(ed)-234.9(to)-234.9(be)-234.9(a)-234.9(major)-234.9(r)20(eason)-234.9(behind)-234.9(dela)30(ying)-234.9(a)-234.9(n)0(e)20(w)-234.9(cour)-20(se)-234.9(that)-234.9(United)]TJ T* [(T)150(echnolo)20(g)-30(ies)-278(could)-278(ha)30(v)40(e)-278(tak)30(en)-278(m)15(uch)-278(earlier)40(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Basic)-488.7(v)30(alues)-488.7(inher)20(ent)-488.7(in)-488.7(people)-488.7(and)-488.7(organizations,)-488.7(n)15(umber)-488.7(four)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(on)-386.7(Mer)-25(ton)100(s)-386.7(list,)-386.7(can)-386.7(also)-386.7(cause)-386.7(unpr)20(edicted)-386.7(r)20(esults.)-386.7(In)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 22.5041 0 TD [(The)-386.7(Innov)40(ator)125(s)]TJ -22.5041 -1.2174 TD (Dilemma)Tj /F1 1 Tf 3.333 0 TD [(,)-252.6(Cla)30(yton)-252.5(Chr)-45(istensen)-252.5(descr)-45(ibes)-252.6(a)-252.6(scenar)-45(io)-252.5(in)-252.6(which)-252.5(IBM)-252.5(ex)40(ec-)]TJ -3.333 -1.2174 TD [(uti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-302.3(bet)-302.3(on)-302.3(the)-302.3(contin)15(ued)-302.3(dominance)-302.3(of)-302.3(mainframe)-302.3(computer)-20(s)-302.3(while)]TJ T* [(IBM)100(s)-383.7(competitor)-20(s)-383.7(d)0(e)20(v)40(eloped)-383.7(disr)-25(upti)20(v)40(e)-383.7(smaller)-383.7(computer)-20(s.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 395.882 350.1021 Tm (11)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 408.6363 345.9431 Tm (Related)Tj -25.0677 -1.2174 TD [(to)-374.5(IBM)100(s)-374.5(choice)-374.5(to)-374.5(bet)-374.5(on)-374.5(mainframes,)-374.5(in)-374.5(the)-374.5(early)-374.5(1990s,)-374.5(R)100(OLM,)-374.5(a)]TJ T* [(telecomm)15(unications)-365.7(subsidiar)-30(y)-365.7(o)0(f)-365.7(IBM,)-365.7(focused)-365.7(only)-365.7(on)-365.7(linking)-365.7(PBX)]TJ T* [(telephone)-330.9(systems)-330.9(to)-330.9(mainframe)-330.9(computer)-20(s,)-330.9(the)-330.9(IBM)-330.8(cor)20(e)-330.9(p)0(r)30(oduct,)-330.9(to)]TJ T* [(cr)20(eate)-220.8(seamless)-220.8(call)-220.8(center)-220.8(systems.)-220.8(At)-220.8(the)-220.8(same)-220.8(time)30(,)-220.8(competitor)-20(s)-220.8(A)75(T&T)]TJ T* [(and)-234.5(Nor)-25(ther)-40(n)-234.5(T)150(elecom)-234.5(focused)-234.5(on)-234.5(linking)-234.5(their)-234.5(phone)-234.5(systems)-234.5(to)-234.5(LANs)]TJ T* [(composed)-203(of)-203(per)-20(sonal)-203(computer)-20(s,)-203(a)-203(disr)-25(upti)20(v)40(e)-203(technolo)20(gy)-203(fr)30(om)-203(the)-203(point)]TJ T* [(of)-259.9(vie)20(w)-259.9(o)0(f)-259.9(IBM)100(s)-259.9(mainframe)-259.9(b)15(usiness.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 290.0547 252.4681 Tm (12)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 301.3906 248.3092 Tm [(As)-259.9(a)-259.9(r)20(esult,)-259.9(intellectual)-259.9(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)]TJ -15.707 -1.2174 TD [(de)20(v)40(eloped)-374.9(at)-374.9(A)75(T&T)-374.8(and)-374.9(Nor)-25(ther)-40(n)-374.9(T)150(elecom)-374.9(pr)30(o)40(v)40(e)0(d)-374.9(m)15(uch)-374.9(mor)20(e)-374.9(r)20(ele-)]TJ T* [(v)30(ant)-362.1(for)-362.1(futur)20(e)-362.1(ofce)-362.1(en)40(vir)30(onments)-362.1(dominated)-362.1(b)25(y)-362.1(per)-20(sonal)-362.1(computer)-20(s)]TJ T* [(than)-329.9(that)-329.9(or)-45(ig)-30(inally)-329.9(de)20(v)40(eloped)-329.9(b)25(y)-329.9(IBM.)-329.9(Fur)-25(ther)-45(mor)20(e)30(,)-329.9(while)-329.9(the)-329.9(intent)]TJ T* [(of)-320(linking)-320(R)100(OLM)-320(PBX)-320(telephon)20(y)-320(equipment)-320(to)-320(IBM)-320(mainframes)-320(w)30(a)0(s)]TJ T* [(to)-278(g)-30(r)30(o)40(w)-278(R)100(OLM)100(s)-278(mark)30(et)-278(shar)20(e)30(,)-278(its)-278(mark)30(et)-278(shar)20(e)-278(declined)-278(instead.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj > endobj 46 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(15)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 694.6357 Tm [(The)-376.4(consequences)-376.4(of)-376.4(pr)20(edicting)-376.4(r)20(esults,)-376.4(the)-376.4(last)-376.4(r)20(eason)-376.4(co)40(v)40(e)0(r)20(e)0(d)-376.4(i)0(n)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(this)-347.4(discussion,)-347.4(can)-347.4(also)-347.4(cause)-347.4(unpr)20(edicted)-347.4(r)20(esults,)-347.4(since)-347.4(the)-347.4(pr)20(ediction)]TJ T* [(itself)-30(,)-398.7(whether)-398.7(spok)30(en)-398.7(or)-398.7(sho)40(wn)-398.7(b)25(y)-398.7(the)-398.7(actions)-398.7(of)-398.7(the)-398.7(pr)20(edictor)40(,)-398.7(will)]TJ T* [(bias)-330.2(other)-330.2(people)100(s)-330.2(actions.)-330.2(Y)160(our)-330.2(pr)20(ediction)-330.2(of)-330.2(the)-330.2(futur)20(e)-330.2(itself)-330.2(changes)]TJ T* [(ho)40(w)-284.9(people)-284.9(r)20(eact)-284.9(to)-284.9(a)-284.9(situation)-284.9(and)-284.9(ther)20(efor)20(e)-284.9(can)-284.9(change)-284.9(the)-284.9(r)20(esult)-284.9(that)]TJ T* [(might)-299.9(otherwise)-299.9(ha)30(v)40(e)-299.9(occur)-40(r)20(ed.)-299.9(T)150(o)-299.9(illustrate)30(,)-299.9(the)-299.9(pr)20(ediction)-299.9(that)-299.9(open-)]TJ T* [(sour)20(ce)-256.9(computer)-256.9(operating)-256.9(systems)-256.9(will)-256.9(e)20(v)40(entually)-256.9(dominate)-256.9(the)-256.9(mark)30(et)]TJ T* [(will)-425.7(dr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)-425.7(a)-425.7(body)-425.7(of)-425.7(people)-425.7(to)-425.7(focus)-425.7(their)-425.7(attention)-425.7(on)-425.7(open)-425.7(sour)20(ce)]TJ T* [(computer)-338(operating)-338(systems,)-338(thus)-338(making)-338(that)-338(pr)20(ediction)-338(tr)-25(uea)-338(self-)]TJ T* [(fullling)-301.4(pr)30(ophesy)120(,)-301.4(i)0(f)-301.4(y)40(ou)-301.4(will.)-301.4(On)-301.4(the)-301.4(other)-301.4(hand,)-301.4(the)-301.4(same)-301.4(pr)20(ediction)]TJ T* [(could)-308.4(r)20(edoub)15(le)-308.4(effor)-25(ts)-308.4(of)-308.4(companies)-308.4(such)-308.4(as)-308.4(Micr)30(osoft)-308.4(that)-308.4(ha)30(v)40(e)-308.4(a)-308.4(high)]TJ T* [(stak)30(e)-173.4(i)0(n)-173.4(p)0(r)30(opr)-45(ietar)-30(y)-173.4(softw)30(ar)20(e)-173.4(t)0(o)-173.4(alter)-173.4(the)-173.4(situation)-173.4(and)-173.4(mak)30(e)-173.4(the)-173.5(pr)20(ediction)]TJ T* [(wr)30(ong.)-347.3(In)-347.3(an)20(y)-347.3(case)30(,)-347.3(the)-347.3(pr)20(ediction)-347.3(itself)-347.3(changes)-347.3(the)-347.3(en)40(vir)30(onment)-347.3(and)]TJ T* [(ther)20(efor)20(e)-233.4(the)-233.4(viability)-233.4(of)-233.4(the)-233.4(pr)20(ediction.)-233.4(In)-233.4(the)-233.4(absence)-233.4(of)-233.4(an)-233.4(appr)30(opr)-45(iate)]TJ T* [(strategy)120(,)-366.5(people)-366.5(with)-366.5(enough)-366.5(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)-366.5(could)-366.5(literally)-366.5(mak)30(e)-366.5(y)40(our)-366.6(pr)20(edic-)]TJ T* [(tions)-317.7(wr)30(ong)-317.7(no)-317.7(matter)-317.7(what)-317.7(y)40(o)0(u)-317.7(d)0(o)50(.)-317.7(All)-317.7(the)20(y)-317.7(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-317.7(t)0(o)-317.7(d)0(o)-317.7(i)0(s)-317.7(change)-317.7(the)]TJ T* (situation.)Tj 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(The)-306.9(cr)20(eation)-306.9(of)-306.9(patents)-306.9(is)-306.9(a)-306.9(pur)-40(posi)20(v)40(e)-306.9(consequence)-306.9(of)-306.9(r)20(esear)20(ch)-306.9(and)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(de)20(v)40(elopment)-349(initiati)20(v)40(es,)-349(an)-349(insightful)-349(legal)-349(depar)-25(tment,)-349(and)-349(suppor)-25(ti)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(management.)-265(It)-265(is)-265(a)-265(p)0(r)20(ediction)-265(or)-265(a)-265(gamb)15(le)-265(b)25(y)-265(those)-265(who)-265(led)-265(for)-265(those)]TJ T* [(patents)-332.5(that)-332.5(the)20(y)-332.5(will)-332.5(ha)30(v)40(e)-332.5(v)30(alue)-332.5(when)-332.5(and)-332.5(if)-332.5(the)20(y)-332.5(a)0(r)20(e)-332.5(issued.)-332.5(The)-332.5(r)20(el-)]TJ T* [(e)20(v)30(ance)-332.7(of)-332.7(those)-332.7(patents)-332.7(for)-332.7(the)-332.7(futur)20(e)-332.7(will)-332.7(generally)-332.7(cor)-40(r)20(elate)-332.7(with)-332.7(the)]TJ T* [(compan)20(y)100(s)-385.3(strategy)-385.3(as)-385.3(a)-385.3(whole)30(,)-385.3(although)-385.3(the)-385.3(one)-385.3(does)-385.3(not)-385.3(necessar)-45(ily)]TJ T* [(pr)20(ecede)-221.7(the)-221.7(other)40(.)-221.7(Rather)-221.7(the)20(y)-221.7(emerge)-221.7(to)20(gether)-221.7(fr)30(om)-221.7(all)-221.7(aspects)-221.7(of)-221.7(inno-)]TJ T* [(v)30(ation,)-286.6(adv)30(ancement,)-286.6(and)-286.6(secur)-45(ity)-286.6(effor)-25(ts.)-286.6(Not)-286.6(all)-286.6(patentab)15(le)-286.6(in)40(v)40(entions)]TJ T* [(de)20(v)40(elop)-412.4(fr)30(om)-412.4(the)-412.4(pr)20(edicted)-412.4(outcomes)-412.4(and)-412.4(intended)-412.4(plans)-412.4(of)-412.4(r)20(esear)20(ch)]TJ T* [(and)-313.7(de)20(v)40(elopment)-313.7(initiati)20(v)40(es,)-313.7(which)-313.7(themselv)40(es)-313.7(ha)30(v)40(e)-313.7(a)-313.7(slopp)30(y)-313.7(back)-313.7(end.)]TJ T* [(Y)160(o)0(u)-360.2(cannot)-360.2(al)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-360.2(kno)40(w)-360.2(for)-360.2(cer)-25(tain)-360.2(what)-360.2(will)-360.2(come)-360.2(out)-360.2(of)-360.2(an)-360.2(effor)-25(t.)]TJ T* [(An)-388(unpr)20(edicted)-388(b)15(u)0(t)-388(useful)-388(in)40(v)40(ention)-388(could)-388(substantially)-388(inuence)-388(the)]TJ T* [(for)-25(tunes)-319.7(of)-319.7(a)-319.7(compan)20(y)-319.7(i)0(f)-319.7(its)-319.7(leader)-20(s)-319.7(a)0(r)20(e)-319.7(adept)-319.7(enough)-319.7(to)-319.7(r)20(eco)20(gnize)-319.7(and)]TJ T* [(le)20(v)40(erage)-180.7(the)-180.7(oppor)-25(tunity)120(.)-180.7(Thus,)-180.7(successful)-180.7(pur)-40(posi)20(v)40(e)-180.7(action)-180.7(often)-180.7(r)20(equir)20(es)]TJ T* [(exibility)-278(to)-278(get)-278(the)-278(best)-278(out)-278(of)-278(what)-278(actually)-278(happens.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(So)50(,)-324.8(bottom)-324.7(line:)-324.8(Strategy)-324.7(is)-324.8(a)-324.8(solution)-324.7(for)-324.7(ho)40(w)-324.7(t)0(o)-324.7(get)-324.8(fr)30(om)-324.7(A)-324.7(to)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(B)40(,)125()-192.1(b)15(u)0(t)-192.1(i)0(t)-192.1(i)0(s)-192.1(a)-192.1(special)-192.1(type)-192.1(of)-192.1(solution)-192.1(because)-192.1(it)-192.1(addr)20(esses)-192.1(acti)20(v)40(e)-192.1(and)-192.1(often)]TJ T* [(intelligent)-198.4(opposition)-198.4(fr)30(om)-198.4(outside)-198.4(sour)20(ces)-198.4(as)-198.4(w)40(ell)-198.4(as)-198.4(fr)30(om)-198.4(within.)-198.4(Unlik)30(e)]TJ T* [(a)-330.7(technical)-330.7(or)-330.7(mathematical)-330.7(solution,)-330.7(y)40(o)0(u)-330.7(cannot)-330.7(r)20(emo)40(v)40(e)-330.7(uncer)-25(tainties)]TJ T* [(cr)20(eated)-174.5(b)25(y)-174.5(that)-174.5(intelligent)-174.5(opposition)-174.5(or)-174.5(expect)-174.5(that)-174.5(if)-174.5(y)40(o)0(u)-174.5(nd)-174.5(a)-174.5(successful)]TJ T* [(solution)-354.4(to)-354.4(a)-354.4(p)0(r)30(o)0(b)15(lem)-354.4(y)40(our)-354.4(opposition)-354.4(will)-354.4(not)-354.4(change)-354.4(the)-354.4(conditions)]TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj > endobj 48 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (16)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(and)-237.9(cr)20(eate)-237.9(ne)20(w)-237.9(p)0(r)30(o)0(b)15(lems)-237.9(for)-237.9(y)40(o)0(u)-237.9(t)0(o)-237.9(addr)20(ess.)-237.9(Strateg)-30(ic)-237.9(decision)-237.9(making)-237.9(is)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(pr)30(one)-288.1(to)-288.1(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)-288.1(because)-288.1(of)-288.1(what)-288.1(y)40(o)0(u)-288.1(d)0(o)-288.1(not)-288.1(kno)40(w)120(,)-288.1(cannot)-288.1(kno)40(w)120(,)-288.1(or)-288.1(will)]TJ T* [(not)-312(accept.)-312(A)-312(good)-312(strategy)-312(m)15(ust)-312(ther)20(efor)20(e)-312(b)0(e)-312(bor)-40(n)-312(out)-312(of)-312(a)-312(pragmatic)]TJ T* [(and)-263.7(lo)20(g)-30(ical)-263.7(r)20(e)20(vie)20(w)-263.7(o)0(f)-263.7(the)-263.7(situation)-263.7(and)-263.7(m)15(ust)-263.7(affor)20(d)-263.7(those)-263.7(who)-263.7(ex)40(ecute)-263.7(it)]TJ T* [(the)-245.9(exibility)-245.9(to)-245.9(handle)-245.9(chang)-30(ing)-245.9(conditions,)-245.9(some)-245.9(of)-245.9(that)-245.9(change)-245.9(being)]TJ T* [(cr)20(eated)-278(b)25(y)-278(the)-278(v)40(e)0(r)-30(y)-278(act)-278(of)-278(ex)40(ecuting)-278(the)-278(strategy)-278(itself)-30(.)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 314.4 w q 1 0 0 1 121.435 449.75 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 121.435 606.9 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 588.2205 Tm [(Rolls)-333(of)-333(the)-333(Dice)]TJ /F1 1 Tf T* [(Another)-440.8(common)-440.8(r)20(eason)-440.8(that)-440.8(people)-440.8(exper)-45(ience)-440.8(unexpected)]TJ T* [(r)20(esults)-284.4(in)-284.4(appar)20(ently)-284.4(f)-25(a)30(v)40(orab)15(le)-284.4(cir)20(cumstances)-284.4(is)-284.4(the)-284.4(consequence)]TJ T* [(of)-322.6(str)-45(ing)-30(ing)-322.6(to)20(gether)-322.6(too)-322.6(man)20(y)-322.6(dependent)-322.6(objecti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-322.6(along)-322.6(the)]TJ T* [(w)30(a)30(y)-324.5(to)-324.5(a)-324.5(goal.)-324.5(F)20(o)0(r)-324.5(example)30(,)-324.5(i)0(f)-324.5(for)-324.5(v)40(e)-324.5(k)30(e)20(y)-324.5(objecti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-324.5(necessar)-30(y)]TJ T* [(to)-370.4(r)20(each)-370.4(a)-370.4(goal)-370.4(y)40(o)0(u)-370.4(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-370.4(a)-370.4(90%)-370.4(pr)30(obability)-370.4(that)-370.4(y)40(o)0(u)-370.4(will)-370.4(suc-)]TJ T* [(ceed)-358.4(with)-358.4(an)20(y)-358.4(g)-30(i)20(v)40(en)-358.4(one)30(,)-358.4(then)-358.4(when)-358.4(taking)-358.4(into)-358.4(account)-358.4(that)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-258.8(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-258.8(a)-258.8(10%)-258.8(chance)-258.8(of)-258.8(f)-25(ailur)20(e)-258.8()0(v)40(e)-258.8(times)-258.8(instead)-258.8(of)-258.8(once)30(,)-258.8(y)40(ou)]TJ T* [(ha)30(v)40(e)-229.1(only)-229.1(a)-229.1(59%)-229.1(chance)-229.1(of)-229.2(r)20(eaching)-229.1(that)-229.2(goal.)-229.2(Fifty-nine)-229.1(per)20(cent)]TJ T* [(br)-45(ings)-304.6(m)15(uch)-304.6(mor)20(e)-304.6(uncer)-25(tainty)-304.6(into)-304.6(pla)30(y)-304.6(than)-304.6(90%.)-304.6(This)-304.6(means)]TJ T* [(tw)40(o)-278(things:)]TJ /F4 1 Tf .5031 -1.9565 TD (1.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(P)30(a)30(y)-187.7(attention)-187.7(to)-187.7(the)-187.7(n)15(umber)-187.7(of)-187.7(contingent)-187.7(objecti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-187.7(needed)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(to)-457.5(r)20(each)-457.5(a)-457.5(goal,)-457.5(and)-457.5(pa)30(y)-457.5(attention)-457.5(to)-457.5(the)-457.5(innate)-457.5(human)]TJ T* [(tendency)-340.2(not)-340.2(to)-340.2(calculate)-340.2(the)-340.2(combined)-340.2(r)-45(isk)-340.2(that)-340.2(all)-340.2(those)]TJ T* [(contingencies)-278(cr)20(eate)30(.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (2.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(Factor)-496.3(out)-496.3(as)-496.3(man)20(y)-496.3(contingencies)-496.3(as)-496.3(y)40(o)0(u)-496.3(can)-496.3(b)25(y)-496.3(either)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(making)-399.5(uncer)-25(tainties)-399.5(cer)-25(tain,)-399.5(or)-399.5(ob)40(viating)-399.5(the)-399.5(need)-399.4(for)-399.5(a)]TJ T* [(contingency)-219.7(at)-219.7(all.)-219.7(F)20(o)0(r)-219.7(example)30(,)-219.7(i)0(f)-219.7(y)40(ou)-219.7(in)40(v)30(alidate)-219.7(a)-219.7(competi-)]TJ T* [(tor)100(s)-259.1(patent,)-259.1(y)40(o)0(u)-259.1(eliminate)-259.1(a)-259.1(contingency)-259.1(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-259.1(y)40(our)-259.1(possib)15(le)]TJ T* [(infr)-45(ingement)-278(of)-278(that)-278(patent.)]TJ ET q 1 0 0 1 121.684 292.55 cm 0 0 m 0 314.4 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 314.4 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 208.3906 244.9385 Tm [(P)30(atent)-333(Strate)15(gy)-333(Dened)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 219.1352 Tm [(P)30(atent)-434.5(strategy)-434.5(aligns)-434.5(the)-434.5(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)-434.5(o)0(f)-434.5(patents)-434.5(to)-434.5(the)-434.5(objecti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-434.5(o)0(f)-434.5(y)40(our)]TJ T* [(b)15(usiness.)-354.6(It)-354.6(is)-354.6(crafted)-354.6(fr)30(om)-354.6(y)40(our)-354.6(ability)-354.6(and)-354.6(willingness)-354.6(to)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 23.4121 0 TD (gain)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.49 0 TD (,)Tj /F5 1 Tf .6146 0 TD (exploit)Tj /F1 1 Tf 2.397 0 TD (,)Tj -27.9137 -1.2174 TD (and)Tj /F5 1 Tf 1.7493 0 TD (defend)Tj /F1 1 Tf 2.5943 0 TD [(impor)-25(tant)-332.3(cr)20(eations)-332.3(under)-332.3(the)-332.3(system)-332.3(of)-332.3(patent)-332.3(la)30(ws.)-332.3(P)30(atent)]TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj > endobj 50 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(17)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 694.6357 Tm [(strategy)-323.6(is)-323.6(a)-323.6(solution)-323.6(to)-323.6(get)-323.6(fr)30(om)-323.6(A)-323.6(to)-323.6(B)-323.6(that)-323.6(can)-323.6(be)-323.6(composed)-323.6(of)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(all)-278(manner)-278(of)-278(r)20(esour)20(ces)-278(and)-278(actions.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Although)-285.4(patents)-285.4(r)20(epr)20(esent)-285.4(an)-285.4(impor)-25(tant)-285.4(par)-25(t)-285.4(o)0(f)-285.4(most)-285.4(patent)-285.4(strate-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(g)-30(ies,)-350.3(a)-350.3(g)-30(i)20(v)40(en)-350.3(patent)-350.3(strateg)-30(ist)-350.3(ma)30(y)-350.3(not)-350.3(actually)-350.3(emplo)40(y)-350.3(his)-350.3(or)-350.3(her)-350.3(o)40(w)0(n)]TJ T* [(patents)-249.2(within)-249.2(his)-249.2(or)-249.2(her)-249.2(patent)-249.2(strategy)120(.)-249.2(Gener)-45(ic)-249.2(phar)-45(maceutical)-249.2(man)15(u-)]TJ T* [(f)-25(actur)20(er)-20(s,)-243.9(for)-243.9(example)30(,)-243.9(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-243.9(gear)20(ed)-243.9(themselv)40(es)-243.9(to)-243.9(compete)-243.9(without)-243.9(their)]TJ T* [(o)40(w)0(n)-235.2(patents,)-235.2(and)-235.2(y)40(e)0(t)-235.2(the)20(y)-235.2(cer)-25(tainly)-235.2(ha)30(v)40(e)-235.2(patent)-235.2(strateg)-30(ies)-235.2(associated)-235.2(with)]TJ T* [(traditional)-301.5(phar)-45(maceutical)-301.5(companies)-301.5(that)-301.6(do)-301.5(o)40(w)0(n)-301.5(patents.)-301.5(So)-301.5(an)-301.5(orga-)]TJ T* [(nization)-277.1(does)-277.1(not)-277.1(ha)30(v)40(e)-277.1(to)-277.1(o)40(w)0(n)-277.1(patents)-277.1(to)-277.1(use)-277.1(patented)-277.1(technolo)20(gy)-277.1(or)-277.1(to)]TJ T* [(be)-347.2(subjected)-347.2(to)-347.2(actions)-347.2(fr)30(om)-347.2(other)-347.2(patent)-347.2(o)40(wner)-20(s)-347.2(under)-347.2(the)-347.2(system)-347.2(of)]TJ T* [(patent)-278(and)-278(br)30(oader)-278(intellectual)-278(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-278(la)30(ws.)-278(Ha)30(ving)-278(fe)20(w)-278(o)0(r)-278(n)0(o)-278(patents)]TJ T* [(is)-251.9(a)-251.9(leg)-30(itimate)-251.9(patent)-251.9(strategy)-251.9(for)-251.9(some)-251.9(organizations.)-251.9(Nor)-251.9(is)-251.9(it)-251.9(an)-251.9(all-or-)]TJ T* [(nothing)-181.2(decision.)-181.2(Dell)-181.2(Computer)-181.2(does)-181.2(le)-181.2(for)-181.2(patents,)-181.2(b)15(u)0(t)-181.2(o)40(wns)-181.2(r)20(elati)20(v)40(ely)]TJ T* [(fe)20(w)-202.9(patents)-202.9(compar)20(ed)-202.9(to)-202.9(man)20(y)-202.9(o)0(f)-202.9(its)-202.9(competitor)-20(s.)-202.9(Dell)-202.9(Computer)-202.9(instead)]TJ T* [(gains)-222.2(access)-222.2(to)-222.2(m)15(uch)-222.2(of)-222.2(its)-222.2(technolo)20(gy)-222.2(needs)-222.2(b)25(y)-222.2(licensing-in)-222.2(the)-222.2(patented)]TJ T* [(technolo)20(gy)-278(of)-278(other)-20(s)-278(o)0(n)-278(a)-278(w)40(orldwide)-278(basis.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Ho)40(w)-264.2(t)0(o)-264.2(maneuv)40(er)-264.2(in)-264.2(a)-264.2(mark)30(et)-264.2(with)-264.2(patents)-264.2(depends)-264.2(on)-264.2(what)-264.2(w)40(orks)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(best)-204.4(for)-204.4(the)-204.4(par)-25(ticipating)-204.4(organization.)-204.4(As)-204.4(with)-204.4(an)20(ything)-204.4(in)-204.4(strategy)120(,)-204.4(ther)20(e)]TJ T* [(ar)20(e)-253.3(trade-offs.)-253.3(F)20(o)0(r)-253.3(example)30(,)-253.3(while)-253.3(Dell)-253.3(perhaps)-253.3(sa)30(v)40(e)0(s)-253.3(mone)20(y)-253.3(o)0(n)-253.3(r)20(esear)20(ch)]TJ T* [(and)-341.1(de)20(v)40(elopment)-341.1(costs)-341.1(b)25(y)-341.1(r)20(elying)-341.1(on)-341.1(the)-341.1(r)20(esear)20(ch)-341.1(and)-341.1(de)20(v)40(elopment)-341.1(of)]TJ T* [(other)-20(s,)-290.6(it)-290.6(does)-290.6(so)-290.6(at)-290.6(the)-290.6(r)-45(isk)-290.6(of)-290.6(trading)-290.6(mone)20(y)120(,)-290.6(a)-290.6(commodity)120(,)-290.6(for)-290.6(in)40(v)40(en-)]TJ T* [(tions,)-231.1(which)-231.1(ar)20(e)-231.1(one)-231.1(of)-231.1(a)-231.1(kind.)-231.1(The)-231.1(uniqueness)-231.1(of)-231.1(the)-231.1(latter)-231.1(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-231.1(the)-231.1(for-)]TJ T* [(mer)-201.8(tends)-201.8(to)-201.8(offer)-201.8(mor)20(e)-201.8(l)0(e)20(v)40(erage)-201.8(for)-201.8(the)-201.8(in)40(v)40(ention)-201.8(o)40(wner)-201.8(in)-201.8(negotiations.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 249.0681 342.5723 Tm [(V)125(alue)-333(Captur)20(e)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 316.769 Tm [(A)-171.2(patent)-171.3(is)-171.3(an)-171.3(asset,)-171.3(and)-171.3(as)-171.3(with)-171.3(an)20(y)-171.3(other)-171.3(asset,)-171.3(y)40(o)0(u)-171.3(can)-171.3(exploit)-171.3(its)-171.3(intr)-45(insic)]TJ T* [(v)30(alue)-272.2(and)-272.2(bear)-272.2(the)-272.2(b)15(u)0(r)20(den)-272.2(of)-272.2(its)-272.2(cost.)-272.2(Y)160(our)-272.2(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(r)-45(iding)-272.2(goal)-272.2(in)-272.2(manag)-30(ing)]TJ T* [(the)-280(asset,)-280(either)-280(as)-280(an)-280(indi)20(vidual)-280(asset)-280(or)-280(as)-280(a)-280(par)-25(t)-280(o)0(f)-280(a)0(n)-280(asset)-280(por)-25(tfolio)50(,)-280(i)0(s)]TJ T* [(to)-331(mak)30(e)-331(the)-331(v)30(alue)-331(of)-331(o)40(wner)-20(ship)-331(or)-331(implementation)-331(appr)20(eciab)15(ly)-331(higher)]TJ T* [(than)-278(the)-278(cost)-278(of)-278(o)40(wner)-20(ship)-278(or)-278(implementation.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(If)-341.1(y)40(o)0(u)-341.1(a)0(r)20(e)-341.1(the)-341.1(o)40(wner)-341.1(of)-341.1(a)-341.1(patent,)-341.1(then)-341.1(y)40(o)0(u)-341.1(m)0(a)30(y)-341.1(exploit)-341.1(the)-341.1(patent)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(thr)30(ough)-287.5(the)-287.5(pr)30(opr)-45(ietar)-30(y)-287.5(man)15(uf)-25(actur)20(e)30(,)-287.5(use)30(,)-287.5(o)0(r)-287.5(sale)-287.5(of)-287.5(the)-287.5(claimed)-287.5(in)40(v)40(en-)]TJ T* [(tion.)-388.8(This)-388.8(is)-388.8(possib)15(le)-388.8(because)-388.8(a)-388.8(patent)-388.8(g)-30(i)20(v)40(e)0(s)-388.8(y)40(ou)-388.8(the)-388.8(r)-45(ight)-388.8(to)-388.8(exclude)]TJ T* [(other)-20(s)-265.5(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-265.5(making,)-265.5(using,)-265.5(or)-265.5(selling)-265.5(the)-265.5(in)40(v)40(ention)-265.5(who)-265.5(ha)30(v)40(e)-265.5(not)-265.5(pr)30(op-)]TJ T* [(erly)-278.4(attained)-278.4(the)-278.4(r)-45(ight)-278.4(to)-278.4(mak)30(e)30(,)-278.4(use)30(,)-278.4(o)0(r)-278.4(sell)-278.4(that)-278.4(in)40(v)40(ention.)-278.4(Y)160(o)0(u)-278.4(gain)-278.4(this)]TJ ET endstream endobj 51 0 obj > endobj 52 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (18)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(r)-45(ight)-312.4(to)-312.4(exclude)-312.4(in)-312.4(the)-312.4(countr)-45(ies)-312.4(in)-312.4(which)-312.4(y)40(o)0(u)-312.4(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-312.4(patent)-312.4(pr)30(otection.)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(It)-290.7(r)20(equir)20(es)-290.7(both)-290.7(that)-290.7(y)40(o)0(u)-290.7(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-290.7(some)-290.7(capacity)-290.7(to)-290.7(enfor)20(ce)-290.7(y)40(our)-290.7(r)-45(ights)-290.7(and)]TJ T* [(that)-275.8(the)-275.8(patenting)-275.8(author)-45(ity)-275.8(has)-275.8(the)-275.8(legal)-275.8(infrastr)-25(uctur)20(e)-275.8(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-275.8(which)-275.8(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(can)-311.1(mak)30(e)-311.1(y)40(our)-311.1(case)30(.)-311.1(Y)160(ou)-311.1(can)-311.1(also)-311.1(effecti)20(v)40(ely)-311.1(lease)-311.1(the)-311.1(patent)-311.1(thr)30(ough)-311.1(a)]TJ T* [(license)30(,)-278(o)0(r)-278(sell)-278(the)-278(patent)-278(outr)-45(ight)-278(to)-278(another)-278(per)-20(son)-278(or)-278(organization.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(As)-168.2(an)-168.2(asset,)-168.2(patents)-168.2(offer)-168.2(an)-168.2(oppor)-25(tunity)-168.2(to)-168.2(captur)20(e)-168.2(commer)20(cialization)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(v)30(alue)-278(in)-278(tw)40(o)-278(k)30(e)20(y)-278(w)30(a)30(ys:)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 7.1731 0 0 7.1731 128.9066 593.0167 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.0286 589.5298 Tm [(V)125(alue)-329(1:)-329(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-329(r)-45(ightsv)30(alue)-329(obtained)-329(fr)30(om)-329(being)-329(the)-329(o)40(wner)-329(of)]TJ T* [(the)-278(in)40(v)40(ention)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 7.1731 0 0 7.1731 128.9066 565.1213 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.0286 561.6344 Tm [(V)125(alue)-261.9(2:)-261.9(Implementationv)30(alue)-261.9(obtained)-261.9(fr)30(om)-261.9(being)-261.9(the)-261.9(pr)30(oducer)40(,)]TJ T* [(user)40(,)-278(o)0(r)-278(seller)-278(of)-278(the)-278(in)40(v)40(ention)]TJ -1.5357 -1.8783 TD [(These)-294.8(tw)40(o)-294.8(v)30(alues)-294.8(ar)20(e)-294.8(i)0(n)-294.8(addition)-294.8(to)-294.8(the)-294.8(v)30(alue)-294.8(obtained)-294.8(b)25(y)-294.8(being)-294.8(a)-294.8(con-)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(sumer)-235.4(of)-235.4(a)-235.4(p)0(r)30(oduct)-235.4(or)-235.4(ser)-25(vice)-235.4(that)-235.4(is)-235.4(made)-235.4(b)25(y)-235.4(incor)-40(porating)-235.4(the)-235.4(patented)]TJ T* [(in)40(v)40(ention)-283.8(in)-283.8(some)-283.8(w)30(a)30(y)0(;)-283.8(her)20(e)-283.8(the)-283.8(focus)-283.8(is)-283.8(on)-283.8(y)40(our)-283.8(being)-283.8(an)-283.8(entity)-283.8(intent)]TJ T* [(on)-278(commer)20(cializing)-278(the)-278(in)40(v)40(ention)-278(itself)-30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Depending)-348.8(on)-348.8(whether)-348.8(y)40(our)-348.8(focus)-348.8(is)-348.8(as)-348.8(an)-348.8(in)40(v)40(ention)-348.8(o)40(wner)-348.8(or)-348.8(an)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(in)40(v)40(ention)-273(implementer)40(,)-273(y)40(ou)-273(should)-273(al)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-273(consider)-273(ho)40(w)-273(y)40(our)-273(compan)20(y)]TJ T* [(can)-333.8(better)-333.8(captur)20(e)-333.8(v)30(alue)-333.8(fr)30(om)-333.8(V)125(alue)-333.8(1,)-333.8(V)125(alue)-333.8(2,)-333.8(or)-333.8(both.)-333.8(After)-333.8(making)]TJ T* [(that)-278(assessment,)-278(put)-278(y)40(our)-278(conclusions)-278(into)-278(action.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(F)20(o)0(r)-353.2(thousands)-353.2(of)-353.2(y)40(ear)-20(s)-353.2(the)-353.2(commer)20(cial)-353.2(v)30(alue)-353.2(of)-353.2(in)40(v)40(entions)-353.2(r)20(esided)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(pr)-45(imar)-45(ily)-327.8(with)-327.8(the)-327.8(implementer)-20(s)-327.8(o)0(f)-327.8(the)-327.8(in)40(v)40(entionsour)-327.8(V)125(alue)-327.8(2.)-327.8(This)]TJ T* [(w)30(a)0(s)-226.7(the)-226.7(case)-226.7(because)-226.7(cr)20(eator)-20(s)-226.7(o)0(f)-226.7(n)0(e)20(w)-226.7(in)40(v)40(entions)-226.7(had)-226.7(practically)-226.7(no)-226.7(means)]TJ T* [(to)-410.1(enfor)20(ce)-410.1(exclusi)20(vity)-410.1(if)-410.1(someone)-410.1(else)-410.1(could)-410.1(r)20(ecr)20(eate)-410.1(their)-410.1(in)40(v)40(ention.)]TJ T* [(P)30(atents)-247.2(changed)-247.2(this)-247.2(dynamic)-247.2(because)-247.2(the)20(y)-247.2(offer)20(ed)-247.2(the)-247.2(means)-247.2(to)-247.2(enfor)20(ce)]TJ T* [(exclusi)20(vity)120(.)-234(H)0(o)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-234(e)20(v)40(en)-234(befor)20(e)-234(the)-234(adv)40(ent)-234(of)-234(patents,)-234(instances)-234(appear)]TJ T* [(of)-211.4(v)30(alue)-211.4(being)-211.4(obtained)-211.4(b)25(y)-211.4(o)40(wning)-211.4(in)40(v)40(entions.)-211.4(The)-211.4(fundamental)-211.4(method)]TJ T* [(used)-384.6(to)-384.6(captur)20(e)-384.6(this)-384.6(o)40(wner)-20(ship)-384.6(v)30(alue)-384.6(de)20(v)40(eloped)-384.6(thr)30(ough)-384.6(the)-384.6(ages)-384.6(still)]TJ T* [(exists)-307.2(in)-307.2(trade)-307.2(secr)20(et)-307.2(practices.)-307.2(Consider)-307.2(the)-307.2(craftsman)-307.2(s)20(w)40(or)20(d)-307.2(mak)30(er)-20(s)-307.2(i)0(n)]TJ T* [(1600)-410.7(A.D)105(.)-410.7(a)0(s)-410.7(a)0(n)-410.7(example)30(.)-410.7(Once)-410.7(a)-410.7(craftsman)-410.7(lear)-40(ned)-410.7(a)-410.7(trade)30(,)-410.7(such)-410.7(as)]TJ T* [(s)20(w)40(or)20(d)-264.4(making,)-264.4(that)-264.4(craftsman)-264.4(could)-264.4(practice)-264.4(the)-264.4(ar)-25(t)-264.4(and)-264.4(r)20(eap)-264.4(the)-264.5(imple-)]TJ T* [(mentation)-263.3(v)30(alue)-263.3(of)-263.3(that)-263.3(ar)-25(t.)-263.3(T)150(o)-263.3(pr)30(otect)-263.3(intellectual)-263.3(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-263.3(r)-45(ights,)-263.3(early)]TJ T* [(craftsmen)-418.8(estab)15(lished)-418.8(r)-25(ules)-418.8(for)-418.8(the)-418.8(teaching)-418.8(of)-418.8(their)-418.8(trade)30(.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 392.7422 251.3721 Tm (13)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 405.8984 247.2132 Tm [(Appr)20(en-)]TJ -24.8287 -1.2174 TD [(tice)-368.1(craftsmen)-368.1(w)40(ould)-368.1(ag)-30(r)20(e)0(e)-368.1(t)0(o)-368.1(w)40(ork)-368.1(for)-368.1(a)-368.1(per)-45(iod)-368.1(of)-368.2(time)-368.1(for)-368.1(a)-368.1(master)]TJ T* [(craftsman)-339.2(in)-339.2(exchange)-339.2(for)-339.2(lear)-40(ning)-339.2(the)-339.2(craft.)-339.2(This)-339.2(w)30(a)0(s)-339.2(a)0(n)-339.2(early)-339.2(w)30(a)30(y)-339.2(to)]TJ T* [(captur)20(e)-359.9(i)0(n)40(v)40(ention)-359.9(v)30(alueV)125(alue)-359.9(1e)20(v)40(e)0(n)-359.9(i)0(f)-359.9(for)-359.9(a)-359.9(shor)-25(t)-359.9(per)-45(iod)-359.9(of)-359.9(time)30(.)]TJ T* [(T)150(oda)30(y)120(,)-299.6(an)-299.6(organization)-299.6(with)-299.6(a)-299.6(trade)-299.6(secr)20(et)-299.6(can)-299.6(go)-299.6(e)20(v)40(en)-299.6(fur)-25(ther)-299.6(than)-299.6(the)]TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 54 0 obj > endobj 55 0 obj > endobj 56 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(19)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 694.6357 Tm [(old)-254.2(guild)-254.2(master)-20(s,)-254.2(since)-254.2(in)-254.2(man)20(y)-254.2(countr)-45(ies)-254.2(it)-254.2(can)-254.2(indenitely)-254.2(seek)-254.2(to)-254.2(put)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(legal)-360.2(r)20(estraints)-360.2(on)-360.2(the)-360.2(dissemination)-360.2(of)-360.2(trade)-360.2(secr)20(ets)-360.2(b)25(y)-360.2(emplo)40(y)40(ees)-360.2(and)]TJ T* [(associates)-278(g)-30(i)20(v)40(e)0(n)-278(access)-278(to)-278(them.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(W)15(ith)-222(the)-222(adv)40(ent)-222(of)-222(the)-222(patent)-222(system,)-222(the)-222(in)40(v)40(entor)-222(no)-222(longer)-222(needed)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(to)-213.2(pr)30(oduce)-213.2(the)-213.2(in)40(v)40(ention)-213.2(to)-213.2(captur)20(e)-213.2(v)30(alue)-213.2(fr)30(om)-213.2(it.)-213.2(The)-213.2(in)40(v)40(entor)-213.2(ma)30(y)-213.2(w)40(ell)]TJ T* [(ha)30(v)40(e)-246.7(to)-246.7(shar)20(e)-246.7(a)-246.7(g)-30(i)20(v)40(en,)-246.7(and)-246.7(often)-246.7(substantial,)-246.7(per)20(centage)-246.7(of)-246.7(v)30(alue)-246.7(with)-246.7(the)]TJ T* [(implementer)-25(;)-422.8(still,)-422.8(the)-422.8(in)40(v)40(entor)-422.8(maintains)-422.8(o)40(wner)-20(ship)-422.8(of)-422.8(the)-422.8(idea)-422.8(and)]TJ T* [(contin)15(ues)-414.4(to)-414.4(r)20(eap)-414.4(v)30(alue)-414.4(b)25(y)-414.4(being)-414.4(the)-414.4(o)40(wner)-414.4(of)-414.4(the)-414.4(in)40(v)40(ention.)-414.4(T)110(a)0(k)30(e)0(n)]TJ T* [(fur)-25(ther)40(,)-321.9(the)-321.9(o)40(wner)-321.9(of)-321.9(a)-321.9(patent)-321.9(ma)30(y)-321.9(sell)-321.9(his)-321.9(or)-321.9(her)-321.9(in)40(v)40(ention)-321.9(to)-321.9(another)]TJ T* [(per)-20(son)-185.4(or)-185.4(organization,)-185.4(and)-185.4(this)-185.4(thir)20(d)-185.4(par)-25(ty)-185.4(can)-185.4(r)20(ecei)20(v)40(e)-185.4(considerab)15(le)-185.4(v)30(alue)]TJ T* [(fr)30(om)-251.9(o)40(wning)-251.9(that)-251.9(patent)-251.9(without)-251.9(being)-251.9(either)-251.9(the)-251.9(in)40(v)40(entor)40(,)-251.9(mak)30(er)40(,)-251.9(user)40(,)]TJ T* [(or)-328.2(seller)-328.2(of)-328.2(the)-328.2(patented)-328.2(in)40(v)40(ention.)-328.2(W)15(ith)-328.2(that)-328.2(in)-328.2(mind,)-328.2(y)40(o)0(u)-328.2(can)-328.2(obtain)]TJ T* [(considerab)15(le)-328.9(le)20(v)40(erage)-328.9(in)-328.9(y)40(our)-328.9(use)-328.9(of)-328.9(patents)-328.9(b)25(y)-328.9(choosing)-328.9(to)-328.9(focus)-328.9(y)40(our)]TJ T* [(patent)-308.1(strategy)-308.1(on)-308.1(which)-308.1(of)-308.1(either)-308.1(V)125(alue)-308.1(1)-308.1(o)0(r)-308.1(V)125(alue)-308.1(2)-308.1(r)20(equir)20(es)-308.1(the)-308.1(least)]TJ T* [(amount)-266.8(or)-266.8(most)-266.8(a)30(v)30(ailab)15(le)-266.8(of)-266.8(y)40(our)-266.8(r)20(esour)20(ces.)-266.8(The)-266.8(ratio)-266.8(of)-266.8(potential)-266.8(v)30(alue)]TJ T* [(to)-222.7(obtain)-222.7(at)-222.7(V)125(alue)-222.7(1)-222.7(o)0(r)-222.7(V)125(alue)-222.7(2)-222.7(differ)-20(s)-222.7(b)25(y)-222.7(industr)-30(y)-222.7(and)-222.7(compan)20(y)120(.)-222.7(Wher)20(eas)]TJ T* [(pr)30(oducing)-259.6(a)-259.6(tractor)-259.6(costs)-259.6(a)-259.6(lot)-259.6(of)-259.6(mone)20(y)-259.6(e)20(v)40(e)0(n)-259.6(after)-259.6(y)40(o)0(u)-259.6(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-259.6(settled)-259.6(on)-259.6(a)]TJ T* [(design,)-193.3(it)-193.3(costs)-193.3(practically)-193.3(nothing)-193.3(to)-193.3(pr)30(oduce)-193.3(softw)30(ar)20(e)-193.3(p)0(r)30(oducts)-193.3(once)-193.3(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(ha)30(v)40(e)-273.3(in)40(v)40(ested)-273.3(in)-273.3(their)-273.3(cr)20(eation.)-273.3(On)-273.3(the)-273.3(other)-273.3(hand,)-273.3(if)-273.3(y)40(o)0(u)-273.3(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-273.3(a)-273.3(tractor)]TJ T* [(f)-25(actor)-30(y)-381.2(alr)20(eady)120(,)-381.2(licensing)-381.2(a)-381.2(patent)-381.2(fr)30(om)-381.2(an)-381.2(outside)-381.2(o)40(wner)-381.2(can)-381.2(pr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-381.2(a)]TJ T* [(highly)-349.8(efcient)-349.8(w)30(a)30(y)-349.8(to)-349.8(get)-349.8(the)-349.8(most)-349.8(v)30(alue)-349.8(out)-349.8(of)-349.8(that)-349.8(f)-25(actor)-30(y)-349.8(without)]TJ T* [(unduly)-278(raising)-278(the)-278(cost)-278(of)-278(y)40(our)-278(r)20(esear)20(ch.)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 185.6 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 283.84 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 376.59 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 357.9103 Tm [(Setting)-333(a)-333(P)0(r)20(ecedent)]TJ /F1 1 Tf T* [(On)-285.8(No)40(v)100(.)-285.8(21,)-285.8(2006,)-285.8(a)-285.8(federal)-285.8(jur)-30(y)-285.8(i)0(n)-285.8(Los)-285.8(Angeles)-285.8(a)30(w)30(a)0(r)20(ded)-285.8(dam-)]TJ T* [(ages)-313(of)-313($53.5)-313(million)-313(to)-313(L.)87(G)40(.)-313(Philips)-313(in)-313(a)-313(l)0(a)30(wsuit)-313(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-313(its)-313(liquid)]TJ T* [(cr)-30(ystal)-349.8(displa)30(y)-349.8(\(LCD\))-349.7(technolo)20(gy)-349.8(patents.)-349.8(The)-349.8(jur)-30(y)-349.8(found)-349.8(that)]TJ T* [(Chunghw)30(a)-182.9(Pictur)20(e)-182.9(T)125(ubes)-182.9(\(CPT\))-182.9(and)-182.9(T)110(atung)-182.9(Co)50(.)-182.9(w)40(er)20(e)-182.9(infr)-45(ing)-30(ing)]TJ T* [(on)-246.4(L.)87(G)40(.)-246.4(Philips)100(s)-246.4(patents)-246.4(without)-246.4(pr)30(operly)-246.4(licensing)-246.4(the)-246.4(technol-)]TJ T* [(o)20(g)0(y)-385(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-385(the)-385(idea)-385(o)40(wner)40(.)-385(The)-385(victor)-30(y)-385(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-385(CPT)-384.8(and)-385(T)110(atung)]TJ T* [(pr)30(o)40(vided)-307.7(an)-307.7(oppor)-25(tunity)-307.7(for)-307.7(L.)87(G)40(.)-307.7(Philips)-307.7(to)-307.7(agg)-30(r)20(essi)20(v)40(ely)-307.7(pur)-20(sue)]TJ T* [(and)-255.7(implement)-255.8(its)-255.8(licensing)-255.7(pr)30(o)20(g)-30(ram,)-255.8(since)-255.7(it)-255.7(set)-255.7(a)-255.8(p)0(r)20(ecedent)-255.8(for)]TJ T* [(the)-235.6(leg)-30(itimacy)-235.6(of)-235.6(the)-235.6(L.)87(G)40(.)-235.6(Philips)-235.6(position)-235.6(and)-235.6(the)-235.6(v)30(alidity)-235.6(of)-235.6(the)]TJ T* [(LCD)-262.1(patent.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 207.0172 222.5921 Tm (14)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 218.3779 218.4332 Tm [(In)-262.1(other)-262.1(w)40(o)0(r)20(ds,)-262.1(L.)87(G)40(.)-262.1(Philips)100(s)-262.1(capacity)-262.1(to)-262.1(captur)20(e)]TJ 14.4652 -1.2174 TD (\()Tj /F5 1 Tf .302 0 TD (Continued)Tj /F1 1 Tf 3.9806 0 TD (\))Tj ET q 1 0 0 1 132.025 191.041 cm 0 0 m 0 185.599 l S 1 0 0 1 322.79 .199 cm 0 0 m 0 185.6 l S Q endstream endobj 57 0 obj > endobj 58 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (20)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 143.442 w q 1 0 0 1 121.435 630.603 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S Q BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 684.0918 Tm 0 Tc [(the)-213.6(v)30(alue)-213.6(of)-213.6(o)40(wner)-20(ship)-213.6(at)-213.7(V)125(alue)-213.6(1)-213.6(incr)20(eased)-213.6(signicantly)-213.6(with)-213.6(the)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(v)40(e)0(r)20(dict.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(P)30(a)0(r)-25(t)-296.6(of)-296.6(an)20(y)-296.6(patent)-296.6(strategy)-296.6(is)-296.6(to)-296.6(impr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-296.6(the)-296.6(capacity)-296.6(of)-296.6(the)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(organization)-433.9(to)-433.9(captur)20(e)-433.9(v)30(alue)-433.9(as)-433.9(the)-433.9(o)40(wner)-433.9(of)-433.9(the)-433.9(in)40(v)40(ention,)]TJ T* [(the)-428.9(implementer)-428.9(of)-428.9(the)-428.9(in)40(v)40(ention,)-428.9(or)-428.9(both,)-428.9(b)25(y)-428.9(the)-428.9(scientic)30(,)]TJ T* [(b)15(usiness,)-279.2(and)-279.2(legal)-279.3(means)-279.2(a)30(v)30(ailab)15(le)30(.)-279.3(The)-279.2(success)-279.3(of)-279.2(an)20(y)-279.2(action)-279.2(in)]TJ T* [(patent)-332.8(strategy)-332.8(can)-332.8(be)-332.8(measur)20(ed)-332.8(not)-332.8(only)-332.8(b)25(y)-332.8(immediate)-332.8(patent)]TJ T* [(infr)-45(ingement)-294.3(damages)-294.3(gained,)-294.3(deter)-40(r)20(ed,)-294.3(or)-294.3(a)30(v)40(oided,)-294.3(b)15(u)0(t)-294.3(also)-294.3(b)25(y)]TJ T* [(its)-278(capacity)-278(to)-278(enhance)-278(one)-278(or)-278(both)-278(v)30(alue)-278(captur)20(e)-278(positions.)]TJ ET 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 121.684 558.882 cm 0 0 m 0 143.442 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 143.442 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 174.1003 518.4131 Tm [(The)-333(Natur)20(e)-333(o)0(f)-333(a)-333(Strate)15(g)-30(i)0(c)-333(Solution)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 492.6098 Tm [(Strategy)-200.7(is)-200.7(a)-200.7(solution,)-200.7(b)15(u)0(t)-200.7(i)0(t)-200.7(i)0(s)-200.7(not)-200.7(the)-200.7(same)-200.7(as)-200.7(a)-200.7(solution)-200.7(y)40(o)0(u)-200.7(might)-200.7(use)-200.7(for)]TJ T* [(a)-260.3(technical)-260.3(pr)30(ob)15(lem.)-260.3(W)15(ith)-260.3(a)-260.3(solution)-260.3(to)-260.3(a)-260.3(technical)-260.3(pr)30(ob)15(lem,)-260.3(y)40(o)0(u)-260.3(can)-260.3(all)]TJ T* [(b)15(u)0(t)-264.7(eliminate)-264.7(uncer)-25(tainties)-264.7(in)-264.7(y)40(our)-264.7(r)20(esults)-264.7(thr)30(ough)-264.7(exper)-45(imentation)-264.7(and)]TJ T* [(calculation.)-213.7(It)-213.7(is)-213.7(possib)15(le)30(,)-213.7(for)-213.7(example)30(,)-213.7(t)0(o)-213.7(design)-213.7(and)-213.7(test)-213.7(an)-213.7(entir)20(e)-213.7(jetliner)]TJ T* [(on)-219.7(a)-219.7(computer)-219.7(befor)20(e)-219.7(b)15(uilding)-219.7(a)-219.7(single)-219.7(air)-40(plane)-219.7(so)-219.7(that)-219.7(y)40(o)0(u)-219.7(alr)20(eady)-219.7(kno)40(w)]TJ T* [(with)-231.2(almost)-231.2(complete)-231.2(cer)-25(tainty)-231.2(that)-231.2(it)-231.2(will)-231.2(w)40(ork)-231.2(as)-231.2(intended.)-231.2(This)-231.2(allo)40(ws)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-260(t)0(o)-260(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-260(condence)-260(in)-260(the)-260(solution)-260(and)-260(exper)-45(ience)-260(less)-260(f)-25(ailur)20(e)-260(when)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-322.4(implement)-322.4(the)-322.4(solution.)-322.4(Thr)30(oughout)-322.4(the)-322.4(design)-322.4(pr)30(ocess)-322.4(of)-322.4(its)-322.4(777)]TJ T* [(and)-323.5(787)-323.5(models,)-323.5(Boeing)-323.5(made)-323.5(extensi)20(v)40(e)-323.5(use)-323.5(of)-323.5(computer)-323.5(modeling)-323.5(to)]TJ T* [(sim)15(ulate)-261.5(the)-261.5(r)20(eal)-261.5(thing)-261.5(w)40(ell)-261.5(befor)20(e)-261.5(i)0(t)-261.5(p)0(r)30(oduced)-261.5(par)-25(ts)-261.5(and)-261.5(then)-261.5(the)-261.5(whole)]TJ T* [(air)-40(planes.)-301.8(Planner)-20(s)-301.8(often)-301.8(use)-301.8(computer)-20(s)-301.8(i)0(n)-301.8(strateg)-30(ic)-301.8(sim)15(ulations)-301.8(as)-301.8(w)40(ell,)]TJ T* [(b)15(u)0(t)-300(the)20(y)-300(cannot)-300(r)20(epr)30(oduce)-300(the)-300(pr)20(ecise)-300(pr)20(edictions)-300(that)-300(a)-300(compan)20(y)-300(such)]TJ T* [(as)-278(Boeing)-278(can)-278(pr)30(oduce)-278(for)-278(technical)-278(pr)30(ob)15(lems.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 330.5463 329.3962 Tm (15)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 311.2896 Tm [(Unlik)30(e)-317.3(a)-317.3(technical)-317.3(solution,)-317.3(a)-317.3(strateg)-30(ic)-317.3(solution)-317.3(m)15(ust)-317.3(addr)20(ess)-317.3(pr)30(ob-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(lems)-278.5(cr)20(eated)-278.5(b)25(y)-278.5(both)-278.5(exter)-40(nal)-278.5(and)-278.5(inter)-40(nal)-278.5(opposition)-278.5(fr)30(om)-278.5(entities)-278.5(that)]TJ T* [(ma)30(y)-260.1(not)-260.1(w)30(ant)-260.1(that)-260.1(solution)-260.1(to)-260.1(succeed.)-260.1(So)-260.1(with)-260.1(a)-260.1(strateg)-30(ic)-260.1(solution,)-260.1(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(will)-292.1(al)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-292.1(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-292.1(uncer)-25(tainty)-292.1(because)-292.1(y)40(o)0(u)-292.1(cannot)-292.1(kno)40(w)-292.1(what)-292.1(the)-292.1(oppo-)]TJ T* [(sition)-254.8(will)-254.8(do)50(.)-254.8(I)0(n)-254.8(f)-25(act,)-254.8(the)-254.8(people)-254.8(who)-254.8(ar)20(e)-254.8(the)-254.8(opposition)-254.8(ma)30(y)-254.8(not)-254.8(kno)40(w)]TJ T* [(what)-249.7(the)20(y)-249.7(will)-249.7(do)-249.7(until)-249.7(the)20(y)-249.7(f)-25(ace)-249.7(a)-249.7(cir)20(cumstance)-249.7(y)40(o)0(u)-249.7(c)0(r)20(eate)30(.)-249.7(A)-249.7(k)30(e)20(y)-249.7(com-)]TJ T* [(ponent)-240.7(of)-240.7(a)-240.7(strategy)120(,)-240.7(ther)20(efor)20(e)30(,)-240.7(is)-240.7(to)-240.7(manage)-240.7(uncer)-25(tainty)120(,)-240.7(dened)-240.7(her)20(e)-240.7(as:)]TJ /F4 1 Tf .5031 -1.9565 TD (1.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(The)-278(unkno)40(wn)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (2.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(The)-278(unkno)40(w)30(a)0(b)15(l)0(e)]TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj > endobj 60 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(21)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 694.6357 Tm [(Due)-321(diligence)-321(in)-321(strategy)-321(in)40(v)40(olv)40(es)-321(lear)-40(ning)-321(what)-321(y)40(o)0(u)-321(d)0(o)-321(not)-321(kno)40(w)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(that)-555.8(is)-555.8(kno)40(w)30(a)0(b)15(l)0(e)-555.8(and)-555.8(that)-555.8(y)40(o)0(u)-555.8(should)-555.8(kno)40(wfor)-555.8(example)30(,)-555.8(that)-555.8(a)]TJ T* [(competitor)-444.2(has)-444.2(r)20(ecently)-444.2(pub)15(lished)-444.2(a)-444.2(patent)-444.2(application)-444.2(descr)-45(ibing)-444.2(an)]TJ T* [(in)40(v)40(ention)-185.7(cr)-45(itical)-185.7(for)-185.7(y)40(our)-185.7(path)-185.7(forw)30(ar)20(d.)-185.7(Y)160(o)0(u)-185.7(should)-185.7(kno)40(w)-185.7(what)-185.7(ar)-25(t)-185.7(exists,)]TJ T* [(assess)-257.4(the)-257.4(enfor)20(ceability)-257.4(of)-257.4(the)-257.4(ar)-25(t,)-257.4(and)-257.4(kno)40(w)-257.4(who)-257.4(the)-257.4(r)20(especti)20(v)40(e)-257.4(o)40(wner)-20(s)]TJ T* [(ar)20(e)-219.3(most)-219.3(of)-219.3(the)-219.3(time)30(.)-219.3(Similarly)120(,)-219.3(y)40(ou)-219.3(w)30(ant)-219.3(to)-219.3(kno)40(w)-219.3(that)-219.3(an)-219.3(acquisition)-219.3(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(plan)-293.3(to)-293.3(mak)30(e)30(,)-293.3(in)-293.3(which)-293.3(patents)-293.3(pla)30(y)-293.3(a)0(n)-293.3(impor)-25(tant)-293.3(par)-25(t)-293.3(i)0(n)-293.3(justifying)-293.3(that)]TJ T* [(acquisition,)-200.3(will)-200.3(include)-200.3(the)-200.3(people)30(,)-200.3(such)-200.3(as)-200.3(the)-200.3(in)40(v)40(entor)-20(s,)-200.3(who)-200.3(will)-200.3(allo)40(w)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-261.2(t)0(o)-261.2(mak)30(e)-261.2(use)-261.2(of)-261.2(those)-261.2(patents.)-261.2(Finally)120(,)-261.2(y)40(ou)-261.2(should)-261.2(manage)-261.2(and)-261.2(dir)20(ect)]TJ T* [(the)-211(uncer)-25(tainties)-211(of)-211(competitor)-20(s)-211(r)20(egar)20(ding)-211(y)40(our)-211(effor)-25(ts)-211(so)-211(that)-211(y)40(o)0(u)-211(d)0(o)-211(not)]TJ T* [(become)-300(an)-300(open)-300(book)-300(to)-300(competitor)-20(s,)-300(and)-300(instead)-300(for)20(ce)-300(them)-300(to)-300(mak)30(e)]TJ T* [(har)20(d)-246.2(choices)-246.2(about)-246.2(y)40(our)-246.2(condential)-246.2(plans)-246.2(fr)30(om)-246.2(which)-246.2(y)40(o)0(u)-246.2(might)-246.2(le)20(v)40(er-)]TJ T* [(age)-250.6(exploitab)15(le)-250.6(mistak)30(es.)-250.6(F)20(o)0(r)-250.6(example)30(,)-250.6(i)0(f)-250.6(y)40(ou)-250.6(le)-250.6(patents)-250.6(br)30(oadly)-250.6(ar)30(ound)]TJ T* [(the)-248(w)40(orld)-248(only)-248(if)-248(y)40(o)0(u)-248(belie)20(v)40(e)-248(an)-248(in)40(v)40(ention)-248(has)-248(mor)20(e)-248(potential)-248(v)30(alue)-248(than)]TJ T* [(other)-319.7(in)40(v)40(entions)-319.7(in)-319.7(y)40(our)-319.7(por)-25(tfolio)50(,)-319.7(y)40(ou)-319.7(cr)20(eate)-319.7(a)-319.7(signal)-319.7(that)-319.7(competitor)-20(s)]TJ T* [(can)-335.9(use)-335.9(in)-335.9(their)-335.9(analysis)-335.9(of)-335.9(y)40(ou.)-335.9(Competitor)-20(s)-335.9(can)-335.9(easily)-335.9(cr)20(eate)-335.9(a)-335.9(subset)]TJ T* [(of)-277.3(patents)-277.3(fr)30(om)-277.3(y)40(our)-277.3(patent)-277.3(por)-25(tfolio)-277.3(that)-277.3(has)-277.3(larger)-277.3(than)-277.3(a)30(v)40(erage)-277.3(patent)]TJ T* [(f)-25(amily)-361.4(sizes.)-361.4(Y)160(our)-361.4(competitor)-361.4(can)-361.4(then)-361.4(examine)-361.4(that)-361.4(subset)-361.4(of)-361.4(patents)]TJ T* [(in)-296.1(mor)20(e)-296.1(detail.)-296.1(That)-296.1(subset)-296.2(of)-296.1(patents,)-296.2(after)-296.1(all,)-296.2(w)40(ould)-296.1(be)-296.1(the)-296.1(patents)-296.2(in)]TJ T* [(y)40(our)-278(por)-25(tfolio)-278(that)-278(y)40(o)0(u)-278(consider)-278(to)-278(be)-278(the)-278(most)-278(impor)-25(tant.)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 213.495 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 297.788 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 404.486 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 385.8057 Tm [(The)-333(Har)20(d)-333(W)125(a)30(y)]TJ /F1 1 Tf T* [(In)-230.8(No)40(v)40(ember)-230.8(of)-230.8(1994,)-230.8(the)-230.8(author)-230.8(took)-230.8(a)-230.8(scuba)-230.8(di)20(ving)-230.8(tr)-45(ip)-230.8(to)-230.8(the)]TJ T* [(San)-267.4(Diego)-267.4(k)30(elp)-267.4(beds.)-267.4(The)-267.4(o)40(wner)-267.4(of)-267.4(the)-267.4(boat)-267.4(used)-267.4(to)-267.4(shuttle)-267.4(the)]TJ T* [(di)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)-329.3(to)-329.3(the)-329.3(k)30(elp)-329.3(beds)-329.3(r)20(ecounted)-329.3(ho)40(w)-329.3(h)0(e)-329.3(had)-329.3(dr)30(opped)-329.3(a)-329.3(d)0(i)20(v)40(er)]TJ T* 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stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(23)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 185.285 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 609.681 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q BT 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 684.0918 Tm [(v)40(e)0(r)20(dict)-373.5(r)20(emo)40(v)40(e)0(d)-373.5(a)-373.5(major)-373.5(unkno)40(wn,)-373.5(the)-373.5(v)30(alidity)-373.5(of)-373.5(the)-373.5(patent,)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD 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131.776 507.016 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 488.336 Tm [(On)-397.2(Who)-397.2(Decides?)-397.2(The)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 10.7888 0 TD [(Markman)-342.2(v)100(.)-342.2(W)150(estview)-342.2(Instr)-20(uments)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.9415 0 TD (,)Tj /F7 1 Tf -24.7303 -1.2174 TD (Inc)Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.218 0 TD [(.)-333(Case)]TJ /F1 1 Tf -1.218 -1.2174 TD [(The)-407.9(1996)-407.9(Supr)20(eme)-407.9(Cour)-25(t)-407.9(r)-25(uling)-407.9(in)-407.9(the)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 16.7655 0 TD [(Markman)-407.9(v)135(.)-407.9(W)100(estview)]TJ -16.7655 -1.2174 TD (Instruments)Tj /F1 1 Tf 4.146 0 TD (,)Tj /F5 1 Tf .4662 0 TD (Inc)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.063 0 TD [(.)-206.2(case)-206.1(sho)40(w)40(e)0(d)-206.1(that)-206.1(the)-206.1(meaning)-206.1(and)-206.1(scope)-206.1(of)-206.2(ter)-45(ms)]TJ -5.6751 -1.2174 TD [(in)-289.8(claims)-289.8(w)40(ould)-289.8(be)-289.8(deter)-45(mined)-289.8(b)25(y)-289.8(the)-289.8(cour)-25(ts)-289.8(as)-289.8(a)-289.8(matter)-289.8(of)-289.8(la)30(w)]TJ T* [(and)-358.8(not)-358.8(b)25(y)-358.8(a)-358.8(jur)-30(y)120(.)-358.8(Since)-358.8(the)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 11.7324 0 TD (Markman)Tj /F1 1 Tf 3.8998 0 TD [(case)30(,)-358.8(most)-358.8(par)-25(ties)-358.8(to)-358.8(an)]TJ -15.6322 -1.2174 TD [(infr)-45(ingement)-181.9(la)30(wsuit)-181.9(ha)30(v)40(e)-181.9(desir)20(ed)-181.9(to)-181.9(ha)30(v)40(e)-181.9(a)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 16.6435 0 TD (Markman)Tj /F1 1 Tf 3.7229 0 TD [(r)-25(uling)-181.9(made)]TJ -20.3664 -1.2174 TD [(as)-168.1(soon)-168.1(as)-168.1(possib)15(le)30(.)-168.1(I)0(t)-168.1(can)-168.1(be)-168.1(a)-168.1(deter)-45(mining)-168.1(f)-25(actor)-168.1(as)-168.1(to)-168.1(the)-168.1(mer)-45(it)-168.1(of)]TJ T* [(pur)-20(suing,)-222.1(settling,)-222.1(or)-222.1(withdra)30(wing)-222.1(a)-222.1(l)0(a)30(wsuit)-222.1(because)-222.1(it)-222.1(eliminates)]TJ T* [(uncer)-25(tainties)-229.1(associated)-229.1(with)-229.1(ho)40(w)-229.1(the)-229.1(scope)-229.1(of)-229.1(patent)-229.1(claims)-229.1(will)]TJ T* [(be)-169.3(vie)20(w)40(e)0(d)-169.3(b)25(y)-169.3(the)-169.3(cour)-25(t)-169.3(i)0(n)-169.3(the)-169.3(case)30(.)-169.3(Essentially)120(,)-169.3(the)-169.3(par)-25(ties)-169.3(in)40(v)40(olv)40(ed)]TJ T* [(argue)-190.2(in)-190.2(adv)30(ance)-190.2(on)-190.2(the)-190.2(meanings)-190.2(of)-190.2(k)30(e)20(y)-190.2(ter)-45(ms)-190.2(and)-190.2(phrases)-190.2(found)]TJ T* [(in)-176(patent)-176(claims)-176(rather)-176(than)-176(w)30(aiting)-176(to)-176(see)-176(ho)40(w)-176(the)20(y)-175.9(a)0(r)20(e)-176(ultimately)]TJ T* [(inter)-40(pr)20(eted)-340.3(as)-340.3(the)-340.3(case)-340.3(pr)30(o)20(g)-30(r)20(esses)-340.4(or)-340.3(concludes.)-340.4(It)-340.3(is)-340.4(a)-340.3(practical)]TJ T* [(example)-333.6(of)-333.6(an)-333.6(action)-333.6(that)-333.6(eliminates)-333.6(an)-333.6(unkno)40(wn)-333.6(v)30(a)0(r)-45(iab)15(le)-333.6(and)]TJ T* [(clar)-45(ies)-238.8(impor)-25(tant)-238.8(decisions)-238.8(that)-238.8(opposing)-238.8(par)-25(ties)-238.8(need)-238.8(to)-238.8(mak)30(e)30(.)]TJ ET q 1 0 0 1 132.025 265.492 cm 0 0 m 0 241.574 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 241.574 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 262.2904 231.7878 Tm (Opposites)Tj /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 205.9846 Tm [(Strategy)-305.4(is)-305.4(often)-305.4(discussed)-305.4(in)-305.4(ter)-45(ms)-305.4(of)-305.5(opposites.)-305.4(The)-305.5(Chinese)-305.4(ga)30(v)40(e)-305.4(yin)]TJ T* [(and)-434.4(y)30(ang)-434.4(to)-434.4(w)40(orld)-434.4(cultur)20(e)-434.4(t)0(o)-434.4(descr)-45(ibe)-434.4(complementar)-30(y)-434.4(feminine)-434.4(and)]TJ T* [(masculine)-244.5(for)20(ces.)-244.5(W)125(ester)-40(n)-244.5(literatur)20(e)-244.5(offer)-20(s)-244.5(its)-244.5(tradition)-244.5(of)-244.5(opposing)-244.5(good)]TJ ET endstream endobj 66 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 67 0 obj > endobj 68 0 obj > endobj 69 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (24)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(and)-220.4(e)20(vil.)-220.4(Spor)-25(ts)-220.4(has)-220.4(its)-220.4(winner)-20(s)-220.4(and)-220.4(loser)-20(s.)-220.4(These)-220.4(concepts)-220.4(ar)20(e)-220.4(consider)20(ed)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(opposites,)-238.9(y)40(e)0(t)-238.9(one)-238.9(cannot)-238.9(exist)-238.9(without)-238.9(the)-238.9(other)40(.)-238.9(The)-238.9(patent)-238.9(w)40(orld)-238.9(also)]TJ T* [(has)-179.3(its)-179.3(cor)-40(r)20(esponding)-179.3(opposites.)-179.3(The)-179.3(pr)30(ofession)-179.3(tends)-179.3(to)-179.3(dene)-179.3(in)40(v)40(entions)]TJ T* [(as)-212.8(patented)-212.8(or)-212.8(nonpatented,)-212.8(solutions)-212.8(as)-212.8(open)-212.8(or)-212.8(pr)30(opr)-45(ietar)-30(y)120(,)-212.8(and)-212.8(licenses)]TJ T* [(as)-350.5(open)-350.5(or)-350.5(exclusi)20(v)40(e)30(.)-350.5(A)0(s)-350.5(i)0(s)-350.5(discussed)-350.5(fur)-25(ther)-350.5(on)-350.5(in)-350.5(this)-350.5(book,)-350.5(thinking)]TJ T* [(about)-201.5(patent)-201.5(strategy)-201.5(with)-201.5(these)-201.5(opposites)-201.5(in)-201.5(mind)-201.5(is)-201.5(useful)-201.5(when)-201.5(seeking)]TJ T* [(le)20(v)40(erage)-278(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-278(competitor)-20(s)-278(o)0(r)-278(with)-278(pr)30(ospecti)20(v)40(e)-278(par)-25(tner)-20(s.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Strategy)-217.2(itself)-217.2(is)-217.2(an)-217.2(inter)-40(pla)30(y)-217.2(o)0(f)-217.2(t)0(w)40(o)-217.2(oppositesinteraction)-217.2(and)-217.2(isola-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(tion;)-236.4(the)-236.4(general)-236.4(goal)-236.4(is)-236.4(to)-236.4(incr)20(ease)-236.4(y)40(our)-236.4(le)20(v)40(e)0(l)-236.4(o)0(f)-236.4(interaction)-236.4(and)-236.4(decr)20(ease)]TJ T* [(y)40(our)-198.2(le)20(v)40(e)0(l)-198.2(o)0(f)-198.2(isolation)-198.2(and)-198.2(to)-198.2(see)-198.2(the)-198.2(opposite)-198.2(r)20(esult)-198.2(for)-198.2(y)40(our)-198.2(competition.)]TJ T* [(F)20(o)0(r)-310.6(example)30(,)-310.6(winning)-310.6(a)-310.6(k)30(e)20(y)-310.6(account)-310.6(incr)20(eases)-310.6(y)40(our)-310.6(le)20(v)40(e)0(l)-310.6(o)0(f)-310.6(interaction)]TJ T* [(with)-363.2(the)-363.2(mark)30(et)-363.2(in)-363.2(that)-363.2(y)40(o)0(u)-363.2(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-363.2(another)-363.2(customer)-363.2(on)-363.2(the)-363.2(books.)-363.2(At)]TJ T* [(the)-237.2(same)-237.2(time)30(,)-237.2(winning)-237.2(a)-237.2(k)30(e)20(y)-237.2(account)-237.2(also)-237.2(incr)20(eases)-237.2(the)-237.2(le)20(v)40(e)0(l)-237.2(o)0(f)-237.2(isolation)]TJ T* [(for)-373.5(y)40(our)-373.5(competitor)-20(s)-373.5(since)-373.5(the)20(y)-373.5(n)0(o)40(w)-373.5(ha)30(v)40(e)-373.5(one)-373.5(less)-373.5(customer)-373.5(a)30(v)30(ailab)15(le)]TJ T* [(to)-378.9(them.)-378.9(Strategy)-378.9(also)-378.9(in)40(v)40(olv)40(es)-378.9(dir)20(ect)-378.9(and)-378.9(indir)20(ect)-378.9(actionagain,)-378.9(tw)40(o)]TJ T* [(opposites.)-364.2(F)20(o)0(r)-364.2(example)30(,)-364.2(y)40(ou)-364.2(might)-364.2(engage)-364.2(a)-364.2(competitor)-364.2(with)-364.2(a)-364.2(dir)20(ect)]TJ T* [(action,)-222.8(such)-222.8(as)-222.8(a)-222.8(patent)-222.8(infr)-45(ingement)-222.8(la)30(wsuit,)-222.8(and)-222.8(then)-222.8(win)-222.8(with)-222.8(an)-222.8(indi-)]TJ T* [(r)20(ect)-293.5(action,)-293.5(such)-293.5(as)-293.5(the)-293.5(in)40(v)30(alidation)-293.5(of)-293.5(a)-293.5(patent)-293.5(used)-293.5(b)25(y)-293.5(that)-293.5(competitor)]TJ T* [(in)-260.7(a)-260.7(counter)-20(suit.)-260.7(In)-260.7(patent)-260.7(strategy)120(,)-260.7(patents)-260.7(ha)30(v)40(e)-260.7(both)-260.7(dir)20(ect)-260.7(and)-260.7(indir)20(ect)]TJ T* [(uses,)-325.7(and)-325.7(the)20(y)-325.7(pla)30(y)-325.7(a)-325.7(k)30(e)20(y)-325.7(r)30(ole)-325.7(in)-325.7(the)-325.7(inter)-40(pla)30(y)-325.7(betw)40(een)-325.7(interaction)-325.7(and)]TJ T* [(isolation)-237.1(because)-237.1(the)20(y)-237.1(can)-237.1(both)-237.1(isolate)-237.1(competitor)-20(s)-237.1(i)0(f)-237.1(y)40(ou)-237.1(enfor)20(ce)-237.1(exclu-)]TJ T* [(si)20(vity)-336.2(and)-336.2(pr)30(o)40(vide)-336.2(the)-336.2(basis)-336.2(for)-336.2(interaction,)-336.2(such)-336.2(as)-336.2(thr)30(ough)-336.2(licenses)-336.2(or)]TJ T* [(b)15(usiness)-278(v)40(entur)20(es.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Ther)20(e)-174.5(a)0(r)20(e)-174.5(additional)-174.5(pair)-45(ings)-174.5(of)-174.5(opposites.)-174.5(Another)-174.5(impor)-25(tant)-174.5(pair)-45(ing)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(for)-374.9(the)-374.9(strateg)-30(ist)-374.9(is)-374.9(action)-374.9(and)-374.9(inaction.)-374.9(The)20(y)-374.9(r)20(epr)20(esent)-374.9(tw)40(o)-374.9(opposites)]TJ T* [(that)-266.7(ha)30(v)40(e)-266.7(an)-266.7(equal)-266.7(capacity)-266.7(to)-266.7(pr)30(oduce)-266.7(success)-266.7(when)-266.7(skillfully)-266.7(emplo)40(y)40(e)0(d)]TJ T* [(to)20(gether)40(.)-279.5(A)-279.5(strateg)-30(ist)-279.5(should)-279.5(al)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-279.5(k)30(eep)-279.5(in)-279.5(mind)-279.5(that)-279.5(the)-279.5(attainment)-279.5(of)]TJ T* [(a)-336.5(desir)20(ed)-336.5(r)20(esult)-336.5(does)-336.5(not)-336.5(necessar)-45(ily)-336.5(r)20(equir)20(e)-336.5(pur)-40(posi)20(v)40(e)-336.5(action)-336.5(all)-336.5(of)-336.5(the)]TJ T* [(time)30(.)-348.1(I)0(n)-348.1(f)-25(act,)-348.1(man)20(y)-348.1(o)0(f)-348.1(the)-348.1(most)-348.1(effecti)20(v)40(e)-348.1(strateg)-30(ies)-348.1(in)40(v)40(olv)40(e)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 23.7498 0 TD [(intentionall)25(y)]TJ /F1 1 Tf -23.7498 -1.2174 TD [(doing)-278(nothing.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 227.2061 248.9234 Tm [(Strate)15(g)-30(i)0(c)-333(Inaction)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 223.1201 Tm [(Strategy)-193.1(can)-193.1(be)-193.1(mor)20(e)-193.1(about)-193.1(what)-193.1(not)-193.1(to)-193.1(do)-193.1(than)-193.1(what)-193.1(to)-193.1(do)50(.)-193.1(The)-193.1(strateg)-30(ic)]TJ T* [(inaction)-284(that)-284(this)-284(implies)-284(is)-284(a)-284(p)0(o)40(w)40(erful)-284(and)-284(often)-284(o)40(v)40(erlook)30(ed)-284(tool)-284(of)-284(the)]TJ T* [(master)-256(strateg)-30(ist.)-256(Put)-256(another)-256(w)30(a)30(y)120(,)-256(a)0(n)-256(example)-256(of)-256(a)-256(mediocr)20(e)-256(strateg)-30(ist)-256(is)]TJ T* [(the)-278(indi)20(vidual)-278(who)-278(tak)30(es)-278(action)-278(when)-278(no)-278(action)-278(is)-278(needed.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 70 0 obj > endobj 71 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(25)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 694.6357 Tm [(Mediocr)20(e)-353.1(strateg)-30(ists)-353.1(can)-353.1(ha)30(v)40(e)-353.1(difculty)-353.1(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(r)-45(iding)-353.1(the)-353.1(compulsion)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(to)-326.6(do)-326.6(something.)-326.6(This)-326.6(can)-326.6(cr)20(eate)-326.6(mistak)30(es)-326.6(for)-326.6(a)-326.6(competitor)-326.6(to)-326.6(exploit,)]TJ T* [(since)-210.7(action)-210.7(often)-210.7(pr)30(oduces)-210.7(mor)20(e)-210.7(r)-45(isk)-210.7(than)-210.7(inaction)-210.7(if)-210.7(for)-210.7(no)-210.7(other)-210.7(r)20(eason)]TJ T* [(than)-243.6(that)-243.6(it)-243.6(tends)-243.6(to)-243.6(consume)-243.6(limited)-243.6(r)20(esour)20(ces)-243.6(that)-243.6(might)-243.6(not)-243.6(be)-243.6(r)20(eadily)]TJ T* [(r)20(eplenished.)-303.5(An)-303.5(example)-303.5(of)-303.5(appr)30(opr)-45(iate)-303.5(inaction)-303.5(w)30(a)0(s)-303.5(Boeing)100(s)-303.5(r)20(esponse)]TJ T* [(to)-230.1(the)-230.1(Airb)15(us)-230.1(380.)-230.1(In)-230.1(2005,)-230.1(Boeing)-230.1(r)20(elinquished)-230.1(the)-230.1(title)-230.1(of)-230.1(seller)-230.1(of)-230.1(the)]TJ T* [(w)40(orld)100(s)-276.6(largest)-276.6(commer)20(cial)-276.6(jetliner)40(,)125()-276.6(long)-276.6(held)-276.6(b)25(y)-276.6(its)-276.6(747,)-276.6(and)-276.6(a)-276.6(point)-276.6(of)]TJ T* [(pr)-45(ide)30(,)-183(t)0(o)-183(the)-183(Airb)15(us)-183(380.)-183(While)-183(this)-183(happened,)-183(Boeing)-183(focused)-183(instead)-183(on)]TJ T* [(the)-189(smaller)-189(787)-189(Dr)20(eamliner)40(.)-189(While)-189(de)20(v)40(eloping)-189(the)-189(787,)-189(Boeing)-189(pr)30(oduced)]TJ T* [(a)-262.1(n)15(umber)-262.1(of)-262.1(patents)-262.1(associated)-262.1(with)-262.1(composite-based)-262.1(air)20(craft,)-262.1(which)-262.1(ar)20(e)]TJ T* [(lik)30(ely)-402.6(to)-402.6(ha)30(v)40(e)-402.6(mor)20(e)-402.6(applicability)-402.6(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-402.6(the)-402.6(long)-402.6(ter)-45(m)-402.6(than)-402.6(kno)40(wledge)]TJ T* [(gained)-318.4(to)-318.4(pr)30(oduce)-318.4(v)40(e)0(r)-30(y)-318.4(large)-318.4(air)20(craft)-318.4(with)-318.4(mor)20(e)-318.4(con)40(v)40(entional)-318.4(mater)-45(ials)]TJ T* [(and)-260.9(methods.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 192.5428 531.4221 Tm (17)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 203.8901 527.2632 Tm [(If)-261(Boeing)-260.9(had)-261(r)20(eacted)-260.9(to)-260.9(Airb)15(us)-260.9(with)-260.9(action)-260.9(designed)-260.9(to)]TJ -6.2943 -1.2174 TD [(k)30(eep)-328.1(or)-328.1(r)20(egain)-328.1(the)-328.1(lost)-328.1(title)30(,)-328.1(i)0(t)-328.1(w)40(ould)-328.1(ha)30(v)40(e)-328.1(tak)30(en)-328.1(r)20(esour)20(ces)]TJ 23.5536 0 TD -.03 Tc (away)Tj 2.2391 0 TD 0 Tc [(that)-328.1(it)]TJ -25.7926 -1.2174 TD [(could)-278(otherwise)-278(ha)30(v)40(e)-278(used)-278(on)-278(its)-278(787)-278(v)40(entur)20(e)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Strateg)-30(ic)-341.4(inaction)-341.4(is)-341.4(a)-341.4(p)0(o)40(w)40(erful)-341.4(tool)-341.4(because)-341.4(it)-341.4(conser)-25(v)40(e)0(s)-341.4(r)20(esour)20(ces)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(that)-307.9(y)40(o)0(u)-307.8(can)-307.8(put)-307.9(to)-307.8(use)-307.8(else)20(wher)20(e)30(.)-307.9(If)-307.9(y)40(our)-307.9(goal)-307.9(is)-307.9(to)-307.8(incr)20(ease)-307.8(y)40(our)-307.8(le)20(v)40(e)0(l)]TJ T* [(of)-302.9(interaction)-302.9(with)-302.9(a)-302.9(base)-302.9(of)-302.9(pr)30(ospecti)20(v)40(e)-302.9(customer)-20(s,)-302.9(and)-302.9(y)40(our)-302.9(competi-)]TJ T* [(tor)-368.2(tak)30(es)-368.2(action)-368.2(that)-368.2(has)-368.2(the)-368.2(effect)-368.2(of)-368.2(isolating)-368.2(itself)-368.2(fr)30(om)-368.2(that)-368.2(pool)-368.2(of)]TJ T* [(customer)-20(s,)-390.8(then)-390.8(y)40(our)-390.8(competitor)-390.8(in)-390.8(effect)-390.8(does)-390.8(competiti)20(v)40(e)-390.8(w)40(ork)-390.8(for)]TJ T* [(y)40(ou.)-248.4(In)-248.4(both)-248.4(the)-248.4(afor)20(ementioned)-248.4(examples)-248.4(of)-248.4(the)-248.4(T)110(aur)-25(us)-248.4(and)-248.4(the)-248.4(Airb)15(us)]TJ T* [(380,)-269.4(the)-269.4(o)40(wning)-269.4(organizations)-269.4(took)-269.4(it)-269.4(on)-269.4(themselv)40(es)-269.4(to)-269.4(jeopar)20(dize)-269.4(their)]TJ T* [(competiti)20(v)40(eness)-350.1(in)-350.1(v)40(e)0(r)-30(y)-350.1(impor)-25(tant)-350.1(mark)30(et)-350.1(segmentssedans)-350.1(and)-350.1(mid-)]TJ T* [(sized)-252.9(air)20(craft,)-252.9(r)20(especti)20(v)40(ely)120(.)-252.9(A)0(s)-252.9(Napoleon)-252.9(Bonapar)-25(te)-252.9(is)-252.9(noted)-252.9(to)-252.9(ha)30(v)40(e)-252.9(said,)]TJ T* [(Ne)20(v)40(e)0(r)-217.2(inter)-40(r)-25(upt)-217.2(y)40(our)-217.2(enem)30(y)-217.2(when)-217.2(he)-217.2(is)-217.2(making)-217.2(a)-217.2(mistak)30(e)30(.)125()]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 400.6816 364.0497 Tm (18)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 411.528 359.8908 Tm [(No)40(w)120(,)-217.2(just)]TJ -24.4175 -1.2174 TD [(as)-250(Napoleon)-250(w)40(ould)-250(pr)20(epar)20(e)-250(his)-250(tr)30(oops)-250(for)-250(the)-250(e)20(v)40(entuality)-250(that)-250(his)-250(enem)30(y)]TJ T* [(w)40(ould)-339.6(r)20(ealize)-339.6(its)-339.6(mistak)30(e)30(,)-339.6(par)-25(t)-339.6(o)0(f)-339.6(what)-339.6(a)-339.6(patent)-339.6(strateg)-30(ist)-339.6(can)-339.6(do)-339.6(while)]TJ T* [(a)-298.1(competitor)-298.1(is)-298.1(making)-298.1(a)-298.1(mistak)30(e)-298.1(i)0(s)-298.1(t)0(o)-298.1(b)15(uild)-298.1(a)-298.1(patent)-298.1(por)-25(tfolio)-298.1(that)-298.1(will)]TJ T* [(mak)30(e)-325(i)0(t)-325(mor)20(e)-325(difcult)-325(for)-325(that)-325(competitor)-325(to)-325(r)20(e)0(b)15(uild)-325(its)-325(position)-325(on)-325(its)]TJ T* [(o)40(w)0(n)-278(ter)-45(ms)-278(once)-278(its)-278(decision)-278(mak)30(er)-20(s)-278(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-278(r)20(ealized)-278(their)-278(mistak)30(e)30(.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 228.1396 248.9234 Tm [(Strate)15(gy)-333(and)-333(Chang)15(e)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 223.1201 Tm [(Action)-280.2(and)-280.2(inaction)-280.2(ar)20(e)-280.2(k)30(e)20(y)-280.2(elements)-280.2(of)-280.2(choice)30(,)-280.2(since)-280.2(in)-280.2(the)-280.2(act)-280.2(of)-280.2(pur-)]TJ T* [(suing)-276.6(some)-276.6(options)-276.6(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-276.6(other)-20(s)-276.6(y)40(ou)-276.6(ar)20(e)-276.6(both)-276.6(doing)-276.6(and)-276.6(not)-276.6(doing)-276.6(what)]TJ T* [(could)-168.4(be)-168.4(done)30(.)-168.4(Thr)30(ough)-168.4(a)-168.4(succession)-168.4(of)-168.4(choices,)-168.4(some)-168.4(perhaps)-168.4(better)-168.4(than)]TJ T* [(other)-20(s,)-175.4(y)40(o)0(u)-175.4(a)0(r)20(e)-175.4(wher)20(e)-175.4(y)40(ou)-175.4(ar)20(e)-175.4(because)-175.4(of)-175.4(what)-175.4(y)40(o)0(u)-175.4(did)-175.4(or)-175.4(did)-175.4(not)-175.4(do)-175.4(in)-175.4(the)]TJ ET endstream endobj 72 0 obj > endobj 73 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (26)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(past.)-283.3(Y)160(o)0(u)-283.3(operate)-283.3(in)-283.3(the)-283.3(pr)20(esent,)-283.3(making)-283.3(ne)20(w)-283.3(choices)-283.3(that)-283.3(will)-283.3(pr)30(oduce)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(ne)20(w)-226.7(r)20(esults.)-226.7(Change)30(,)-226.7(r)20(esulting)-226.7(fr)30(om)-226.7(y)40(our)-226.7(choices)-226.7(and)-226.7(the)-226.7(choices)-226.7(of)-226.7(oth-)]TJ T* [(er)-20(s,)-281.3(cr)20(eates)-281.3(an)-281.3(uncer)-25(tain)-281.3(futur)20(e)30(.)-281.3(Y)160(our)-281.3(strategy)-281.3(m)15(ust)-281.3(addr)20(ess)-281.3(y)40(our)-281.3(pr)20(esent)]TJ T* [(and)-278.5(y)40(our)-278.5(uncer)-25(tain)-278.5(futur)20(e)-278.5(i)0(n)-278.5(context)-278.5(with)-278.5(y)40(our)-278.5(past.)-278.5(The)-278.5(patent)-278.5(system)]TJ T* [(magnies)-219.7(these)-219.7(tr)-25(uths)-219.7(because)-219.7(of)-219.7(the)-219.7(lag)-219.7(time)-219.7(betw)40(een)-219.7(the)-219.7(conception)-219.7(of)]TJ T* [(an)-259.8(idea)-259.9(and)-259.8(the)-259.8(a)30(w)30(a)0(r)20(d)-259.8(of)-259.9(a)-259.8(patent)-259.9(to)-259.9(pr)30(otect)-259.9(the)-259.9(idea,)-259.9(the)-259.8(latter)-259.8(outcome)]TJ T* [(itself)-339.8(being)-339.8(uncer)-25(tain.)-339.8(T)150(oda)30(y)-339.8(y)40(ou)-339.8(ar)20(e)-339.8(making)-339.8(y)40(our)-339.8(patent)-339.8(por)-25(tfolio)-339.8(for)]TJ T* [(v)40(e)-248.8(and)-248.8(ten)-248.8(y)40(ear)-20(s)-248.8(out,)-248.8(and)-248.8(y)40(our)-248.8(patent)-248.8(strategy)-248.8(is)-248.8(cur)-40(r)20(ently)-248.8(operating)-248.8(on)]TJ T* [(the)-222.3(base)-222.4(of)-222.4(decisions)-222.4(made)-222.4(v)40(e)-222.4(o)0(r)-222.4(ten)-222.3(y)40(ear)-20(s)-222.4(ago)50(.)-222.4(S)0(o)50(,)-222.4(unless)-222.4(y)40(o)0(u)-222.4(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-222.4(been)]TJ T* [(in)40(v)40(olv)40(ed)-304.7(with)-304.7(the)-304.7(patent)-304.7(strategy)-304.7(of)-304.7(a)-304.7(compan)20(y)-304.7(for)-304.7(10)-304.7(y)40(ear)-20(s,)-304.7(or)-304.7(plan)-304.7(to)]TJ T* [(be)-327.5(in)40(v)40(olv)40(ed)-327.5(with)-327.5(the)-327.5(patent)-327.5(strategy)-327.5(10)-327.5(y)40(ear)-20(s)-327.5(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-327.5(n)0(o)40(w)120(,)-327.5(y)40(ou)-327.5(ar)20(e)-327.5(l)0(i)20(ving)]TJ T* [(with)-335.2(the)-335.2(decisions)-335.2(and)-335.2(actions)-335.2(of)-335.2(y)40(our)-335.2(pr)20(edecessor)-20(s,)-335.2(while)-335.2(at)-335.2(the)-335.2(same)]TJ T* [(time)-278(cr)20(eating)-278(the)-278(futur)20(e)-278(that)-278(y)40(our)-278(successor)-20(s)-278(will)-278(ha)30(v)40(e)-278(to)-278(li)20(v)40(e)-278(with.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(In)-442.3(this)-442.3(uncer)-25(tain)-442.3(en)40(vir)30(onment,)-442.3(one)-442.3(unifying)-442.3(element)-442.3(allo)40(ws)-442.3(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(to)-509.3(succeed:)-509.3(inno)40(v)30(ation.)-509.3(Inno)40(v)30(ation)-509.3(cr)20(eates)-509.3(y)40(our)-509.3(emergent)-509.3(tr)20(easur)20(es.)]TJ T* [(Thr)30(ough)-352.9(inno)40(v)30(ation,)-352.9(along)-352.9(with)-352.9(the)-352.9(intellectual)-352.9(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-352.9(it)-352.9(generates,)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-206.4(can)-206.4(both)-206.4(cr)20(eate)-206.4(the)-206.4(futur)20(e)-206.4(and,)-206.4(to)-206.4(some)-206.4(deg)-30(r)20(e)0(e)30(,)-206.4(mitigate)-206.4(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)-20(s)-206.4(of)-206.4(the)]TJ T* [(past.)-317.5(Thr)30(ough)-317.5(inno)40(v)30(ation,)-317.5(y)40(o)0(u)-317.5(mak)30(e)-317.5(the)-317.5(best)-317.5(of)-317.5(what)-317.5(past)-317.5(actions)-317.5(g)-30(i)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-176.9(toda)30(y)120(.)-176.9(Ev)40(en)-176.9(if)-176.9(y)40(o)0(u)-176.9(o)0(r)-176.9(y)40(our)-176.9(pr)20(edecessor)-20(s)-176.9(did)-176.9(not)-176.9(mak)30(e)-176.9(the)-176.9(best)-176.9(choices,)]TJ T* [(inno)40(v)30(ation)-312.5(pr)30(o)40(vides)-312.5(some)-312.5(measur)20(e)-312.5(o)0(f)-312.5(contr)30(ol)-312.6(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-312.5(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-312.6(e)20(v)40(ents.)-312.5(This)]TJ T* [(applies)-430.4(to)-430.4(both)-430.4(the)-430.4(cr)20(eation)-430.4(and)-430.4(the)-430.4(impr)30(o)40(v)40(ement)-430.4(of)-430.4(in)40(v)40(entions)-430.4(and)]TJ T* [(b)15(usiness)-421.9(models.)-421.9(It)-421.9(also)-421.9(applies)-421.9(to)-421.9(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-421.9(licensing)-421.9(and)-421.9(acquisitions,)]TJ T* [(which)-232.2(can)-232.2(mak)30(e)-232.2(u)0(p)-232.2(for)-232.2(ine)20(vitab)15(le)-232.2(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)-20(s)-232.2(or)-232.2(shor)-25(tcomings)-232.2(in)-232.2(r)20(esear)20(ch)-232.2(and)]TJ T* [(de)20(v)40(elopment)-278(choices)-278(and)-278(successes.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Al)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-349.2(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-349.2(y)40(our)-349.2(desir)20(ed)-349.2(r)20(esult)-349.2(B)-349.1(in)-349.2(mind)-349.2(when)-349.2(y)40(o)0(u)-349.2(plan)-349.2(y)40(our)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(strategy)120(,)-398.7(b)15(ut)-398.7(put)-398.7(it)-398.7(into)-398.7(context)-398.7(with)-398.7(y)40(our)-398.7(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-398.7(situation)-398.7(A)-398.6(and)]TJ T* [(y)40(our)-285.8(past.)-285.8(Inno)40(v)30(ate)-285.8(to)-285.8(mak)30(e)-285.8(the)-285.8(best)-285.8(of)-285.8(y)40(our)-285.8(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-285.8(situation)-285.8(and)-285.8(y)40(our)]TJ T* [(past.)-435.5(Capitalize)-435.5(on)-435.5(the)-435.5(kno)40(w-ho)40(w)-435.5(that)-435.5(y)40(o)0(u)-435.5(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)30(,)-435.5(and)-435.5(r)20(emain)-435.5(open-)]TJ T* [(minded)-331.8(to)-331.8(ne)20(w)-331.8(oppor)-25(tunities.)-331.8(It)-331.8(ma)30(y)120(,)-331.8(after)-331.8(all,)-331.8(be)-331.8(possib)15(le)-331.8(to)-331.8(pur)20(chase)]TJ T* [(the)-284.4(inno)40(v)30(ation)-284.4(track)-284.4(of)-284.4(another)-284.4(entity)-284.4(if)-284.4(y)40(o)0(u)-284.4(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-284.4(otherwise)-284.4(missed)-284.4(out)]TJ T* [(on)-234(that)-234(inno)40(v)30(ation.)-234(Consider)-234(the)-234(viability)-234(of)-234(r)20(eaching)-234(y)40(our)-234(desir)20(ed)-234(r)20(esult)]TJ T* [(B)-313.9(in)-313.9(light)-313.9(of)-313.9(what)-313.9(y)40(o)0(u)-313.9(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-313.9(done)-313.9(and)-313.9(the)-313.9(r)20(esour)20(ces)-313.9(that)-313.9(y)40(o)0(u)-313.9(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-313.9(a)0(t)]TJ T* [(y)40(our)-320.7(disposal.)-320.7(Then)-320.7(tak)30(e)-320.7(action)-320.7(and)-320.7(pur)-20(sue)-320.7(goals)-320.7(that)-320.7(mak)30(e)-320.7(sense)-320.7(with)]TJ T* [(tw)40(o)-278(considerations)-278(that)-278(will)-278(follo)40(w:)]TJ /F4 1 Tf .5031 -2.4783 TD (1.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(The)-278(perfect)-278(strategy)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (2.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(The)-278(good-enough)-278(strategy)]TJ ET endstream endobj 74 0 obj > endobj 75 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(27)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 266.937 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 568.556 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 701.975 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 683.2947 Tm [(Kno)40(wledg)15(e)-333(Links)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 0 -1.2174 TD [(One)-355.6(of)-355.6(the)-355.6(quintessential)-355.6(Amer)-45(ican)-355.6(in)40(v)40(entions)-355.6(is)-355.6(the)-355.6(air)-40(plane)30(,)]TJ T* [(patented)-392.6(b)25(y)-392.6(the)-392.6(Wr)-45(ight)-392.6(br)30(other)-20(s)-392.6(i)0(n)-392.6(1906.)-392.6(Befor)20(e)-392.6(the)-392.6(Wr)-45(ight)]TJ T* [(Fly)40(er)40(,)-369.7(p)0(o)40(w)40(e)0(r)20(e)0(d)-369.7(ight)-369.7(of)-369.7(hea)30(vier-than-air)-369.7(air)20(craft)-369.7(did)-369.7(not)-369.7(exist.)]TJ T* [(The)-328.1(Wr)-45(ight)-328.1(br)30(other)-20(s)-328.1(themselv)40(es)-328.1(w)40(e)0(r)20(e)-328.1(not)-328.1(e)20(v)40(en)-328(in)-328.1(the)-328.1(existing)]TJ T* [(ying)-358.8(b)15(usinesses)-358.8(of)-358.8(glider)-20(s)-358.8(and)-358.8(lighter-than-air)-358.8(balloons.)-358.8(The)20(y)]TJ T* [(did,)-459(ho)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-459(ha)30(v)40(e)-459(a)-459(track)-459(r)20(ecor)20(d)-459(o)0(f)-459(making)-459(both)-459(light)-459(and)]TJ T* [(str)30(ong)-241.3(b)15(u)0(t)-241.3(fundamentally)-241.2(under)-40(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)20(e)0(d)-241.2(machines,)-241.3(namely)120(,)-241.3(ef-)]TJ T* [(cient)-293(human-po)40(w)40(e)0(r)20(e)0(d)-293(bicycles.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 291.3621 575.8719 Tm (19)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 303.0767 571.7131 Tm [(Linking)-293(this)-293(pr)-45(ior)-293(exper)-45(ience)]TJ -13.3864 -1.2174 TD [(to)-412.3(r)20(esear)20(ch)-412.3(about)-412.3(the)-412.3(dynamics)-412.3(of)-412.3(ight)-412.3(put)-412.3(them)-412.3(in)-412.3(a)-412.3(good)]TJ T* [(position)-298(to)-298(tak)30(e)-298(the)-298(step)-298(to)40(w)30(a)0(r)20(d)-298(cr)20(eating)-298(the)-298(r)-20(st)-298.1(successful)-298(air-)]TJ T* [(plane)-209.7(design.)-209.7(The)-209.7(Wr)-45(ight)-209.7(br)30(other)-20(s)-209.7(r)20(ealized)-209.7(that)-209.7(their)-209.7(technolo)20(gy)]TJ T* [(str)20(engths)-374.5(w)40(ould)-374.5(become)-374.5(k)30(e)20(y)-374.5(t)0(o)-374.5(the)-374.5(success)-374.5(of)-374.5(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)20(e)0(d)-374.5(ight,)]TJ T* [(and)-310.5(the)20(y)-310.5(had)-310.5(a)-310.5(v)40(er)-20(satile)-310.5(enough)-310.5(mindset)-310.5(to)-310.5(v)40(entur)20(e)-310.5(into)-310.5(a)-310.5(n)0(e)20(w)]TJ T* [(pr)30(oduct)-327.2(ar)20(ea.)-327.2(Ne)20(w)-327.2(ideas)-327.2(and)-327.2(b)15(usinesses)-327.2(do)-327.2(not)-327.2(generally)-327.2(come)]TJ T* [(out)-329.9(of)-329.9(the)-329.8(b)15(lue)-329.8(sky;)-329.8(rather)40(,)-329.8(the)20(y)-329.8(b)15(uild)-329.8(on)-329.8(pr)20(e)20(vious)-329.9(exper)-45(ience)30(,)]TJ T* [(e)20(v)40(en)-435.6(if)-435.6(the)20(y)-435.6(tak)30(e)-435.6(that)-435.6(exper)-45(ience)-435.6(into)-435.6(a)-435.6(completely)-435.6(differ)20(ent)]TJ T* [(dir)20(ection.)]TJ ET q 1 0 0 1 132.025 435.087 cm 0 0 m 0 266.937 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 266.937 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 228.9625 398.3632 Tm [(The)-333(P)50(erfect)-333(Strate)15(gy)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 372.56 Tm [(W)125(e)-248.6(all)-248.6(lik)30(e)-248.6(the)-248.6(idea)-248.6(of)-248.6(perfection.)-248.6(If)-248.6(w)40(e)-248.6(ar)20(e)-248.6(technolo)20(g)-30(ists,)-248.6(in)-248.6(f)-25(act,)-248.6(w)40(e)-248.6(can)]TJ T* [(often)-383.3(achie)20(v)40(e)-383.3(perfection.)-383.3(Sometimes)-383.3(perfection)-383.3(is)-383.3(necessar)-30(y)120(.)-383.3(Consider)]TJ T* [(laser)-421.4(optics,)-421.4(for)-421.4(example:)-421.4(If)-421.4(ther)20(e)-421.4(i)0(s)-421.4(one)-421.4(minor)-421.4(a)30(w)-421.4(i)0(n)-421.4(the)-421.4(lens,)-421.4(the)]TJ T* [(in)40(v)40(ention)-273.4(does)-273.4(not)-273.4(function.)-273.4(Ev)40(en)-273.4(in)-273.4(our)-273.4(pr)30(ocesses,)-273.4(w)40(e)-273.4(seek)-273.4(perfection.)]TJ T* [(Six)-407.3(Sigma,)-407.3(a)-407.3(p)0(r)30(ocess)-407.3(v)30(a)0(r)-45(iation)-407.3(contr)30(ol)-407.3(methodolo)20(gy)120(,)-407.3(r)20(emains)-407.3(a)-407.3(major)]TJ T* [(initiati)20(v)40(e)-309.2(for)-309.2(a)-309.2(n)15(umber)-309.2(of)-309.2(organizations)-309.2(in)-309.2(the)-309.2(attempt)-309.2(to)-309.2(r)20(educe)-309.2(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)-20(s)]TJ T* [(in)-237.6(pr)30(ocesses)-237.6(to)-237.6(almost)-237.6(nonexistent)-237.6(le)20(v)40(els.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 312.6949 293.0326 Tm (20)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 323.7753 288.8737 Tm [(Can)-237.6(w)40(e)-237.6(achie)20(v)40(e)-237.6(perfection)-237.6(in)]TJ -16.7582 -1.2174 TD [(strategy?)-278(Y)160(es,)-278(in)-278(theor)-30(y)120(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(T)150(o)-180.4(de)20(v)40(elop)-180.4(this)-180.4(theor)20(etical)-180.4(ideal)-180.4(strategy)120(,)-180.4(w)40(e)-180.4(star)-25(t)-180.4(with)-180.4(the)-180.4(mor)20(e)-180.4(com-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(mon)-293.4(actual)-293.4(practice)-293.4(of)-293.4(strategy)120(,)-293.4(which)-293.4(is)-293.4(a)-293.4(system)-293.4(of)-293.4(manag)-30(ing)-293.4(options.)]TJ T* [(As)-410.3(strategy)-410.3(pla)30(ys)-410.3(out,)-410.3(it)-410.3(in)40(v)40(olv)40(es)-410.3(the)-410.3(decision)-410.3(to)-410.3(tak)30(e)-410.3(a)0(n)20(y)-410.3(n)15(umber)-410.3(of)]TJ T* [(options,)-319.2(and)-319.2(as)-319.2(the)-319.2(n)15(umber)-319.2(of)-319.2(options)-319.2(incr)20(eases,)-319.2(it)-319.2(becomes)-319.2(inher)20(ently)]TJ T* [(mor)20(e)-322.7(difcult)-322.7(to)-322.7(pr)20(edict)-322.7(exactly)-322.7(ho)40(w)-322.7(things)-322.7(will)-322.7(tur)-40(n)-322.7(out.)-322.7(F)20(o)0(r)-322.7(this)-322.7(the)]TJ T* [(f)-25(amous)-389.2(Pr)-25(ussian)-389.2(strateg)-30(ist)-389.2(Helm)15(uth)-389.2(v)40(o)0(n)-389.2(Moltk)30(e)-389.2(the)-389.2(Elder)-389.2(coined)-389.2(the)]TJ ET endstream endobj 76 0 obj > endobj 77 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (28)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 693.0638 Tm 0 Tc [(phrase)-335.8(No)-335.8(battle)-335.8(plan)-335.8(sur)-25(vi)20(v)40(e)0(s)-335.8(contact)-335.8(with)-335.8(the)-335.8(enem)30(y)120(.)125()]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 384.3228 697.2228 Tm (21)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 396.5283 693.0638 Tm [(After)-335.8(e)20(v)40(en)]TJ -24.0109 -1.2174 TD [(one)-363.1(ne)20(w)-363.1(decision,)-363.1(y)40(our)-363.1(action)-363.1(might)-363.1(alr)20(eady)-363.1(be)-363.1(signicantly)-363.1(differ)20(ent)]TJ T* [(fr)30(om)-320.2(the)-320.2(or)-45(ig)-30(inal)-320.2(plan.)-320.2(So)-320.2(if)-320.2(y)40(o)0(u)-320.2(w)30(ant)-320.2(to)-320.2(de)20(v)40(elop)-320.2(a)-320.2(perfect)-320.2(strategy)120(,)-320.2(o)0(r)]TJ T* [(something)-363.1(that)-363.1(em)15(ulates)-363.1(that)-363.1(ideal,)-363.1(y)40(o)0(u)-363.1(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-363.1(t)0(o)-363.1(eliminate)-363.1(y)40(our)-363.1(oppo-)]TJ T* [(nent)100(s)-309.3(options)-309.3(as)-309.3(w)40(ell)-309.3(as)-309.3(the)-309.3(decisions)-309.3(y)40(o)0(u)-309.3(need)-309.3(to)-309.3(mak)30(e)-309.3(i)0(n)-309.3(r)20(esponse)-309.3(to)]TJ T* [(those)-278(options.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(F)20(ollo)40(wing)-420.4(that)-420.4(lo)20(g)-30(i)0(c)30(,)-420.4(the)-420.4(perfect)-420.4(strategy)-420.4(has)-420.4(succeeded)-420.4(befor)20(e)-420.4(i)0(t)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(has)-535.8(been)-535.8(ex)40(ecuted)-535.8(and)-535.8(ther)20(efor)20(e)-535.8(p)0(r)20(esents)-535.8(no)-535.8(uncer)-25(tainties)-535.8(for)-535.8(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(and)-391.5(no)-391.5(options)-391.5(for)-391.5(y)40(our)-391.5(opponent.)-391.5(This)-391.5(is)-391.5(in)-391.5(k)30(eeping)-391.5(with)-391.5(the)-391.5(ideal)]TJ T* [(stated)-282.4(b)25(y)-282.4(the)-282.4(f)-25(amous)-282.4(Chinese)-282.4(strateg)-30(ist,)-282.4(Sun)-282.4(Tzu:)-282.4(Making)-282.4(no)-282.4(mistak)30(es)]TJ T* [(br)-45(ings)-278.1(cer)-25(tain)-278.1(victor)-30(y)120(,)-278.1(for)-278.1(it)-278.1(means)-278.1(conquer)-45(ing)-278.1(an)-278.1(enem)30(y)-278.1(that)-278.1(is)-278.1(alr)20(eady)]TJ T* [(defeated.)125()]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 165.9676 543.798 Tm (22)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 525.6914 Tm [(In)-284.8(practice)30(,)-284.8(the)-284.8(perfect)-284.8(strategy)-284.8(is)-284.8(a)-284.8(target)-284.8(wher)20(eb)25(y)-284.8(y)40(ou)-284.8(eliminate)-284.8(as)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(man)20(y)-299.5(o)0(f)-299.5(y)40(our)-299.5(uncer)-25(tainties)-299.5(and)-299.5(y)40(our)-299.5(opponent)100(s)-299.5(options)-299.6(as)-299.6(expediently)]TJ T* [(possib)15(le)30(.)-278.4(This)-278.4(means)-278.4(doing)-278.4(the)-278.4(g)-30(r)30(oundw)40(ork)-278.4(and)-278.4(pr)20(eparation)-278.4(so)-278.4(that)-278.4(the)]TJ T* [(achie)20(v)40(ement)-186.6(of)-186.6(victor)-30(y)-186.6(a)0(t)-186.6(the)-186.6(time)-186.6(of)-186.6(action)-186.6(is)-186.6(little)-186.6(mor)20(e)-186.6(than)-186.6(a)-186.6(for)-45(mality)120(.)]TJ T* [(As)-361.7(a)-361.7(case)-361.7(in)-361.7(point,)-361.7(when)-361.7(defending)-361.7(in)-361.7(a)-361.7(patent)-361.7(infr)-45(ingement)-361.7(suit)-361.7(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(could)-385.6(do)-385.6(y)40(our)-385.6(patent)-385.6(in)40(v)30(alidity)-385.6(w)40(ork)-385.6(up)-385.6(fr)30(ont.)-385.6(Y)160(o)0(u)-385.6(could)-385.6(b)15(uild)-385.6(y)40(our)]TJ T* [(case)-343.4(to)-343.4(the)-343.4(point)-343.4(wher)20(e)-343.4(i)0(t)-343.4(i)0(s)-343.4(all)-343.4(b)15(u)0(t)-343.4(inarguab)15(le)-343.4(what)-343.4(the)-343.4(outcome)-343.4(will)]TJ T* [(be)-389.9(befor)20(e)-389.9(y)40(ou)-389.9(seek)-389.9(judgment)-389.9(in)-389.9(a)-389.9(cour)-25(t)-389.9(o)0(f)-389.9(l)0(a)30(w)120(.)-389.9(Y)160(ou)-389.9(ha)30(v)40(e)-389.9(clear)-389.9(pr)-45(ior)]TJ T* [(ar)-25(t)-286.1(and)-286.1(effecti)20(v)40(ely)-286.1(win)-286.1(befor)20(e)-286.1(the)-286.1(tr)-45(ial)-286.1(beg)-30(ins,)-286.1(which)-286.1(if)-286.1(y)40(our)-286.1(opposition)]TJ T* [(belie)20(v)40(e)0(s)-316.6(the)-316.6(same)30(,)-316.6(could)-316.6(lead)-316.6(to)-316.6(a)-316.6(settlement)-316.6(befor)20(e)-316.6(y)40(ou)-316.6(e)20(v)40(en)-316.6(step)-316.6(into)]TJ T* [(the)-385.4(cour)-25(tr)30(oom.)-385.4(T)150(o)-385.4(fur)-25(ther)-385.4(emphasize)-385.4(the)-385.4(idea)-385.4(of)-385.4(the)-385.4(perfect)-385.4(strategy)120(,)]TJ T* [(e)20(v)40(er)-30(y)-300.2(attor)-40(ne)20(y)-300.2(kno)40(ws)-300.2(the)-300.2(tr)-45(ial)-300.2(maxim)-300.2(ne)20(v)40(e)0(r)-300.2(ask)-300.2(a)-300.2(question)-300.2(unless)-300.2(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(alr)20(eady)-278(kno)40(w)-278(the)-278(ans)20(w)40(e)0(r)40(.)125()-278(This)-278(is)-278(a)-278(for)-45(m)-278(o)0(f)-278(the)-278(same)-278(ideal.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Realistically)-472.8(though,)-472.8(the)-472.8(perfect)-472.8(strategy)-472.8(is)-472.8(almost)-472.8(impossib)15(le)-472.8(to)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(achie)20(v)40(e)30(.)-227.4(Y)160(ou)-227.4(will)-227.4(al)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-227.4(b)0(e)-227.4(uncer)-25(tain)-227.4(about)-227.4(what)-227.4(the)-227.4(opposition)-227.4(will)-227.4(do)50(.)]TJ T* [(F)20(o)0(r)-312.4(example)30(,)-312.4(e)20(v)40(e)0(n)-312.4(when)-312.4(y)40(o)0(u)-312.4(kno)40(w)-312.4(the)-312.4(ans)20(w)40(e)0(r)-312.4(t)0(o)-312.4(a)-312.4(question,)-312.4(as)-312.4(in)-312.4(the)]TJ T* [(for)20(egoing)-284.8(maxim,)-284.8(and)-284.8(e)20(v)40(en)-284.8(if)-284.8(the)-284.8(witness)-284.8(kno)40(ws)-284.8(y)40(o)0(u)-284.8(kno)40(w)-284.8(the)-284.8(ans)20(w)40(e)0(r)40(,)]TJ T* [(the)-351.2(witness)-351.2(might)-351.2(lie)30(.)-351.2(Y)160(ou)-351.2(simply)-351.2(cannot)-351.2(contr)30(ol)-351.2(what)-351.2(the)-351.2(opposition)]TJ T* [(will)-371.2(do)-371.1(in)-371.1(the)-371.1(w)30(a)30(y)-371.1(y)40(o)0(u)-371.1(can)-371.1(contr)30(ol)-371.1(the)-371.1(tolerance)-371.1(of)-30(,)-371.1(s)0(a)30(y)120(,)-371.2(y)40(our)-371.1(man)15(u-)]TJ T* [(f)-25(actur)-45(ing)-291.5(lathe)30(.)-291.5(Y)160(ou)-291.5(will)-291.5(also)-291.5(ha)30(v)40(e)-291.5(missing)-291.5(infor)-45(mation)-291.5(that)-291.5(y)40(o)0(u)-291.5(cannot)]TJ T* [(kno)40(w)120(,)-276.2(such)-276.2(as)-276.2(unpub)15(lished)-276.2(competiti)20(v)40(e)-276.2(patent)-276.2(applications)-276.2(sitting)-276.2(at)-276.2(the)]TJ T* [(patent)-339.1(ofce)30(.)-339.1(S)0(o)-339.1(although)-339.1(w)40(e)-339.1(lik)30(e)-339.1(the)-339.1(idea)-339.1(of)-339.1(the)-339.1(perfect)-339.1(strategy)120(,)-339.1(y)40(ou)]TJ T* [(will)-429.7(spend)-429.7(most)-429.7(of)-429.7(y)40(our)-429.7(time)-429.7(in)-429.7(the)-429.7(domain)-429.7(of)-429.7(the)-429.7(good-enough)]TJ T* [(strategy)120(.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 78 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 79 0 obj > endobj 80 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(29)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 308.78 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 547.634 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 701.975 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 683.2947 Tm [(Sun)-333(Tzu)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 0 -1.2174 TD 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[(in)-298.5(its)-298.5(tr)-25(uth,)-298.5(that)-298.5(90%)-298.5(of)-298.5(patents)-298.5(can)-298.5(be)-298.5(in)40(v)30(alidated,)-298.5(in)-298.5(whole)-298.5(or)]TJ T* [(in)-326.9(par)-25(t,)-326.9(if)-326.9(someone)-326.9(is)-326.9(willing)-326.9(to)-326.9(in)40(v)40(est)-326.9(in)-326.9(nding)-326.9(the)-326.9(pr)-45(ior)-326.9(ar)-25(t.)]TJ T* [(Ar)-45(med)-252.1(with)-252.1(con)40(vincing)-252.1(in)40(v)30(alidating)-252.1(pr)-45(ior)-252.1(ar)-25(t,)-252.1(a)-252.1(patent)-252.1(strateg)-30(ist)]TJ T* [(could)-286.5(effecti)20(v)40(ely)-286.5(win)-286.5(a)-286.6(patent)-286.5(litigation)-286.5(case)-286.5(befor)20(e)-286.5(i)0(t)-286.5(i)0(s)-286.6(actually)]TJ T* [(tr)-45(ied)-311.6(in)-311.6(cour)-25(t)-311.6(i)0(f)-311.6(his)-311.6(or)-311.6(her)-311.6(opponent)-311.6(has)-311.6(anchor)20(ed)-311.6(that)-311.6(case)-311.6(on)]TJ T* [(the)-278(no)40(w)-278(i)0(n)40(v)30(alidated)-278(ar)-25(t.)]TJ ET q 1 0 0 1 132.025 393.244 cm 0 0 m 0 308.78 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 308.78 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 197.887 357.5164 Tm [(The)-333(Good-Enough)-333(Strate)15(gy)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 331.7132 Tm [(The)-251(good-enough)-251(strategy)-251(tak)30(es)-251(us)-251(fr)30(om)-251(our)-251(cur)-40(r)20(ent)-251(situation)-251(A)-251(to)]TJ T* [(our)-320.5(desir)20(ed)-320.5(situation)-320.5(B)-320.5(with)-320.5(enough)-320.5(r)20(esour)20(ces)-320.5(still)-320.5(intact)-320.5(to)-320.5(le)20(v)40(erage)]TJ T* [(the)-341.8(success)-341.8(or)-341.8(r)20(eact)-341.8(to)-341.8(an)-341.8(unkno)40(w)30(a)0(b)15(l)0(e)-341.8(once)-341.8(w)40(e)-341.8(get)-341.8(ther)20(e)-341.8(o)0(r)-341.8(along)-341.8(the)]TJ T* [(w)30(a)30(y)120(.)-229.2(A)0(s)-229.2(the)-229.2(pragmatic)-229.2(W)125(orld)-229.2(W)125(a)0(r)-229.2(I)0(I)-229.1(General)-229.2(George)-229.2(S)40(.)-229.2(P)30(atton,)-229.2(Jr)40(.)-229.2(stated,)]TJ T* 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[(with)-217.7(those)-217.7(uncer)-25(tainties)-217.7(come)-217.7(chance)-217.7(and)-217.7(pr)30(obabilities.)-217.7(Ther)20(efor)20(e)30(,)-217.7(ther)20(e)]TJ ET endstream endobj 81 0 obj > endobj 82 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (30)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(comes)-280.3(a)-280.3(time)-280.3(in)-280.3(e)20(v)40(er)-30(y)-280.3(strategy)-280.3(to)-280.3(ex)40(ecute)-280.3(a)-280.3(plan,)-280.3(par)-25(ticularly)-280.3(when)-280.3(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(ha)30(v)40(e)-308.2(an)-308.2(acceptab)15(le)-308.2(pr)30(obability)-308.2(for)-308.2(success)-308.2(and)-308.2(some)-308.2(measur)20(e)-308.2(o)0(f)-308.2(contr)30(ol)]TJ T* [(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-278(h)0(o)40(w)-278(the)-278(futur)20(e)-278(will)-278(look.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(W)15(inning)-258.5(is)-258.5(often)-258.5(mor)20(e)-258.5(about)-258.5(doing)-258.5(a)-258.5(little)-258.5(better)-258.5(than)-258.5(the)-258.5(competi-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(tion)-223.7(than)-223.7(about)-223.7(being)-223.7(perfect.)-223.7(Doing)-223.7(a)-223.7(little)-223.7(better)-223.7(is)-223.7(itself)-223.7(often)-223.7(achie)20(v)40(e)0(d)]TJ T* [(simply)-193.8(b)25(y)-193.8(focusing)-193.8(on)-193.8(the)-193.8(fundamentals.)-193.8(By)-193.8(doing)-193.8(the)-193.8(fundamentals)-193.8(w)40(ell,)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-187.1(will)-187.1(ha)30(v)40(e)-187.1(better)-187.1(exibility)-187.1(to)-187.1(handle)-187.1(chang)-30(ing)-187.1(situations.)-187.1(Vince)-187.1(Lom-)]TJ T* [(bar)20(di,)-239.6(the)-239.6(late)-239.6(master)-239.6(football)-239.6(coach,)-239.6(said,)-239.6(Excellence)-239.6(is)-239.6(achie)20(v)40(e)0(d)-239.6(b)25(y)-239.6(the)]TJ T* [(master)-30(y)-296.7(o)0(f)-296.7(the)-296.7(fundamentals.)125()]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 256.5007 587.213 Tm (26)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 268.2574 583.0541 Tm [(It)-296.7(mak)30(es)-296.7(sense)-296.7(in)-296.7(his)-296.7(w)40(orld.)-296.7(If)-296.7(b)15(lock)30(er)-20(s)]TJ -12.8151 -1.2174 TD [(can)-318.4(b)15(lock,)-318.4(r)20(ecei)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)-318.4(can)-318.4(catch,)-318.4(and)-318.4(the)-318.4(quar)-25(terback)-318.4(can)-318.4(thr)30(o)40(w)120(,)-318.5(all)-318.4(with)]TJ T* [(r)20(eliability)120(,)-241.6(then)-241.6(the)20(y)-241.6(can)-241.6(adjust)-241.6(to)-241.6(almost)-241.6(an)20(ything)-241.6(the)-241.6(opposition)-241.6(thr)30(o)40(w)0(s)]TJ T* [(at)-213(them.)-213(Lik)30(e)20(wise)30(,)-213(a)-213(w)40(ell-wr)-45(itten)-213(patent)-213(that)-213(follo)40(ws)-213(all)-213(the)-213(fundamentals)]TJ T* [(of)-223.5(the)-223.4(patent)-223.4(pr)30(osecution)-223.4(pr)30(ofession)-223.4(will)-223.4(do)-223.4(m)15(uch)-223.4(better)40(,)-223.4(all)-223.4(things)-223.5(being)]TJ T* [(equal,)-256.9(than)-256.9(a)-256.9(poorly)-256.9(wr)-45(itten)-256.9(patent)-256.9(on)-256.9(the)-256.9(same)-256.9(in)40(v)40(ention.)-256.9(Think)-256.9(about)]TJ T* [(the)-329.2(good)-329.2(enough)-329.2(in)-329.2(both)-329.2(b)15(usiness)-329.2(and)-329.2(technical)-329.2(ter)-45(ms.)-329.2(Who)-329.2(w)40(ould)]TJ T* [(car)20(e)-364.8(i)0(f)-364.8(y)40(ou)-364.8(patent)-364.8(and)-364.8(sell)-364.8(the)-364.8(best)-364.8(camera)-364.8(lens)-364.8(on)-364.8(the)-364.8(mark)30(et)-364.8(if)-364.8(y)40(our)]TJ T* [(camera)-305.6(body)-305.6(does)-305.6(not)-305.6(tak)30(e)-305.6(pictur)20(es)-305.6(w)40(ell?)-305.6(The)-305.6(whole)-305.6(unit)-305.6(m)15(ust)-305.6(r)-20(st)-305.6(be)]TJ T* [(good)-372.8(enough)-372.8(to)-372.8(hold)-372.8(its)-372.8(o)40(w)0(n)-372.8(i)0(n)-372.8(the)-372.8(mark)30(et,)-372.8(and)-372.8(fr)30(om)-372.8(ther)20(e)-372.8(y)40(ou)-372.8(can)]TJ T* [(mak)30(e)-278(i)0(t)-278(a)-278(little)-278(mor)20(e)-278(extraor)20(dinar)-30(y)120(,)-278(perhaps)-278(b)25(y)-278(adding)-278(that)-278(special)-278(lens.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Of)-210.6(cour)-20(se)30(,)-210.6(alter)-40(nati)20(v)40(e)-210.6(methods)-210.6(for)-210.6(success)-210.6(do)-210.6(exist)-210.6(that)-210.6(ma)30(y)-210.6(b)0(e)-210.6(expe-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(dient)-210.7(at)-210.7(the)-210.7(time)30(,)-210.7(b)15(ut)-210.7(ar)20(e)-210.7(generally)-210.7(neither)-210.7(perfect)-210.7(nor)-210.7(good)-210.7(enough)-210.7(e)20(v)40(en)]TJ T* [(though)-212.3(the)20(y)-212.3(can)-212.3(em)15(ulate)-212.3(those)-212.3(r)20(esults)-212.3(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-212.3(the)-212.3(long)-212.3(ter)-45(m.)-212.3(These)-212.3(include)30(,)]TJ T* [(among)-240.9(other)-20(s,)-240.9(insider)-240.9(trading,)-240.9(pa)30(ying)-240.9(off)-240.9(decision)-240.9(mak)30(er)-20(s,)-240.9(and)-240.9(industr)-45(ial)]TJ T* [(espionageappr)20(eciating)-375.8(that)-375.9(some)-375.9(cultur)20(es)-375.8(vie)20(w)-375.8(these)-375.9(acts)-375.9(differ)20(ently)]TJ T* [(than)-214.4(other)-20(s.)-214.4(Methods)-214.4(such)-214.4(as)-214.4(these)-214.4(ar)20(e)-214.4(illegal)-214.4(in)-214.4(most)-214.4(industr)-45(ial)-214.4(countr)-45(ies)]TJ T* [(and)-332(w)40(ould)-332(ha)30(v)40(e)-332(to)-332(be)-332(consider)20(ed)-332(cheating,)-332(ther)20(efor)20(e)30(,)-332(b)25(y)-332(the)-332(strateg)-30(ist,)]TJ T* [(if)-365.5(not)-365.5(at)-365.5(least)-365.5(highly)-365.5(r)-45(isky)-365.5(in)-365.5(mor)20(e)-365.5(accepting)-365.5(cultur)20(es.)-365.5(T)150(emptations)-365.5(to)]TJ T* [(cheat)-352.6(occur)-352.6(an)20(y)-352.6(time)-352.6(a)-352.6(per)-20(son)-352.6(or)-352.6(organization)-352.6(is)-352.6(not)-352.6(good)-352.6(enough)-352.6(to)]TJ T* [(succeed)-363.4(or)-363.4(not)-363.4(good)-363.4(enough)-363.4(to)-363.4(succeed)-363.4(as)-363.4(w)40(ell)-363.4(as)-363.4(en)40(visioned,)-363.4(within)]TJ T* [(the)-323.8(r)-25(ules)-323.8(of)-323.8(la)30(w)120(.)-323.8(The)-323.8(strateg)-30(ist)-323.8(does)-323.8(need)-323.8(to)-323.8(account)-323.8(for)-323.8(such)-323.8(acti)20(vities)]TJ T* [(when)-314.4(planning.)-314.4(If)-314.4(cheating)-314.4(did)-314.4(not)-314.4(exist,)-314.4(companies)-314.4(as)-314.4(di)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)0(e)-314.4(a)0(s)-314.4(D)0(o)40(w)]TJ T* [(and)-278(Micr)30(osoft)-278(w)40(ould)-278(not)-278(feel)-278(pr)20(essur)20(e)-278(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-278(counterfeiter)-20(s)-278(and)-278(spies.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Although)-290.5(it)100(s)-290.6(been)-290.5(said)-290.5(that)-290.5(all)-290.6(is)-290.6(f)-25(air)-290.6(in)-290.5(lo)40(v)40(e)-290.6(and)-290.5(w)30(a)0(r)40(,)125()-290.6(and)-290.5(if)-290.6(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(ain)75(t)-310.2(cheating,)-310.2(y)40(o)0(u)-310.2(ain)75(t)-310.2(t)0(r)-30(ying,)125()-310.2(cheating)-310.2(is)-310.2(an)-310.2(isolating)-310.2(action)-310.2(lik)30(ely)-310.2(to)]TJ T* [(mak)30(e)-382(i)0(t)-382(mor)20(e)-382(difcult)-382(to)-382(interact)-382(with)-382(people)-382(y)40(o)0(u)-382(will)-382(need)-382(in)-382(b)15(usi-)]TJ T* [(ness)-258.6(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-258.6(the)-258.6(long)-258.6(ter)-45(m.)-258.6(F)20(o)0(r)-258.6(example)30(,)-258.6(just)-258.6(ha)30(ving)-258.6(Enr)30(on,)-258.6(W)125(orldcom,)-258.6(or)]TJ T* [(Ar)-25(thur)-294.5(Ander)-20(sen)-294.5(on)-294.5(y)40(our)-294.5(r)20(esume)-294.5(can)-294.5(raise)-294.5(the)-294.5(e)20(y)40(ebr)30(o)40(w)0(s)-294.5(o)0(f)-294.5(p)0(r)30(ospecti)20(v)40(e)]TJ ET endstream endobj 83 0 obj > endobj 84 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(31)]TJ 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 694.6357 Tm [(emplo)40(y)40(e)0(r)-20(s)0(,)-275.4(e)20(v)40(e)0(n)-275.4(i)0(f)-275.4(y)40(ou)-275.4(had)-275.4(nothing)-275.4(to)-275.4(do)-275.4(with)-275.4(the)-275.4(shenanigans)-275.4(that)-275.4(ran)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(afoul)-266.2(of)-266.2(the)-266.2(la)30(w)120(.)-266.2(By)-266.2(ex)40(ecuting)-266.2(strategy)-266.2(w)40(ell,)-266.2(y)40(o)0(u)-266.2(can)-266.2(succeed)-266.2(within)-266.2(the)]TJ T* [(r)-25(ules)-278(or)-278(decide)-278(on)-278(mor)20(e)-278(suitab)15(le)-278(pr)30(ospects)-278(else)20(wher)20(e)30(.)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 249.4655 621.5264 Tm [(Strate)15(g)-30(i)0(c)-333(Risk)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 595.7231 Tm [(It)-266.9(almost)-266.9(al)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-266.9(mak)30(es)-266.9(sense)-266.9(to)-266.9(r)20(educe)-266.9(y)40(our)-266.9(r)-45(isk)-266.9(in)-266.9(an)20(y)-266.9(endea)30(v)40(o)0(r)40(,)-266.9(unless)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-195.4(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-195.4(specically)-195.4(chosen)-195.4(to)-195.4(mak)30(e)-195.4(incr)20(eased)-195.4(r)-45(isk)-195.4(a)-195.4(par)-25(t)-195.4(o)0(f)-195.4(y)40(our)-195.4(strategy)120(.)]TJ T* [(Raising)-249.2(the)-249.2(stak)30(es,)-249.2(which)-249.2(means)-249.2(to)-249.2(incr)20(ease)-249.2(the)-249.2(r)-45(isk)-249.2(be)20(y)40(ond)-249.2(y)40(our)-249.2(adv)40(er-)]TJ T* [(sar)-30(y)100(s)-346.3(capacity)-346.3(to)-346.3(accept)-346.3(that)-346.3(r)-45(isk,)-346.3(is,)-346.3(after)-346.3(all,)-346.3(a)-346.3(uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sally)-346.3(under)-20(stood)]TJ T* [(w)30(a)30(y)-301.9(to)-301.9(k)30(eep)-301.9(out)-301.9(the)-301.9(r)-45(isk)-301.9(a)30(v)40(er)-20(se)30(.)-301.9(I)0(n)-301.9(either)-301.9(case)30(,)-301.9(y)40(ou)-301.9(need)-301.9(to)-301.9(under)-20(stand)]TJ T* [(what)-278(the)-278(r)20(eal)-278(r)-45(isk)-278(is)-278(and)-278(plan)-278(accor)20(dingly)120(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Risk)-215.9(calculation)-215.9(is)-215.9(the)-215.9(ratio)-215.9(of)-215.9(the)-215.9(potential)-215.9(usefulness)-215.9(of)-215.9(an)-215.9(action)-215.9(to)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(the)-189.7(potential)-189.7(har)-45(m)-189.7(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-189.7(the)-189.7(consequences)-189.7(of)-189.7(the)-189.7(action)-189.7(or)-189.7(its)-189.7(alter)-40(nati)20(v)40(es.)]TJ T* [(Up)-180.8(until)-180.8(the)-180.8(thr)20(eshold)-180.8(wher)20(e)-180.8(dela)30(y)-180.8(o)0(r)-180.8(the)-180.8(effor)-25(t)-180.8(t)0(o)-180.8(r)20(educe)-180.8(r)-45(isk)-180.8(itself)-180.8(causes)]TJ T* [(undue)-208.7(r)-45(isk,)-208.7(y)40(o)0(u)-208.7(wish)-208.7(to)-208.7(dr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)-208.7(the)-208.7(usefulness)-208.7(of)-208.7(the)-208.7(r)20(esult)-208.7(up)-208.7(to)40(w)30(a)0(r)20(d)-208.7(100%)]TJ T* [(and)-412.9(har)-45(m)-412.9(d)0(o)40(w)0(n)-412.9(t)0(o)40(w)30(ar)20(d)-412.9(0%.)-412.9(Fr)30(om)-412.9(this)-412.9(ratio)-412.9(of)-412.9(per)20(centages,)-412.9(y)40(o)0(u)-412.9(can)]TJ T* [(calculate)-236.2(r)-45(isk,)-236.2(which)-236.2(is)-236.2(an)-236.2(integ)-30(ral)-236.2(par)-25(t)-236.2(o)0(f)-236.2(the)-236.2(strateg)-30(ic)-236.2(decision.)-236.2(Y)160(o)0(u)-236.2(talk)]TJ T* [(about)-360.6(this)-360.5(ratio)-360.5(of)-360.5(per)20(centages)-360.5(in)-360.5(ter)-45(ms)-360.5(of)-360.5(pr)30(obabilitiesfor)-360.5(example)30(,)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-225.3(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-225.3(a)-225.3(90%)-225.3(pr)30(obability)-225.3(that)-225.3(y)40(our)-225.3(action)-225.3(will)-225.3(succeed)-225.3(at)-225.3(an)-225.3(acceptab)15(le)]TJ T* [(cost)-223.4(and)-223.4(a)-223.4(10%)-223.4(pr)30(obability)-223.4(that)-223.4(it)-223.4(will)-223.4(f)-25(ail)-223.4(or)-223.4(cost)-223.4(too)-223.4(m)15(uch.)-223.4(Y)160(o)0(u)-223.4(measur)20(e)]TJ T* [(this)-374.8(against)-374.8(the)-374.8(pr)30(obability)-374.8(and)-374.8(deg)-30(r)20(e)0(e)-374.8(o)0(f)-374.8(usefulness)-374.8(in)-374.8(the)-374.8(r)20(esults)-374.8(and)]TJ T* [(the)-252(question)-252(of)-252(whether)-252(a)-252(g)-30(i)20(v)40(en)-252(har)-45(m)-252(i)0(s)-252(something)-252(fr)30(om)-252(which)-252(y)40(o)0(u)-252(can)]TJ T* [(r)20(eco)40(v)40(e)0(r)-278(o)0(r)-278(i)0(f)-278(that)-278(har)-45(m)-278(w)40(ould)-278(be)-278(catastr)30(ophic)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(T)150(o)-352(illustrate)-352(r)-45(isk)-352(in)-352(patent)-352(strategy)120(,)-352(w)40(e)-352(can)-352(look)-352(at)-352(phar)-45(maceutical)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(companies.)-391.2(In)-391.2(the)-391.2(b)15(lockb)15(uster)-391.2(w)40(orld)-391.2(of)-391.2(large)-391.2(phar)-45(maceutical)-391.2(compa-)]TJ T* [(nies,)-318.6(the)-318.6(v)30(ast)-318.6(major)-45(ity)-318.6(of)-318.6(patents)-318.6(ultimately)-318.6(ha)30(v)40(e)-318.6(no)-318.6(commer)20(cial)-318.6(v)30(alue)30(,)]TJ T* [(b)15(u)0(t)-395.4(the)-395.4(ones)-395.4(that)-395.4(do)-395.4(ha)30(v)40(e)-395.4(commer)20(cial)-395.4(v)30(alue)-395.4(mor)20(e)-395.4(than)-395.4(mak)30(e)-395.4(u)0(p)-395.4(the)]TJ T* [(differ)20(ence)30(.)-308.3(Kno)40(wing)-308.3(that)-308.3(a)-308.3(useless)-308.3(patent)-308.3(is)-308.3(of)-308.3(little)-308.3(har)-45(m)-308.3(t)0(o)-308.3(the)-308.3(viabil-)]TJ T* [(ity)-324.6(of)-324.6(the)-324.6(compan)20(y)120(,)-324.6(b)15(u)0(t)-324.6(that)-324.6(a)-324.6(f)-25(ailur)20(e)-324.6(t)0(o)-324.6(le)-324.6(for)-324.6(a)-324.6(necessar)-30(y)-324.6(patent)-324.6(in)-324.6(a)]TJ T* [(highly)-275.7(competiti)20(v)40(e)-275.7(en)40(vir)30(onment)-275.7(could)-275.7(be)-275.7(har)-45(mful)-275.7(or)-275.7(e)20(v)40(en)-275.7(catastr)30(ophic)30(,)]TJ T* [(phar)-45(maceutical)-204.3(companies)-204.3(typically)-204.3(le)-204.3(for)-204.3(patents)-204.3(early)-204.3(and)-204.3(often.)-204.3(Phar-)]TJ T* [(maceutical)-291.9(companies)-291.9(fur)-25(ther)-291.9(manage)-291.9(their)-291.9(in)40(v)40(estments)-291.9(in)-291.9(r)20(esear)20(ch)-291.9(and)]TJ T* [(de)20(v)40(elopment)-270(and)-270(hedge)-270(the)-270(r)-45(isk)-270(inher)20(ent)-270(in)-270(making)-270(signicant)-270(r)20(esear)20(ch)]TJ T* [(and)-202.1(de)20(v)40(elopment)-202.1(commitments)-202.1(with)-202.1(licenses)-202.1(and)-202.1(acquisitions)-202.1(so)-202.1(that)-202.1(an)20(y)]TJ T* [(g)-30(i)20(v)40(e)0(n)-278(f)-25(ailur)20(e)30(,)-278(while)-278(unpleasant,)-278(will)-278(not)-278(be)-278(catastr)30(ophic)30(.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 85 0 obj > endobj 86 0 obj > endobj 87 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (32)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(Ev)40(en)-219.6(at)-219.6(the)-219.6(le)20(v)40(e)0(l)-219.6(o)0(f)-219.6(the)-219.6(indi)20(vidual)-219.6(patent,)-219.6(y)40(o)0(u)-219.6(need)-219.6(to)-219.6(concer)-40(n)-219.6(y)40(our-)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(self)-235.6(with)-235.6(strateg)-30(ic)-235.6(r)-45(isk.)-235.6(Ev)40(er)-30(y)-235.6(time)-235.6(y)40(o)0(u)-235.6(le)-235.6(a)-235.6(n)0(e)20(w)-235.6(patent)-235.6(application,)-235.6(y)40(o)0(u)]TJ T* [(tak)30(e)-330.9(a)-330.9(r)-45(isk)-330.9(that)-330.9(someone)-330.9(has)-330.9(alr)20(eady)-330.9(led)-330.9(for)-330.9(a)-330.9(patent)-330.9(that)-330.9(co)40(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)-330.9(y)40(our)]TJ T* [(in)40(v)40(ention)-289.3(and)-289.3(will)-289.3(cause)-289.3(difculties)-289.3(for)-289.3(y)40(o)0(u)-289.3(i)0(n)-289.3(the)-289.3(futur)20(e)30(.)-289.3(Ther)20(e)-289.3(i)0(s)-289.3(little)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-336.5(can)-336.5(do)-336.5(about)-336.5(this.)-336.5(As)-336.5(stated,)-336.5(in)-336.5(an)20(y)-336.5(g)-30(i)20(v)40(en)-336.5(patent)-336.5(author)-45(ity)120(,)-336.5(a)-336.5(led)]TJ T* [(patent)-344.1(application)-344.1(will)-344.1(not)-344.1(appear)-344.1(in)-344.1(the)-344.1(pub)15(lic)-344.1(domain)-344.1(for)-344.1(at)-344.1(least)-344.1(18)]TJ T* [(months)-301(after)-301(the)-301(ling)-301(date)-301(unless)-301(specically)-301(opted)-301(out)-301(as)-301(allo)40(w)30(a)0(b)15(l)0(e)-301(i)0(n)]TJ T* [(USPT)30(O)-333(p)0(r)30(ocedur)20(es.)-333.1(In)-333.1(patent)-333.1(strategy)120(,)-333.1(m)0(o)40(ving)-333.1(ahead)-333.1(an)20(yw)30(a)30(y)-333.1(is)-333.1(a)-333.1(cal-)]TJ T* [(culated)-302.6(r)-45(isk)-302.6(that)-302.6(y)40(o)0(u)-302.6(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-302.6(t)0(o)-302.6(tak)30(e)-302.6(a)0(t)-302.6(least)-302.6(some)-302.6(of)-302.6(the)-302.6(time)30(.)-302.6(Otherwise)30(,)]TJ T* [(y)40(o)0(u)-278(w)40(ould)-278(not)-278(get)-278(an)20(ything)-278(done)30(.)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 322.79 w q 1 0 0 1 282.829 191.041 cm 0 0 m 0 364.571 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 121.435 555.562 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 139.3674 536.8817 Tm [(F)20(ear)-333(of)-333(Catastr)20(ophic)-333(Loss)]TJ /F1 1 Tf T* [(The)-288.7(fear)-288.7(of)-288.7(catastr)30(ophic)-288.7(loss)-288.7(is)-288.7(one)-288.7(of)-288.7(the)-288.7(impor)-25(tant)-288.7(tools)-288.7(a)30(v)30(ail-)]TJ T* [(ab)15(le)-168.3(to)-168.4(the)-168.4(strateg)-30(ist)-168.4(who)-168.3(seeks)-168.4(to)-168.3(k)30(eep)-168.3(potentially)-168.3(dice)20(y)-168.3(situations)]TJ T* [(under)-254(contr)30(ol.)-254(On)-254(the)-254(one)-254(hand,)-254(if)-254(an)-254(adv)40(er)-20(sar)-30(y)-254(can)-254(be)-254(made)-254(to)]TJ T* [(fear)-246.4(a)-246.4(catastr)30(ophic)-246.4(loss)-246.4(out)-246.5(of)-246.4(pr)30(opor)-25(tion)-246.4(to)-246.4(its)-246.4(actual)-246.4(pr)30(obability)120(,)]TJ T* [(then)-304.6(the)-304.6(strateg)-30(ist)-304.6(can)-304.6(inuence)-304.6(the)-304.6(beha)30(vior)-304.6(and)-304.6(ther)20(efor)20(e)-304.6(the)]TJ T* [(perfor)-45(mance)-344.8(of)-344.8(that)-344.8(adv)40(er)-20(sar)-30(y)-344.8(with)-344.8(comparati)20(v)40(ely)-344.8(little)-344.8(in)40(v)40(est-)]TJ T* [(ment)-277.6(of)-277.6(r)20(esour)20(ces)-277.7(to)-277.6(that)-277.7(in)40(v)40(estment)-277.6(of)-277.6(r)20(esour)20(ces)-277.6(that)-277.7(w)40(ould)-277.6(be)]TJ T* [(necessar)-30(y)-361.7(t)0(o)-361.7(mak)30(e)-361.7(the)-361.7(pr)30(obability)-361.7(of)-361.8(a)-361.7(catastr)30(ophic)-361.8(loss)-361.8(a)-361.7(r)20(eal-)]TJ T* [(ity)120(.)-269.3(One)-269.3(w)40(ell-ex)40(ecuted)-269.3(and)-269.3(pub)15(licized)-269.3(la)30(wsuit,)-269.3(for)-269.3(example)30(,)-269.3(can)]TJ T* [(pr)20(e)20(v)40(ent)-278(the)-278(need)-278(to)-278(launch)-278(man)20(y)-278(mor)20(e)-278(l)0(a)30(wsuits)-278(in)-278(the)-278(futur)20(e)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(The)-236.4(fear)-236.4(of)-236.4(catastr)30(ophic)-236.4(loss)-236.4(is)-236.4(another)-236.4(strateg)-30(ic)-236.4(element)-236.4(that)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(needs)-380.4(to)-380.4(be)-380.4(managed)-380.4(and)-380.4(emplo)40(y)40(e)0(d)-380.4(w)40(ell,)-380.4(because)-380.4(as)-380.5(m)15(uch)-380.4(as)]TJ T* [(it)-327(can)-327(w)40(ork)-327(for)-327(y)40(ou,)-327(it)-327(can)-327(also)-327(w)40(ork)-327(against)-327(y)40(o)0(u)-327(i)0(f)-327(y)40(our)-327(com-)]TJ T* [(petitor)-260.4(does)-260.4(not)-260.4(ha)30(v)40(e)-260.4(a)-260.4(suitab)15(le)-260.4(or)-45(ientation.)-260.4(A)-260.4(capab)15(le)-260.4(adv)40(er)-20(sar)-30(y)]TJ T* [(that)-204.4(does)-204.4(not)-204.4(fear)-204.4(catastr)30(ophic)-204.4(losseither)-204.4(fr)30(om)-204.4(ignorance)30(,)-204.4(o)40(v)40(er-)]TJ T* [(condence)30(,)-384.3(o)0(r)-384.3(a)-384.3(mental)-384.4(frame)20(w)40(ork)-384.3(that)-384.3(allo)40(ws)-384.3(him)-384.3(or)-384.3(her)-384.4(to)]TJ T* [(accept)-292.1(catastr)30(ophic)-292.1(consequences)-292.1(that)-292.1(ma)30(y)-292.1(happenbecomes)-292.1(a)]TJ T* [(danger)-210.5(that)-210.5(m)15(ust)-210.5(be)-210.5(addr)20(essed)-210.5(in)-210.5(as)-210.5(efcient)-210.5(a)-210.5(manner)-210.5(as)-210.5(possib)15(le)30(.)]TJ T* [(This)-263.6(is)-263.6(especially)-263.6(so)-263.6(when)-263.6(the)-263.6(collateral)-263.6(costs)-263.6(of)-263.7(y)40(our)-263.7(adv)40(er)-20(sar)-30(y)100(s)]TJ T* [(catastr)30(ophic)-363.9(r)20(esult,)-363.9(or)-363.9(the)-363.9(means)-363.9(fr)30(om)-363.9(which)-363.9(it)-363.9(is)-364(cr)20(eated,)-364(put)]TJ T* [(y)40(our)-247.1(o)40(w)0(n)-247.1(position)-247.1(in)-247.1(jeopar)20(dy)120(.)-247.1(Man)20(y)-247.1(l)0(a)30(wsuits,)-247.1(for)-247.1(example)30(,)-247.1(c)0(r)20(e)0(-)]TJ T* [(ate)-235.8(tw)40(o)-235.8(loser)-20(s.)-235.9(This)-235.8(adv)40(er)-20(sar)-30(y)-235.8(needs)-235.8(to)-235.8(be)-235.8(combated,)-235.9(a)30(v)40(oided,)-235.9(or)]TJ T* [(in)-219.8(some)-219.8(other)-219.8(w)30(a)30(y)-219.8(educated)-219.8(to)-219.8(appr)20(eciate)-219.8(and)-219.8(r)20(espect)-219.9(the)-219.8(g)-30(r)0(a)30(vity)]TJ T* [(of)-278(the)-278(situation.)]TJ ET q 1 0 0 1 121.684 191.041 cm 0 0 m 0 364.571 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.789 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 364.571 l S Q endstream endobj 88 0 obj > endobj 89 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(33)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 238.6561 692.9645 Tm [(Competiti)20(v)40(e)-333(Risk)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 131.7758 667.1613 Tm [(Risk,)-278(both)-278(r)20(eco)40(v)40(erab)15(le)-278(and)-278(catastr)30(ophic)30(,)-278(comes)-278(in)-278(tw)40(o)-278(k)30(e)20(y)-278(for)-45(ms:)]TJ /F4 1 Tf .5031 -1.8696 TD (1.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(Risk)-278(for)-278(sur)-25(vi)20(ving)]TJ /F4 1 Tf -1.2478 -1.2174 TD (2.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.2478 0 TD [(Risk)-278(for)-278(thr)-45(i)20(ving)]TJ -.1857 -1.8783 TD [(W)125(e)-289.1(can)-289.1(illustrate)-289.1(these)-289.1(for)-45(ms)-289.1(of)-289.1(r)-45(isk)-289.1(b)25(y)-289.1(star)-25(ting)-289.1(with)-289.1(the)-289.1(analo)20(gy)-289.1(of)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(the)-306.2(r)20(elationship)-306.2(betw)40(een)-306.2(a)-306.2(seal)-306.2(and)-306.2(a)-306.2(g)-30(r)20(eat)-306.2(white)-306.2(shark.)-306.2(Let)100(s)-306.2(star)-25(t)-306.2(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)]TJ T* [(the)-278(per)-20(specti)20(v)40(e)-278(of)-278(the)-278(g)-30(r)20(eat)-278(white)-278(shark.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(P)50(o)40(w)40(erful)-312.8(as)-312.8(it)-312.8(is,)-312.8(m)15(uscular)-312.8(and)-312.8(commonly)-312.8(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-312.8(1)0(6)-312.8(feet)-312.8(or)-312.8(5)-312.8(meter)-20(s)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(in)-474.8(length,)-474.8(the)-474.8(g)-30(r)20(eat)-474.8(white)-474.8(shark)-474.8(uses)-474.8(amb)15(ush)-474.8(as)-474.8(a)-474.8(p)0(r)-45(imar)-30(y)-474.8(hunting)]TJ T* [(technique)30(.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 179.2991 544.6949 Tm (27)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 191.2829 540.536 Tm [(It)-316.5(cr)-25(uises)-316.5(hidden)-316.5(in)-316.5(the)-316.5(depths)-316.5(while)-316.5(it)-316.5(seeks)-316.5(an)-316.5(oppor)-25(tu-)]TJ -5.1939 -1.2174 TD [(nity)-255.6(pr)20(esented)-255.6(b)25(y)-255.6(a)-255.6(seal)-255.6(s)20(wimming)-255.6(abo)40(v)40(e)-255.6(it.)-255.6(When)-255.6(it)-255.6(identies)-255.6(a)-255.6(suitab)15(le)]TJ T* [(target)-321(for)-321(attack,)-321(it)-321(r)30(ock)30(ets)-321(v)40(e)0(r)-25(tically)-321(to)-321(the)-321(surf)-25(ace)-321(in)-321(or)20(der)-321(to)-321(sur)-40(pr)-45(ise)]TJ T* [(the)-230.1(seal)-230.1(and)-230.1(g)-30(i)20(v)40(e)-230.1(the)-230.1(seal)-230.1(no)-230.1(chance)-230.1(to)-230.1(ght)-230.1(back.)-230.1(Cer)-25(tainly)-230.1(the)-230.1(seal)-230.1(is)-230.1(no)]TJ T* [(match)-300(for)-300(the)-300(g)-30(r)20(eat)-300(white)-300(shark)-300(once)-300(the)-300(shark)-300(mak)30(es)-300(ph)30(ysical)-300(contact,)]TJ T* [(so)-240.5(wh)30(y)-240.5(the)-240.5(need)-240.5(for)-240.5(the)-240.5(sur)-40(pr)-45(ise)-240.5(attack?)-240.5(The)-240.5(r)-20(st)-240.5(r)20(eason)-240.5(is)-240.5(that)-240.5(a)-240.5(f)-25(ast)-240.5(and)]TJ T* [(ag)-30(ile)-257.9(seal)-257.9(might)-257.9(ee)-257.9(if)-257.9(it)-257.9(becomes)-257.9(a)30(w)30(a)0(r)20(e)-257.9(of)-257.9(the)-257.9(shark)-257.9(and)-257.9(cause)-257.9(the)-257.9(shark)]TJ T* [(to)-278.6(w)30(aste)-278.6(energy)-278.6(in)-278.6(a)-278.6(pur)-20(suit)-278.6(wher)20(e)-278.6(the)-278.6(seal)-278.6(will)-278.6(often)-278.6(get)]TJ 22.6871 0 TD -.03 Tc [(away)90(.)]TJ 2.3296 0 TD 0 Tc (Second,)Tj -25.0167 -1.2174 TD [(if)-378.5(the)-378.5(seal)-378.5(had)-378.5(ample)-378.5(oppor)-25(tunity)-378.5(to)-378.5(ght)-378.5(back,)-378.5(as)-378.5(an)-378.5(attack)-378.5(that)-378.5(w)30(a)0(s)]TJ T* [(not)-321.6(a)-321.6(sur)-40(pr)-45(ise)-321.6(could)-321.6(allo)40(w)120(,)-321.6(the)-321.6(odds)-321.6(of)-321.6(an)-321.6(injur)-30(y)-321.6(t)0(o)-321.6(the)-321.6(shark)-321.6(fr)30(om)-321.6(the)]TJ T* [(seal)100(s)-324.2(o)40(wn)-324.2(ja)30(ws,)-324.2(ho)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)-324.2(slight,)-324.2(could)-324.2(catch)-324.2(up)-324.2(to)-324.2(the)-324.2(shark)-324.2(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-324.2(time)30(.)]TJ T* [(P)50(erhaps)-257.1(the)-257.1(seal)-257.1(could)-257.1(cause)-257.1(injur)-30(y)-257.1(t)0(o)-257.1(a)0(n)-257.1(e)20(y)40(e)-257.1(with)-257.1(one)-257.1(of)-257.1(its)-257.1(long)-257.1(canine)]TJ T* [(teeth,)-243.4(which)-243.4(w)40(ould)-243.4(pr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-243.4(catastr)30(ophic)-243.4(for)-243.4(a)-243.4(shark)-243.4(that)-243.4(r)20(elies)-243.4(on)-243.4(vision)-243.4(to)]TJ T* [(hunt.)-314.1(This)-314.1(is)-314.1(a)-314.1(natural)-314.1(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sion)-314.1(of)-314.1(the)-314.1(Rolls)-314.1(of)-314.1(the)-314.1(Dice)-314.1(w)40(e)-314.1(discussed)]TJ T* [(earlier)-229.4(that)-229.5(successful)-229.5(sharks)-229.4(ha)30(v)40(e)-229.4(e)20(v)40(olv)40(ed)-229.4(to)-229.4(addr)20(ess.)-229.4(Each)-229.4(time)-229.4(the)-229.4(shark)]TJ T* [(attacks,)-325.7(it)-325.7(is)-325.7(r)30(olling)-325.7(the)-325.7(dice)30(,)-325.7(and)-325.7(it)-325.7(needs)-325.7(to)-325.7(dr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)-325.7(its)-325.7(r)-45(isk)-325.7(to)-325.7(near)-325.7(zer)30(o)50(.)]TJ T* [(The)-352(shark)-352(cannot)-352(a)30(v)40(oid)-352(all)-352(r)-45(isk)-352(when)-352(it)-352(hunts,)-352(or)-352(it)-352(w)40(ould)-352(star)-25(v)40(e)30(,)-352(b)15(ut)]TJ T* [(it)-325.1(has)-325.1(e)20(v)40(olv)40(ed)-325.1(to)-325.1(tak)30(e)-325.1(n)0(o)-325.1(mor)20(e)-325.1(r)-45(isk)-325.1(than)-325.1(necessar)-30(y)-325.1(t)0(o)-325.1(both)-325.1(sur)-25(vi)20(v)40(e)-325.1(and)]TJ T* [(thr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)30(,)-266.3(both)-266.3(incr)20(easing)-266.3(its)-266.3(hit)-266.3(ratio)-266.3(and)-266.3(lo)40(w)40(e)0(r)-45(ing)-266.3(the)-266.3(possibility)-266.3(of)-266.3(injur)-30(y)]TJ T* [(b)25(y)-278(using)-278(amb)15(ush)-278(as)-278(its)-278(pr)-45(imar)-30(y)-278(hunting)-278(technique)30(.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Similarly)120(,)-406.3(for)-406.3(y)40(o)0(u)-406.3(a)0(s)-406.3(someone)-406.3(in)40(v)40(olv)40(ed)-406.3(with)-406.3(patent)-406.3(strategy)120(,)-406.3(y)40(our)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(compan)20(y)-437.8(cannot)-437.8(a)30(v)40(oid)-437.8(all)-437.8(r)-45(isk.)-437.8(Y)160(o)0(u)-437.8(cannot)-437.8(kno)40(w)-437.8(for)-437.8(cer)-25(tain)-437.8(e)20(v)40(er)-30(y-)]TJ T* [(thing)-333.8(that)-333.8(y)40(our)-333.8(competitor)-333.8(is)-333.8(doing)-333.8(or)-333.8(will)-333.8(do)50(.)-333.8(But)-333.8(y)40(o)0(u)-333.8(can)-333.8(tak)30(e)-333.8(steps)]TJ T* [(to)-428.6(minimize)-428.6(the)-428.6(r)-45(isk)-428.6(as)-428.6(m)15(uch)-428.6(as)-428.6(possib)15(le)-428.6(thr)30(ough)-428.6(thor)30(ough)-428.6(r)20(esear)20(ch)]TJ T* [(and)-355.4(b)25(y)-355.4(interacting)-355.4(with)-355.4(competitor)-20(s)-355.4(t)0(o)-355.4(l)0(a)30(y)-355.4(the)-355.4(g)-30(r)30(oundw)40(ork)-355.4(for)-355.4(futur)20(e)]TJ T* [(trades)-318.8(instead)-318.8(of)-318.8(litigation.)-318.8(After)-318.8(all,)-318.8(e)20(v)40(en)-318.8(staunch)-318.8(b)15(usiness)-318.8(competitor)-20(s)]TJ ET endstream endobj 90 0 obj > endobj 91 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4346 722.6512 Tm (34)Tj /F3 1 Tf 6.703 0 TD .1818 Tc [(outpacing)-459.8(the)-459.8(competition)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 121.4346 694.6357 Tm 0 Tc [(can)-358.1(be)-358.1(fr)-45(iends)-358.1(on)-358.1(the)-358.1(golf)-358.1(cour)-20(se)30(,)-358.1(par)-25(ticularly)-358.1(when)-358.1(some)-358.1(measur)20(e)-358.1(o)0(f)]TJ 0 -1.2174 TD [(cooperation)-278(r)20(educes)-278(the)-278(r)-45(isk)-278(of)-278(f)-25(ailur)20(es)-278(for)-278(all.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(T)150(o)-178.2(pr)30(oduce)-178.2(the)-178.2(best)-178.2(outcome)-178.2(in)-178.2(an)-178.2(interaction)-178.2(with)-178.2(y)40(our)-178.2(competitor)-20(s)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(and)-297.1(to)-297.1(fully)-297.1(under)-20(stand)-297.1(a)-297.1(situation,)-297.1(it)-297.1(pa)30(ys)-297.1(to)-297.1(look)-297.1(at)-297.1(the)-297.1(situation)-297.1(fr)30(om)]TJ T* [(the)-245(other)-245(point)-245(of)-245(vie)20(w)120(.)-245(Let)-245(us)-245(no)40(w)-245(look)-245(at)-245(the)-245(r)20(elationship)-245(betw)40(een)-245(the)]TJ T* [(seal)-272.6(and)-272.6(the)-272.6(g)-30(r)20(eat)-272.6(white)-272.6(shark)-272.6(fr)30(om)-272.6(the)-272.6(seal)100(s)-272.6(per)-20(specti)20(v)40(e)30(.)-272.6(A)0(n)-272.6(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(r)-45(iding)]TJ T* [(goal)-228.9(of)-228.9(a)-228.9(seal)-228.9(is)-228.9(to)-228.9(eat)-228.9(without)-228.9(being)-228.9(eaten.)-228.9(T)150(o)-228.9(do)-228.9(the)-228.9(for)-45(mer)40(,)-228.9(i)0(t)-228.9(generally)]TJ T* [(exposes)-216.4(itself)-216.4(to)-216.4(the)-216.4(latter)40(,)-216.4(depending)-216.4(on)-216.4(the)-216.4(pr)20(esence)-216.4(and)-216.4(the)-216.4(disposition)]TJ T* [(of)-243.1(the)-243.1(sharks.)-243.1(W)15(ith)-243.1(this)-243.1(in)-243.1(mind,)-243.1(if)-243.1(y)40(o)0(u)-243.1(could)-243.1(ask)-243.1(a)-243.1(seal)-243.1(to)-243.1(mak)30(e)-243.1(a)-243.1(choice)]TJ T* [(betw)40(een)-359.3(s)20(wimming)-359.3(and)-359.3(feeding)-359.3(wher)20(e)-359.3(ther)20(e)-359.3(a)0(r)20(e)-359.3(sharks,)-359.3(or)-359.3(s)20(wimming)]TJ T* [(and)-346.8(feeding)-346.8(wher)20(e)-346.8(ther)20(e)-346.8(a)0(r)20(e)-346.8(no)-346.8(sharks,)-346.8(and)-346.8(the)-346.8(seal)-346.8(could)-346.8(r)20(eally)-346.8(think)]TJ T* [(thr)30(ough)-347.8(the)-347.8(consequences)-347.8(of)-347.8(its)-347.8(decision,)-347.8(then)-347.8(the)-347.8(seal)-347.8(w)40(ould)-347.8(ha)30(v)40(e)-347.8(to)]TJ T* [(choose)-396.4(to)-396.4(s)20(wim)-396.4(wher)20(e)-396.4(ther)20(e)-396.4(a)0(r)20(e)-396.4(sharks.)-396.4(Wh)30(y?)-396.4(Because)-396.4(that)-396.4(is)-396.4(wher)20(e)]TJ T* [(the)-254.9(sh)-254.9(ar)20(e)30(.)-254.9(An)-254.9(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)20(emphasis)-254.9(on)-254.9(just)-254.9(sur)-25(vi)20(ving)-254.9(can)-254.9(lead)-254.9(to)-254.9(self-isolation,)]TJ T* [(and)-304.3(isolation)-304.3(generally)-304.3(leads)-304.3(to)-304.3(entr)30(op)30(y)-304.3(and)-304.3(e)20(v)40(entual)-304.3(death.)-304.3(A)-304.2(focus)-304.3(on)]TJ T* [(thr)-45(i)20(ving)-206.5(emphasizes)-206.5(interaction,)-206.5(which)-206.5(tends)-206.5(to)-206.5(lead)-206.5(to)-206.5(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wth,)-206.6(pr)30(o)40(vided)]TJ T* [(the)-277.1(r)-45(isk)-277.1(associated)-277.1(with)-277.1(that)-277.1(interaction)-277.1(is)-277.1(sur)-25(vi)20(v)40(ed.)-277.1(So)-277.1(the)-277.1(seal)-277.1(needs)-277.1(to)]TJ T* [(lear)-40(n)-424.4(h)0(o)40(w)-424.4(to)-424.4(sur)-25(vi)20(v)40(e)-424.4(and)-424.4(thr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)-424.4(i)0(n)-424.4(the)-424.4(pr)20(esence)-424.4(of)-424.4(sharks)-424.4(instead)-424.4(of)]TJ T* [(spending)-329(time)-329(tr)-30(ying)-329(to)-329(nd)-329(some)-329(m)30(ythical)-329(place)-329(with)-329(lots)-329(of)-329(sh)-329(and)]TJ T* [(no)-278(sharks.)]TJ 1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(Such)-270.4(is)-270.4(the)-270.4(challenge)-270.4(for)-270.4(patent)-270.4(strateg)-30(ists:)-270.4(to)-270.4(allo)40(w)-270.4(their)-270.4(companies)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(to)-292.7(thr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)-292.7(i)0(n)-292.7(a)-292.7(contested)-292.7(en)40(vir)30(onment.)-292.7(Contested)-292.7(en)40(vir)30(onments)-292.7(become)]TJ T* [(contested)-254.1(b)25(y)-254.1(the)-254.1(v)40(e)0(r)-30(y)-254.1(f)-25(act)-254.1(that)-254.1(the)20(y)-254.1(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-254.1(v)30(alue)30(,)-254.1(and)-254.1(people)-254.1(who)-254.1(ex)40(ecute)]TJ T* [(patent)-250.9(strategy)-250.9(in)-250.9(contested)-250.9(en)40(vir)30(onments)-250.9(tend)-250.9(to)-250.9(become)-250.9(mor)20(e)-250.9(capab)15(le)]TJ T* [(practitioner)-20(s)-388.2(o)0(f)-388.2(the)-388.2(ar)-25(t,)-388.2(since)-388.2(the)20(y)-388.2(m)15(ust)-388.2(operate)-388.2(with)-388.2(a)-388.2(l)0(o)40(w)40(e)0(r)-388.2(marg)-30(in)]TJ T* [(for)-260.7(er)-40(r)30(o)0(r)40(.)-260.7(Companies)-260.7(that)-260.7(cannot)-260.7(thr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)-260.7(i)0(n)-260.7(contested)-260.7(en)40(vir)30(onments)-260.7(ulti-)]TJ T* [(mately)-236.3(see)-236.3(themselv)40(es)-236.3(r)20(emo)40(v)40(e)0(d)-236.3(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-236.3(those)-236.3(en)40(vir)30(onments,)-236.3(either)-236.3(b)25(y)-236.3(their)]TJ T* [(o)40(w)0(n)-260.3(mistak)30(es)-260.3(or)-260.3(when)-260.3(the)20(y)-260.3(become)-260.3(v)30(aluab)15(le)-260.3(to)-260.3(someone)-260.3(mor)20(e)-260.3(capab)15(le)30(.)]TJ T* [(A)-246.1(stark)-246.1(example)-246.2(of)-246.2(this)-246.1(is)-246.1(Netscape)30(.)-246.1(F)20(or)-246.2(a)-246.2(b)0(r)-45(ief)-246.2(per)-45(iod)-246.1(of)-246.1(time)30(,)-246.2(Netscape)]TJ T* [(dominated)-199.9(the)-199.9(W)125(e)0(b)-199.9(b)0(r)30(o)40(wser)-199.9(mark)30(et.)-199.9(Netscape)-199.9(manager)-20(s,)-199.9(ho)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-199.9(f)-25(ailed)]TJ T* [(to)-422.1(pr)30(otect)-422.1(Netscape)100(s)-422.1(intellectual)-422.1(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-422.1(when)-422.1(a)-422.1(f)0(e)20(w)-422.1(w)40(ell-pr)20(epar)20(ed)]TJ T* [(patents)-380.3(could)-380.3(ha)30(v)40(e)-380.3(left)-380.3(them)-380.3(in)-380.3(a)-380.3(m)15(uch)-380.3(less)-380.3(vulnerab)15(le)-380.3(position.)-380.3(This)]TJ T* [(left)-327.6(the)-327.6(door)-327.6(open)-327.6(for)-327.6(Micr)30(osoft,)-327.6(a)-327.6(highly)-327.6(adept)-327.6(competitor)-327.6(in)-327.6(matter)-20(s)]TJ T* [(concer)-40(ning)-328.7(intellectual)-328.7(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)120(,)-328.7(t)0(o)-328.7(enter)-328.7(and)-328.7(then)-328.7(dominate)-328.7(the)-328.7(mar-)]TJ T* [(k)30(e)0(t)-363.5(with)-363.5(Micr)30(osoft)-363.5(Explor)20(er)40(.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 253.9527 224.5726 Tm (28)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 266.4756 220.4137 Tm [(So)-363.5(the)-363.5(master)-363.5(patent)-363.5(strateg)-30(ist)-363.5(m)15(ust)-363.5(in)]TJ -12.6596 -1.2174 TD [(effect)-291.4(become)-291.4(a)-291.4(shark-sa)30(vvy)-291.4(seal)-291.4(in)-291.4(or)20(der)-291.4(to)-291.4(thr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)-291.4(and)-291.4(sur)-25(vi)20(v)40(e)30(.)-291.4(A)-291.4(place)]TJ T* [(to)-278(de)20(v)40(elop)-278(that)-278(sa)30(vvy)-278(is)-278(in)-278(the)-278(decision)-278(cycle)30(.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 92 0 obj > endobj 93 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 M []0 d 1 i q 1 0 0 1 72.05 787.723 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -41.793 -17.883 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 491.38 0 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 -17.687 17.883 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 -473.793 -665.783 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S 1 0 0 1 41.893 -41.893 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 431.9 0 cm 0 0 m 0 23.91 l S 1 0 0 1 17.983 41.893 cm 0 0 m 23.91 0 l S Q BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 265.7076 722.2676 Tm [(Intr)30(oduction)-11241.3(35)]TJ ET 0 0 0 .1 K 322.79 w q 1 0 0 1 293.171 320.974 cm 0 0 m 0 381.051 l S Q 0 G .498 w q 1 0 0 1 131.776 701.975 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S Q BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 149.7086 683.2948 Tm [(The)-333(Strate)15(gy)-333(P)30(arado)40(x)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 0 -1.2174 TD [(A)-331.6(balance)-331.7(betw)40(een)-331.7(sur)-25(vi)20(ving)-331.7(and)-331.7(thr)-45(i)20(ving)-331.7(is)-331.7(a)-331.7(k)30(e)20(y)-331.6(element)-331.7(for)]TJ T* [(deter)-45(mining)-404.7(wher)20(e)-404.7(the)-404.7(r)20(eal)-404.7(r)-45(isk)-404.7(in)-404.7(b)15(usiness)-404.7(lies.)-404.7(T)150(o)-404.7(illustrate)30(,)]TJ T* [(Michael)-354.9(Ra)30(ynor)100(s)-354.9(book)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 9.7797 0 TD [(The)-354.9(Str)20(ateg)20(y)-354.9(P)40(ar)20(ado)30(x)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 7.8928 0 TD [(,)-354.9(sho)40(ws)-354.9(that)-354.9(while)]TJ -17.6725 -1.2174 TD [(companies)-389.3(with)-389.3(a)-389.3(high)-389.3(deg)-30(r)20(e)0(e)-389.3(o)0(f)-389.3(focus)-389.3(appear)-389.3(to)-389.3(outperfor)-45(m)]TJ T* [(their)-370.5(mor)20(e)-370.5(generalist)-370.5(r)-45(i)20(v)30(als,)-370.5(these)-370.5(same)-370.5(single-minded)-370.5(compa-)]TJ T* [(nies)-282(also)-281.9(ha)30(v)40(e)-282(the)-282(highest)-282(n)15(umber)-282(of)-282(b)15(usiness)-282(f)-25(ailur)20(es.)-282(Since)-281.9(the)]TJ T* [(f)-25(ailur)20(es)-364.9(ar)20(e)-364.9(n)0(o)-364.9(longer)-364.9(independent)-364.9(b)15(usiness)-364.9(entities,)-364.9(the)20(y)-364.9(d)0(r)30(o)0(p)]TJ T* [(fr)30(om)-197.1(the)-197.1(perfor)-45(mance)-197.1(statistics,)-197.1(g)-30(i)20(ving)-197.1(the)-197.1(appearance)-197.1(that)-197.1(a)-197.1(high)]TJ T* [(deg)-30(r)20(e)0(e)-261.4(o)0(f)-261.4(focus)-261.4(is)-261.4(a)-261.4(better)-261.4(strategy)-261.4(for)-261.4(success.)-261.4(So)-261.4(when)-261.4(b)15(usiness)]TJ T* [(consultants)-329.7(tak)30(e)-329.7(measur)20(e)-329.7(o)0(f)-329.7(the)-329.7(most)-329.7(successful)-329.7(companies)-329.7(and)]TJ T* [(compar)20(e)-296.3(what)-296.3(the)20(y)-296.3(d)0(o)-296.3(differ)20(ently)-296.3(fr)30(om)-296.3(a)30(v)40(erage)-296.3(perfor)-45(mer)-20(s,)-296.3(the)]TJ T* [(consultants)-278(ma)30(y)-278(not)-278(tak)30(e)-278(into)-278(account)-278(the)-278(full)-278(pictur)20(e)30(.)]TJ 8.0199 0 0 8.0199 393.9586 520.0812 Tm (29)Tj 11.457 0 0 11.457 167.6413 501.9746 Tm [(A)-280(r)20(ecommendation)-280(to)-280(o)40(v)40(erly)-280(focus)-280(effor)-25(ts)-280(in)-280(b)15(usiness)-280(could)]TJ -1.5652 -1.2174 TD [(be)-318.2(akin)-318.2(to)-318.2(r)20(ecommending)-318.2(that)-318.2(a)-318.2(per)-20(son)-318.2(quit)-318.2(his)-318.2(or)-318.2(her)-318.2(job)50(,)-318.2()0(y)]TJ T* [(to)-430.4(Hollyw)40(ood,)-430.4(and)-430.4(star)-25(t)-430.4(a)-430.4(car)20(eer)-430.4(in)-430.4(acting.)-430.4(Successful)-430.4(mo)40(vie)]TJ T* [(star)-20(s)-393.2(cer)-25(tainly)-393.2(mak)30(e)-393.2(m)15(uch)-393.2(mor)20(e)-393.2(than)-393.2(the)-393.2(a)30(v)40(erage)-393.2(per)-20(son,)-393.2(b)15(u)0(t)]TJ T* [(consider)-45(ing)-321.5(the)-321.5(high)-321.5(f)-25(ailur)20(e)-321.5(rate)-321.5(among)-321.5(mo)40(vie)-321.5(star)-321.5(hopefuls,)-321.5(is)]TJ T* [(this)-182.2(tr)-25(uly)-182.2(a)-182.2(wise)-182.2(r)20(ecommendation?)-182.2(Ra)30(ynor)100(s)-182.2(idea)-182.2(car)-40(r)-45(ies)-182.2(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-182.2(into)]TJ T* [(patents,)-169.4(consider)-45(ing)-169.4(that)-169.4(while)-169.4(focused)-169.4(companies)-169.4(ma)30(y)-169.4(scor)20(e)-169.4(big-)]TJ T* [(time)-264(with)-264(a)-264(hit)-264(pr)30(oduct)-264(in)-264(their)-264(chosen)-264(eld,)-264(the)20(y)-264(will)-264(also)-264(ha)30(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(diminished)-422.9(exibility)-422.9(to)-422.9(addr)20(ess)-422.9(chang)-30(ing)-422.9(en)40(vir)30(onments.)-422.9(The)]TJ T* [(focused)-377.4(companies)-377.4(ha)30(v)40(e)-377.4(less)-377.4(di)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sity)-377.4(in)-377.4(their)-377.4(patent)-377.4(por)-25(tfolio)]TJ T* [(to)-416.4(dra)30(w)-416.4(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-416.4(should)-416.4(the)-416.4(en)40(vir)30(onment)-416.5(change)30(.)-416.5(I)0(n)-416.4(a)-416.4(w)40(orld)-416.4(of)]TJ T* [(opposites,)-206.9(betw)40(een)-206.9(being)-206.9(completely)-206.9(focused)-206.9(or)-206.9(totally)-206.9(di)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)0(e)30(,)-206.9(a)]TJ T* [(health)30(y)-196.9(in-betw)40(een)-196.9(position)-196.9(needs)-196.9(to)-196.9(exist)-196.9(in)-196.9(most)-196.9(organizations.)]TJ ET q 1 0 0 1 132.025 320.974 cm 0 0 m 0 381.051 l S 1 0 0 1 -.249 .448 cm 0 0 m 322.79 0 l S 1 0 0 1 323.039 -.249 cm 0 0 m 0 381.051 l S Q endstream endobj 94 0 obj > endobj 95 0 obj > stream /GS1 gs BT /F1 1 Tf 8.9664 0 0 8.9664 80.9664 794.7966 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01)-2000(Date:)-278(J)30(a)0(n)-278(29,)-278(2009)-1000(Time:)-278(11:2)-166.7(am)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j .1 w 10 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Table of Contents

Preface.

Orientation.

The Grant.

Jurisdictions and Costs.

Uncertainties.

Patent Claims.

18 Months of Secrecy.

Requirements to Obtain Patents.

Conclusion.

Chapter I. Introduction.

Strategy Defined.

Results.

Reasons for Unpredicted Results.

Patent Strategy Defined.

Value Capture.

The Nature of a Strategic Solution.

Opposites.

Strategic Inaction.

Strategy and Change.

The Perfect Strategy.

The “Good Enough” Strategy.

Strategic Risk.

Competitive Risk.

Chapter II. Decision Cycle.

The Question of Cost.

B. Invention Review List.

Four Rules of Patent Strategy.

The Definition of a Decision Cycle.

Chapter III. Assess.

Defining the Problem.

Problem Resolution.

Synthesis.

Identifying the Opposition.

Why Opposition Exists.

What Do We Do That Is “Evil”?

An Illustration of “Evilness”.

“Evilness” Exercise.

Why We Act.

What We Want.

Independent Action.

Cooperate or Compete.

Evaluating Resources for Cooperate or Compete Decisions.

Valuation and Return on Investment.

Application of the Patent Resource.

Centers of Excellence.

Federal Express as a Centers of Excellence Model.

Parallel Lines of Competition.

All Aspects of Power.

Standing on a Whale, Fishing for Minnows.

Dominant and Contested Positions.

Sanctuary and the Dominant Position.

Chapter Summary.

Chapter IV. Decide.

Defining the Goal.

Definition of 'B'.

Strategic Versus Technical Solutions.

Fundamental Competitive Strategy.

Fundamental Competitive Strategy, the Objective, and the Desired Result 'B'.

How to Be Proficient at Decision-Making.

Overwhelming Advantage.

Surprise.

Asymmetry.

Sanctuary.

Leveraging Conditions.

Developing the Situation.

Four Key Effects: Eliminate, Isolate, Interact, Negate.

Competitive Equilibrium and Disequilibrium.

Equilibrium.

Disequilibrium.

A Sample Cause and Effect Sequence.

Leveraging the Three Centers of Excellence when Crafting a Strategy.

Where We Cooperate and Compete.

Innovation.

Four Innovation Approaches (Solution Quadrants).

Solution Quadrants Illustration.

Skating Where the Puck Will Be.

Henry Ford.

Altshuller's Laws of Technical Evolution.

Altshuller and Ideality.

The Optimal.

Profiting From the Trend Toward the Ideal and the Optimal.

From Inventions to Solutions and the Technology Lifecycle.

Advancement.

The Sales Advantage.

Saleable Benefits.

Advantages.

A Degree of Separation.

Security.

The Primary Utility of a Patent.

The Ultimate Security Advantage.

The Ideal Patent.

A Counterintuitive Result.

Links Within Claims.

Links to Other Patents.

Links to Other Resources.

Parallel Lines of Competition and Security.

A Final Word on Asymmetry for Planning.

Reciprocal Response.

Patent Quality.

Drafting a Strong Patent.

Position Survivability.

The Dominant Patent Strategy.

High Tech Dominant Strategy: Stockpile.

Rule 1: Use patents to isolate.

Rule 2: Threaten to use patents to isolate.

Rule 3: Use patents to interact.

Rule 4: Leverage the possibility of interaction.

Pharmaceutical Dominant Strategy: Seek the Blockbuster.

Rule 1: Use patents to isolate.

Rule 2. Threaten to use patents to isolate.

Rule 3: Use patents to interact.

Rule 4: Leverage the possibility of interaction.

High Tech Versus Pharmaceutical.

Final Word on Decision.

Section Summary.

Chapter V. Act.

Acting on the Goal.

Acting Competitively.

Mentally Prepare to Adjust.

Categorize and Track Resources.

Four Operational Tenets.

Four Operational Tenets Defined.

Concentration of Effort.

Economy of Resources.

Freedom of Action.

Safety.

Summary on Operational Tenets.

Multi-Dimensional Considerations.

Balance.

Multi-Dimensional Considerations:  Additional Notes.

Freedom of Action Enhancements.

How to Be Proficient at Operations.

A Case of Free Value.

Account for Change.

Tempo.

Decision Cycle and Tempo.

Col. John Boyd.

Factors of Importance re: Tempo.

Levels of Adaptation.

The Luck Factor.

Qualifying the Result.

Summary on Act.

Chapter VI. Connecting The Loop.

The Invention Review List.

Prior Art Search.

Invention Elicitation.

The Invention Audit.

Chapter VII. Two Imperatives.

Imperative 1: CEO Involvement.

The CEO and the Patent Line of Competition.

Bill Gates and Patents.

Imperative 2: Master the Fundamentals.

AWAKE Cycle™ From Fundamentals to Exceptional Strategy.

Chapter VIII. High-Tempo Patent Strategy.

Set Common Viewpoints.

Measure the Control of Technical Space.

Advanced Creativity Techniques.

Psychological Protections.

Accelerated Invention (TRIZ Example).

Conduct Invention/Patent Infiltration.

Necessary Adjustments.

High-Tempo Patent Strategy Advantages.

Chapter IX. Conclusion.

Appendix.

IP Strategy Boarding and Scenario Play.

Endnotes.

Orientation.

I. Introduction.

II. Decision Cycle.

III: Assess.

IV. Decide.

V. Act.

VII. Two Imperatives.

VIII. High-Tempo Patent Strategy.

IX. Conclusion.

Appendix 1. IP Strategy Boarding and Scenario Play.