Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers: Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom

Paperback | June 15, 2000

byTricia Hedge

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This is a comprehensive handbook for teachers wishing to develop and explore their teaching. It involves teachers in their own professional development and aims to develop insights into issues, problems, and possibilities in ELT methodology. It is also useful as a general reference for theclassroom teacher. Each chapter is illustrated with examples from course materials and includes follow-up activities and recommended reading.

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This is a comprehensive handbook for teachers wishing to develop and explore their teaching. It involves teachers in their own professional development and aims to develop insights into issues, problems, and possibilities in ELT methodology. It is also useful as a general reference for theclassroom teacher. Each chapter is illustrated ...

Tricia Hedge is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Education at Nottingham University. Since 1972 she has taught students and teachers in universities in Sweden, Japan and the UK on a wide variety of programmes: English for Academic Purposes, English for Professional Purposes, and both pre-service and in-service education.

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Format:PaperbackPublished:June 15, 2000Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0194421724

ISBN - 13:9780194421720

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements IntroductionPART ONE: A framework for teaching and learning1. Learners and learning, classrooms and contexts1.1 Introduction: issues for the language teacher1.2 What do we know about how languages are learned? 1.2.1 The nature of input 1.2.2 The process of intake 1.2.3 The role of interaction in the classroom 1.2.4 The role of error 1.3 How do differences among learners affect learning processes and teaching procedures? 1.3.1 Aptitude 1.3.2 Learning style and learning strategies 1.3.3 Affective factors 1.3.4 Motivation for learning English 1.4 What factors of context should teachers take into account? 1.5 What roles can teachers and learners play in the learning process? 1.5.1 The teacher's roles and responsibilities 1.5.2 The learner's roles and responsibilities 1.6 What roles can learning materials play? 1.7 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther reading2. The communicative classroom 2.1 Introduction: the concept of communicative language ability 2.2 What are the components of communicative language ability? 2.2.1 Linguistic competence 2.2.2 Pragmatic competence 2.2.3 Discourse competence 2.2.4 Strategic competence 2.2.5 Fluency 2.3 What are the issues for the communicative curriculum? 2.4 What are the implications for the communicative classroom? 2.4.1 What are communicative tasks and what are their roles in teaching and learning? 2.4.2 How can we manage a communicative classroom? 2.4.3 What does communicative language teaching imply for authenticity in the classroom? 2.5 What are the issues in applying a communicative approach in context? 2.6 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther reading3. Learner autonomy and learner training 3.1 Introduction: the self-directed learner 3.2 What do we know about the strategies of the 'good language learner'? 3.2.1 Types of learner strategy 3.2.2 Research into learner strategies3.3 What insights can we gain from educational thinking on autonomous learning? 3.4 What are the implications for learner training in the classroom? 3.4.1 Activities which help learners to reflect on learning 3.4.2 Activities which train strategies and equip learners to be active 3.4.3 Activities which encourage learners to monitor and check their own progress 3.5 What role can self-access facilities play in language learning? 3.6 Are learner autonomy and learner training universally appropriate concepts? 3.7 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther readingPART TWO: Teaching the language system4. Vocabulary 4.1 Introduction: the task of learning vocabulary 4.2 What do we know about the lexical system of English? 4.2.1 Denotative and connotative meaning 4.2.2 Meaning relations among words 4.3 How do second language learners acquire vocabulary? 4.3.1 Strategies for vocabulary learning 4.3.2 Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition 4.4 What are the implications for the teaching of vocabulary? 4.4.1 Developing a variety of techniques for the teaching of meaning 4.4.2 Encouraging the development of effective strategies 4.4.3 Exposing learners to vocabulary through reading and training lexical inferencing 4.4.4 Teaching the effective use of dictionaries 4.4.5 Evaluating the vocabulary component of coursebooks 4.4.6 Teaching vocabulary explicitly through a range of activity types 4.4.7 Developing resources for vocabulary teaching 4.5 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther reading5. Grammar 5.1 Introduction: the role of grammar in English language teaching 5.2 What do we know about the learning of grammar? 5.2.1 Noticing 5.2.2 Reasoning and hypothesizing 5.2.3 Structuring and restructuring 5.2.4 Automatizing 5.3 What information can help us in the selection and presentation of grammar? 5.3.1 Grammar as meaning 5.3.2 Grammar in discourse 5.3.3 Grammar and style 5.4 What principles can guide us in the teaching of grammar? 5.4.1 Presenting grammar 5.4.2 Practising grammar 5.4.3 How can we design the grammar component of a course? 5.4.4 How can we suit approach to learner needs? 5.5 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther readingPART THREE: Developing the language skills6. Reading 6.1 Introduction: making sense of a text 6.2 What do we know about the process of second language reading? 6.2.1 In what ways is reading an interactive process? 6.2.2 In what ways is reading a purposeful process? 6.2.3 In what ways is reading a critical process? 6.2.4 What is the role of extensive reading? 6.3 What are the implications for the teaching of reading? 6.3.1 How do we establish goals for the reading classroom? 6.3.2 What criteria do we use to select reading texts? 6.3.3 What kinds of tasks help to develop reading ability? 6.3.4 Can we help students to read critically? 6.3.5 How can we encourage extensive reading? 6.4 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther reading7. Listening 7.1 Introduction: the role of listening in the ELT curriculum 7.2 What do we know about the listening process? 7.2.1 Bottom-up processes in listening 7.2.2 Top-down processes in listening 7.2.3 Purposes for listening 7.3 What 'uncertainties' exist for foreign language listeners? 7.3.1 Uncertainties of condence 7.3.2 Uncertainties deriving from the presentation of speech 7.3.3 Uncertainties because of gaps in the message 7.3.4 Uncertain strategies 7.3.5 Uncertainties of language 7.3.6 Uncertainties of content 7.3.7 Visual uncertainties 7.4 What are the implications for the English language classroom? 7.4.1 Creating reasons for listening 7.4.2 Selecting texts for listening 7.4.3 Designing listening activities for the classroom 7.4.4 Building condence in listening to English 7.5 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther reading8. Speaking 8.1 Introduction: skills and strategies in speaking English 8.2 What is involved in speaking English competently? 8.2.1 Distinguishing types of speaking situation 8.2.2 Making oneself understood 8.2.3 Managing interaction 8.3 What are the issues in teaching the phonological aspects of English? 8.3.1 Choosing a model for pronunciation teaching 8.3.2 Taking a holistic or atomistic approach 8.3.3 Selecting practice according to student need 8.4 What are the implications for classroom practice in the teaching of spoken English? 8.4.1 Talking with students about spoken English 8.4.2 Making accuracy-based practice meaningful 8.4.3 Designing and evaluating fluency-based activities 8.4.4 Providing a range and balance of activities in a course 8.4.5 Teaching the pronunciation component of a course 8.4.6 Treating error in the classroom 8.4.7 Managing classroom interaction 8.5 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther reading9. Writing 9.1 Introduction: a contemporary writing classroom 9.2 What do we know about the process of writing? 9.2.1 What strategies do skilled writers use as they compose? 9.2.2 What activities characterize the writing process? 9.3 What are the implications of a process approach? 9.3.1 Helping students to generate ideas 9.3.2 Providing practice in planning 9.3.3 Contextualizing tasks to develop a sense of audience 9.3.4 Encouraging students in revision strategies 9.3.5 Supporting students with technology 9.3.6 Issues in introducing a process approach 9.4 How can we analyse and describe the structure of written texts? 9.5 What are the implications of a text-based approach to writing? 9.5.1 Helping students to identify their writing needs 9.5.2 Building awareness of discourse organization 9.5.3 Helping students to develop crafting skills 9.5.4 Enabling students to appreciate the criteria for an effective text 9.6 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther readingPART FOUR: Planning and assessing learning10. Course design 10.1 Introduction: roles for the teacher in course design 10.2 What are the steps in course design? 10.2.1 Considering the students in their context of learning 10.2.2 Establishing goals and objectives 10.2.3 Planning the syllabus 10.2.4 Designing a course unit 10.2.5 What procedures can be helpful in evaluating courses? 10.3 What choices do teachers need to make in course design? 10.3.1 Choosing a textbook 10.3.2 Taking a process approach 10.3.3 Using projects in ELT 10.3.4 Negotiating with learners 10.4 ConclusionDiscussion topics and projectsFurther reading11. Classroom assessment by Pauline Rea-Dickins 11.1 Introduction: assessment and testing 11.2 What is testing? 11.2.1 The structuralist influence 11.2.2 The communicative influence 11.3 What is the role of classroom assessment? 11.3.1 What purposes should classroom assessment have? 11.3.2 What kind of feedback is useful? 11.3.3 What assessment procedures are available? 11.4 What characterizes good assessment practice? 11.4.1 Are affective considerations relevant to assessment? 11.4.2 How can good assessment practice be framed? 11.5 Conclusion Discussion topics and projects Further readingbr / Appendix: Notes on Introductory tasks Glossary Bibliography Index