This volume discusses various aspects of Hinduism. Since the 1990s there has been significant historical scholarship on 'Hinduism', including some in the nature of political commentary. The focus is on tracing broadly the changing perception of Hinduism through the ages, to the current trendsin the rise of Hindutva.In its selection of articles from a broad range of perspectives this volume discusses the relationship between national identity and religion, and the role of religion in the public sphere. It draws a clear sketch of early Hindu traditions and practices and their social role, the engagement ofHinduism with minority traditions, and its modern political and social context. The essays touch upon various themes providing a historical perspective of early Hindu traditions (Hardy, Stientencron), religious authority (Malinar), movements (Dalmia), engagement with minority traditions (Das), law(Conrad), and contemporary trends, especially in historiography (Pandey), performance (Kapur), Hindutva (Chatterjee, Jaffrelot), and gender (Paola Bacchetta) among others. A comprehensive introduction by Vasudha Dalmia situates the essays in their proper political and social context and alsoprovides an update on recent developments.