Patent Searching: Tools & Techniques by David HuntPatent Searching: Tools & Techniques by David Hunt

Patent Searching: Tools & Techniques

EditorDavid Hunt, Long Nguyen, Matthew Rodgers

Hardcover | February 2, 2007

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Whether you're a patent examiner, patent attorney, commercial patent searcher, patent liaison, IP librarian, law professor, or competitive intelligence analyst, you'll find Patent Searching: Tools and Techniques to be just the guide you have been waiting for, with a range of approaches to patent searching that will be useful to you regardless of your technical expertise or role in the intellectual property community.
David Hunt is the CEO and owner of Landon IP, Inc. He holds a BA and an MBA from the College of William & Mary and has worked as a senior manager in corporate strategy, market research, and competitive intelligence at the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) in McLean, Virginia. Mr. Hunt has served as a project manager ...
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Title:Patent Searching: Tools & TechniquesFormat:HardcoverDimensions:208 pages, 9.02 × 6.42 × 0.73 inPublished:February 2, 2007Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:047178379X

ISBN - 13:9780471783794

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In the midst of our litigious culture, one has to be poised for unex-)Tj T* 0 Tw (pected miscues during their ideal patent term.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0206 Tw (Patent searches before prosecution help improve the defensibility of the)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0591 Tw (future patent, or can dissuade the inventor from prosecuting at all. Your)Tj T* 0.0048 Tc 0.1983 Tw (preexamination preparation as an inventor, patent attorney, agent, or)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (searcher will save the patent owner time and money later.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0263 Tw (For example, consider spending US$25,000 to prosecute a patent appli-)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0039 Tc -0.0378 Tw (cation only to learn from the examiner that the invention lacks simple nov-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0681 Tw (elty. Worse, the examiner may not conduct an adequate search and you)Tj T* 0.0046 Tw (actually receive a patent that is later held invalid. The costs of that mishap)Tj T* -0.0345 Tw (will be enormous. A professional patent search will allow you to look be-)Tj T* 0 Tw (fore you leap.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0756 Tw (The many available search types that will be outlined in this text will)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0248 Tw (yield invaluable data for an applicant who wants to increase their chances)Tj T* 0 Tw (of earning a profitable return on a corporations substantial investment.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 84 335.5 Tm -0.0002 Tc (The U.S. Patent System)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 84 313.5 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0223 Tw (Before discussing patent searching, it is first necessary to explain the patent)Tj T* 0.0614 Tw (system in the United States today, so that you and other readers can ap-)Tj T* 0 Tw (preciate the challenges inherent in its navigation.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0032 Tc 0.1356 Tw (Thomas Jeffersons quote speaks to the uniqueness and idiosyncratic)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0104 Tw (prospect of owning ideas, the building blocks of intellectual property \(IP\),)Tj T* 0 Tw (and the challenges that exist in their maintenance and development.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0048 Tc 0.157 Tw (Intellectual property consists of patents, trademarks, copyrights, and)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0911 Tw (trade secrets. 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The)Tj T* (references cited by the examiner receive an asterisk)Tj T* (\(*\) when printed on the granted patent. The most)Tj T* (important references are those considered by the)Tj T* (examiner and are not indicated on the patent. You)Tj T* (would need to read the examiners office actions)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc 0.0001 Tw (located in the official patent file history to find the)Tj ET 1 w 96 501.5 m 408 501.5 l S BT 9 0 0 9 204 508 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (references that were considered by the examiner.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 84 465 Tm 0.0594 Tw (A Note about Reading the Specification and the Claims)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 376.7406 465 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw (Although)Tj -25.4557 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0725 Tw (the specification is lengthy, its content may serve only as a reference for)Tj T* 0.0237 Tw (defining the terms that are in the claims. 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The Spanish Monarchy was thrifty by commissioning a search)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0117 Tw (party to give them an idea of what to expect. At the outset, there was no)Tj T* 0 Tw (way of knowing how he would fare or what obstacles he would face.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0176 Tw (After Columbus returned with his search results, King Ferdinand and)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0254 Tw (Queen Isabella confidently sent more men on more expansive journeys, as)Tj T* 0.0922 Tw (they now had understood the lay of the land and had fewer variables)Tj T* 0 Tw (about which to worry.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0266 Tw (Now consider the hypothetical plight of a physician and his ill patient.)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0079 Tw (Upon learning of his illness, the doctor orders a diagnostic search of the)Tj T* 0.0136 Tw (patients entire body. He also conducts blood tests. His many searches are)Tj T* 0.0986 Tw (intended to rule out possible causes of the patients illness. When com-)Tj T* 0.0227 Tw (pleted, the physician may have located a malignant tumor in the patients)Tj T* 0.0254 Tw (abdomen. He removes it and the patient lives another 20 years without a)Tj T* 0 Tw (reoccurrence.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0019 Tc -0.0399 Tw (These analogies illustrate the parallel between logical operators of every-)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0011 Tw (day life and those of patent prosecution. Why would you make a haphaz-)Tj T* -0.0245 Tw (ard decision if you have the resources to reasonably predict or mitigate the)Tj T* 0 Tw (outcome?)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0351 Tw (Prior to filing a patent application of any kind, in the United States or)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0274 Tw (abroad, you should conduct one or more comprehensive patent searches.)Tj T* -0.0252 Tw (If properly executed, the searches will suggest whether to file or not to file)Tj T* 0.0513 Tw (the application, will assist with claims construction, and will help predict)Tj T* 0 Tw (the issues that will arise during examination.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0702 Tw (Prior to prosecution, you should conduct a patentability search. With)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0379 Tw (sufficient time and budget, you also may wish to conduct a state-of-the-art)Tj T* -0.0271 Tw (or a patent landscape prior to filing an application. The latter searches pro-)Tj T* 0 Tw (vide greater assurance that your efforts are not wasted.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0955 Tw (This text describes all the major types of professional patent searches,)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0148 Tw (why they are conducted, when, and how. The discussion begins in Chap-)Tj T* 0 Tw (ter 2.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 96 147 Tm (Patent Examination Process)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 96 125 Tm -0.0335 Tw (After conducting the appropriate search, patent applicants now have a bet-)Tj T* 0.02 Tw (ter idea of what scope their claims should be and what to avoid claiming,)Tj T* 0.0899 Tw (and hopefully will feel confident about their chances to eventually have)Tj T* 0 Tw (valuable patents in their portfolios.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.65 0 0 7 294.4599 646.927 Tm -0.0268 Tc (patent examination process)Tj /F6 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 423.7411 646.927 Tm -0.0001 Tc (11)Tj ET Q 0 0 0 0 k /GS2 gs 43 721 205 11.015 re f BT /F11 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc -0.0061 Tw [(ch01_4750.qxd 11/21/06 12:59 PM Page 11)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 0.2 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 42 0 obj > endobj 43 0 obj > endobj 44 0 obj > endobj 45 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS3 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 0.2 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n /GS2 gs BT /F6 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 84 617.9623 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (The Job of the Patent Examiner)Tj /F5 1 Tf 0 -1.913 TD 0.0043 Tw (Broadly, patent examiners review patent applications for compliance with)Tj 0 -1.2609 TD 0.1346 Tw (legal rules and procedures. Patent laws vary by country. In the United)Tj T* -0.012 Tw (States, the U.S. Congress enacts patent laws, which are first interpreted by)Tj T* 0 Tw (the USPTO and then by the federal courts when disputes arise.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 84 520.629 Tm -0.0077 Tw (The Examiner Follows the Courts)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 262.6616 520.629 Tm -0.0064 Tw (The U.S. Court of Appeals for the)Tj -15.5358 -1.2609 TD -0.0088 Tw (Federal Circuit \(Federal Circuit\) is often the final interpreter of major dis-)Tj T* 0.0198 Tw (putes; rarely will a patent case be heard by the U.S. Supreme Court. The)Tj T* -0.0025 Tc -0.0393 Tw (Federal Circuit regularly interprets U.S. patent law and continually impacts)Tj T* -0.0043 Tc -0.0375 Tw (the way in which patent applications are examined. The process is fluid and)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (never stagnant.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 84 416.2956 Tm 0.0419 Tw (The Examiner Follows Patent Examining Procedure)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 356.3704 416.2956 Tm 0.035 Tw (In the United)Tj -23.6844 -1.2609 TD 0.1056 Tw (States, patent examiners prosecute applications according the Manual of)Tj T* 0.0207 Tw (Patent Examining Procedure \(MPEP\). The USPTO publishes the MPEP)Tj T* 0.037 Tw (to provide patent examiners, applicants, attorneys, agents, and represen-)Tj T* -0.0233 Tw (tatives of applicants with a reference work on the practices and procedures)Tj T* 0.135 Tw (relative to the prosecution of patent applications before the Patent and)Tj T* 0.0357 Tw (Trademark Office.)Tj 7.47 0 0 7.47 174.9164 333.0907 Tm 0.0006 Tc 0 Tw (11)Tj 11.5 0 0 11.5 185.8468 329.2956 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0357 Tw (In addition to practices and procedures, the MPEP)Tj -8.8562 -1.2609 TD 0 Tw (contains references to U.S. laws and regulations.)Tj 1.0435 -2.3478 TD 0.0675 Tw (Currently, the patent office requires practitioners to follow the fourth)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0927 Tw (edition of the MPEP during prosecution. This is noted as a courtesy to)Tj T* 0.0134 Tw (new practitioners because often the USPTO admits individuals to the bar)Tj T* 0.0447 Tw (based on an examination of earlier editions. Until October 2006, for ex-)Tj T* -0.0129 Tw (ample, you needed to know the MPEP 2.0 to pass the patent bar, but you)Tj T* 0 Tw (needed to know MPEP 4.0 to practice effectively.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 84 183.4623 Tm 0.0049 Tc 0.3216 Tw (Administrative Handling of the Patent Application)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 366.3598 183.4623 Tm 0.2679 Tw (The patent)Tj -24.553 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0713 Tw (process is lengthy, with pendency lasting several years after filing. In the)Tj T* -0.0083 Tw (United States, the applicant files the application by mail, hand delivery, or)Tj T* -0.0028 Tw (electronically \(using EFS-Web\). Upon receipt, the Office of Initial Patent)Tj T* -0.0072 Tw (Examination \(OIPE\) scans the document \(if filed on paper\), assigns an ap-)Tj T* -0.0003 Tc -0.0415 Tw (plication number, reviews the document for formalities, classifies the in-)Tj T* 0.0048 Tc 0.1424 Tw (vention, and sends it to the appropriate Technology Center \(formerly)Tj /F6 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 84 646.927 Tm -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (12)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.65 0 0 7 111 646.927 Tm -0.0268 Tc [(chapter 1)-1724.6(patent law and examination as context for patent searching)]TJ ET Q 0 0 0 0 k /GS2 gs 43 721 205 11.015 re f BT /F11 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc -0.0061 Tw [(ch01_4750.qxd 11/21/06 12:59 PM Page 12)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 0.2 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 46 0 obj > endobj 47 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS3 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 0.2 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n /GS2 gs BT /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 96 618 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.0585 Tw (Group Art Unit\) for examination. After examination and allowability by)Tj 0 -1.2609 TD 0.0002 Tw (the examiner, the case is transmitted to the Office of Publication \(PUBS\),)Tj 11.61 0 0 11.5 96 589 Tm 0.005 Tc -0.0111 Tw (which prints the granted patent. Specifically, PUBS prepares the case for)Tj T* 0.1136 Tw (printing, submits the file to a contract printer, publishes notice in the)Tj 11.5 0 0 11.5 96 560 Tm -0.0002 Tc -0.0416 Tw (Official Gazette every Tuesday, and mails the patent grant to the applicant.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 96 531 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0366 Tw (Actual Patent Examination)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 239.946 531 Tm -0.0306 Tw (Actual patent examination includes several)Tj -12.517 -1.2609 TD 0.0007 Tw (rounds of prosecution. With each round, patent examiners evaluate the)Tj T* -0.0397 Tw (most recently amended version of the claims and compare them to the vast)Tj T* -0.0047 Tc -0.037 Tw (body of patent and nonpatent literature. 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The first substantive step is)Tj T* -0.0032 Tw (when the examiner issues a first action on the merits \(FAOM\) in the case.)Tj T* -0.0021 Tc -0.0397 Tw (This first office action may provide the applicant with any number of re-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0348 Tw (jections under 35 U.S.C. 101 )Tj /F4 1 Tf 12.1261 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (\(utility\))Tj /F5 1 Tf 2.6968 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0348 Tw (, 102 )Tj /F4 1 Tf 2.355 0 TD -0.0002 Tc 0 Tw (\(novelty\))Tj /F5 1 Tf 3.1028 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0348 Tw (, 103 )Tj /F4 1 Tf 2.355 0 TD 0 Tw (\(obviousness\))Tj /F5 1 Tf 4.5923 0 TD 0.0348 Tw (, and)Tj -27.228 -1.2609 TD 0.1044 Tw (112 paragraph 1 )Tj /F4 1 Tf 6.95 0 TD 0.1043 Tw (\(written description, new matter, and enablement\))Tj /F5 1 Tf 18.4476 0 TD 0.1044 Tw (and para-)Tj -25.3975 -1.2609 TD 0 Tw (graph 2 )Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.2644 0 TD (\(indefiniteness\))Tj /F5 1 Tf 5.2505 0 TD 0 Tc (.)Tj 7.47 0 0 7.47 196.9086 331.795 Tm 0.0006 Tc (14)Tj 11.5 0 0 11.5 108 313.5 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.1389 Tw (Each office action should lead the applicant closer to allowable sub-)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.078 Tw [(ject)-356(matter by identifying the remaining issues or flaws in the inventors)]TJ T* 0 Tw (application.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0495 Tw (Based on our experience with the patent office, most examiners apply)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0475 Tw (mainly art-based rejections and indefiniteness rejections under 35 U.S.C.)Tj T* 0.0022 Tc 0.1366 Tw (112, paragraph 2, in their office actions. This is true, for example, for)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0325 Tw (patent applications that filed in Technology Center 1600 \(Biotechnology\).)Tj T* 0.0584 Tw (Examiners in 1600 regularly issue rejections under 35 U.S.C. 101 )Tj /F4 1 Tf 26.8224 0 TD 0 Tw (utility)Tj /F5 1 Tf 2.1353 0 TD 0 Tc (;)Tj -28.9577 -1.2609 TD -0.0033 Tc -0.0384 Tw (and 112 paragraph 1, )Tj /F4 1 Tf 8.3703 0 TD -0.0034 Tc (written description and enablement)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.9803 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (.)Tj 7.47 0 0 7.47 332.9824 201.295 Tm -0.0026 Tc (15)Tj 11.5 0 0 11.5 342.9756 197.5 Tm -0.0033 Tc -0.0385 Tw (These rejections are)Tj -21.4761 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0226 Tw (made in addition to applying art from the patent and nonpatent literature)Tj T* -0.0051 Tw (located during the patentability search \(see Exhibit 1.3\). 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APP)8.1(L)8(I)0(C)-32.9(ANT)18.1( HA)-20.9(S INVENT)10(ED AND IS SEEKING )21.6(T)35.9(O)0( P)30(A)56.9(T)10.1(ENT)]TJ /F3 1 Tf -0.2607 -1.4259 TD [( )244.7(I)18.1(dentify and U)35.9(nderstand )55.3(Any U)30(tility and/or P)30.3(ractical )54.9(A)12.1(pplication )54.9(Asserted )]TJ 0 -1.1765 TD [( )-255.3( )-255.2(for the I)12(n)0(v)6.2(ention)]TJ T* [( )244.7(R)12(evie)-6.1(w the D)6.1(etailed D)12.2(isclosur)10(e and S)24.2(pecific E)6.1(mbodiments of the I)12.4(n)0(v)6.1(ention)]TJ T* [( )244.7(R)12(evie)-6.1(w the Claims)]TJ /F12 1 Tf 1.1897 -23.1812 TD [(CL)17.1(E)-13.9(ARL)86.9(Y C)14.1(OMMUNIC)-33(A)57.1(T)10(E F)7.1(I)0(NDINGS, C)13.9(ONCL)28.1(USION)-13.9(S AND )21(THEIR BA)-21(SES)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 0.6349 -1.4258 TD [(R)11.9(evie)-6.1(w )55(All the P)30(r)10.2(oposed R)11.9(ejections and )18.5(Their B)11.9(ases to Confirm )55.3(Any)]TJ 4.7917 -1.1765 TD [(P)30(rima F)48.1(acie D)6.2(etermination of U)35.9(npatentability)90.7(.)]TJ /F12 1 Tf -4.5667 19.4446 TD [(DET)10(ERMINE )22.2(WHETHER )21(THE CL)-31(AIMED INVENT)-7.7(ION C)13.9(OMP)8.2(L)8(I)0(ES )22(WITH)]TJ -0.5383 -1.1765 TD [(THE SUB)-14.9(JECT)18.3( MA)56.9(T)-17(T)10(ER EL)8(IGIBIL)8(IT)-32.8(Y REQUIREMENT)18.1( OF 35 U.S.C. 1)17.7(0)0(1)]TJ /F3 1 Tf -1.5113 -1.3907 TD [( )244.7(D)12(oes the Claimed I)12(n)0(v)6.4(ention F)48.1(all within an E)6.4(numerated S)23.9(tatutory Category?)]TJ 0 -1.1765 TD [( )244.7(D)12(oes the Claimed I)12(n)0(v)6.4(ention F)48.1(all within a 101 J)36.3(udicial E)6.1(x)12.1(ceptionLaw of )]TJ T* [( )-255.3( )-255.2(N)30(atur)10(e, N)30.1(atural P)6.1(henomena, or )55.3(A)11.9(bstract I)18.1(dea?)]TJ T* [( )244.7(Establish on the R)11.9(ecor)10.2(d a P)30(rima F)48.2(acie Case)]TJ /F12 1 Tf 5.0981 9.1555 TD [(C)13.9(O)0(NDUCT)18.1( A )21.2(THOR)13.9(OUGH SE)-13.7(AR)7.1(CH OF )21.1(THE PRIOR AR)32.3(T)]TJ -2.5589 -12.4895 TD [(EV)41(AL)28.2(U)16.1(A)56.9(T)10.1(E)0( APP)8.1(L)8(I)0(C)-32.9(A)56.9(T)-8.1(I)0.1(ON F)8(OR C)14(OMP)8(L)8.2(IANCE )22(WITH 35 U.S.C. 11)7.2(2)]TJ -0.4897 -3.0588 TD [(DET)10(ERMINE )22.2(WHETHER )21(THE CL)-31(AIMED INVENT)-7.7(ION C)13.9(OMP)8.2(L)8(I)0(ES )22(WITH)]TJ 8.621 -1.1765 TD [(35 U.S.C. 1)17.1(02 AND 1)17.1(0)-16.6(3)]TJ ET EMC q 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n /GS2 gs BT /F2 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 96 326 Tm 0 0 0 1 k 0.711 Tc (EXHIBIT 1.4)Tj /F6 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 229.4452 326 Tm 0.1604 Tc (Examination Process)Tj ET 0 0 0 0 k 43 721 205 11.015 re f BT /F11 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc -0.0061 Tw [(ch01_4750.qxd 11/21/06 12:59 PM Page 15)]TJ ET 1 G 0.5 w 10 M 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S Q endstream endobj 61 0 obj > /Font > /Properties > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 62 0 obj > endobj 63 0 obj > endobj 64 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS3 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 0.2 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n /GS2 gs BT /F7 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 84 618 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.1435 Tw (The Examiner Conducts an Inventor Search \(Double-Patenting)Tj 0 -1.3182 TD 0.0019 Tc 0 Tw (Search\))Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 132.0244 603.5 Tm 0.1369 Tw (Despite its importance, patent office approaches to searching)Tj -4.176 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.092 Tw (vary greatly by the technology and an examiners individual preferences)Tj T* -0.003 Tc -0.0388 Tw (and experience. There is no universal process, and most approaches are un-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0632 Tw (structured. However, the PTO requires examiners to conduct inventor)Tj T* -0.0049 Tc -0.0368 Tw (searches to identify possible double patenting. Examiners conduct double-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (patenting searches of pending applications and granted patents.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0014 Tc -0.0403 Tw (Double-patenting rejections prohibit the improper extension of a patent)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0045 Tc -0.0373 Tw [(term for a single invention. In other words, the doctrine of double patent-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0129 Tw (ing seeks to prevent the unjustified extension of patent exclusivity beyond)Tj T* 0 Tw (the term of a patent.)Tj 7.47 0 0 7.47 182.699 476.795 Tm 0.0006 Tc (16)Tj 11.5 0 0 11.5 96 458.5 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0031 Tw (The similarities in patent searching across examiners end with the dou-)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.004 Tc -0.0377 Tw (ble-patenting search. The following table shows some of the ways in which)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (their approaches to searches may differ:)Tj ET 0 0 0 1 K 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 96 400.25 m 408 400.25 l S BT /F8 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 96 406.5 Tm [(Type of Examiner)-5400.9(Usual )]TJ /F10 1 Tf 15.4853 0 TD (But Not Exclusive)Tj /F8 1 Tf 7.6992 0 TD (Approach to the Search)Tj /F3 1 Tf -23.1845 -2.1111 TD [(Mechanical or Electrical)-2783(Focus heavily on the drawings and figures that are)]TJ 12.7778 -1.2222 TD (found in both patent and nonpatent literature.)Tj -12.7778 -1.5555 TD [(Business Methods)-5023.2(Give special attention to Internet searches, as)]TJ 12.7778 -1.2222 TD (many business methods have applicability across)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc (fields.)Tj -12.7778 -1.5556 TD -0.0001 Tc [(Chemical)-8995.7(Focus heavily on both patent and nonpatent)]TJ 12.7778 -1.2222 TD (literature searches, but often conduct chemical)Tj T* (structure and nucleic acid and protein sequence)Tj T* (searches. They may send requests to the USPTO)Tj T* (Scientific and Technical Information Center \(STIC\))Tj T* (where skilled searchers use proprietary)Tj T* (databases)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 249.8916 263.47 Tm -0.0003 Tc (17)Tj 9 0 0 9 258.3779 260.5 Tm -0.0001 Tc (on their behalf.)Tj -18.042 -1.5556 TD [(Biotechnology)-6741.8(Review postfiling date art to find references that)]TJ 12.7778 -1.2222 TD (teach the unpredictability \(the enablement of 112,)Tj T* (paragraph 1\) inherently present the biotechnology)Tj T* (approach.)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 248.8655 216.47 Tm -0.0003 Tc (18)Tj 9 0 0 9 257.3518 213.5 Tm -0.0001 Tc (Further, these examiners rely on prior)Tj -5.1502 -1.2222 TD -0.0002 Tc (art for the provision of a well-established utility)Tj ET 1 w 96 185 m 408 185 l S BT 9 0 0 9 211 191.5 Tm -0.0001 Tc (in a U.S.C. 101 sense.)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 293.3315 194.47 Tm -0.0003 Tc (19)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 96 159 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0183 Tw (At some point the examiner has reviewed the references found through)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.09 Tw (the patentability search, the double-patenting search, and the applicants)Tj T* 0.0267 Tw (searches \(as reflected on the Forms 1449\). If it is an international applica-)Tj T* 0.0134 Tw (tion filed under the PCT, the examiner will also review the search report)Tj T* 0 Tw (from the PCT \(210\) stage.)Tj /F6 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 84 646.927 Tm (16)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.65 0 0 7 111 646.927 Tm -0.0268 Tc [(chapter 1)-1724.6(patent law and examination as context for patent searching)]TJ ET Q 0 0 0 0 k /GS2 gs 43 721 205 11.015 re f BT /F11 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc -0.0061 Tw [(ch01_4750.qxd 11/21/06 12:59 PM Page 16)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 0.2 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 65 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 66 0 obj > endobj 67 0 obj > endobj 68 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS3 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 0.2 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n /GS2 gs BT /F7 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 96 618 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.012 Tw (The Examiner Applies the References)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 293.2495 618 Tm -0.0099 Tw (The patent examiner will then)Tj -17.1521 -1.2609 TD 0.0501 Tw (apply the references against the intended claims of the applicant. He will)Tj T* -0.0068 Tw (apply the many patent law statutes and correspond with the applicants at-)Tj T* 0 Tw (torney or agent through his written office actions.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0149 Tw (Upon review of the examiners office actions, the applicant may amend)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0039 Tc -0.0379 Tw (his claims in order to put them condition for allowance as prescribed by the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0362 Tw (examiner throughout the prosecution. He may also abandon the applica-)Tj T* 0.0619 Tw (tion in favor of continued prosecution, or he may appeal the examiners)Tj T* 0.0048 Tc 0.185 Tw (opinion with the USPTO Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (\(Board of Appeals\).)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0686 Tw (If the Board of Appeals affirms the examiners rejection, the applicant)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0057 Tw (may appeal the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Cir-)Tj T* 0.0398 Tw (cuit \(Federal Circuit\). In practice, few applicants appeal either the exam-)Tj T* 0 Tw (iner decision or that of the Board of Appeals.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0986 Tw (Instead, the applicant abandons the case and either \(1\) prosecutes the)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0026 Tc -0.0392 Tw (subject matter in a continuing application or \(2\) amends the claims in order)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0291 Tw (for the patent to be allowed. If unsatisfied with the protection provided by)Tj T* -0.0276 Tw (the granted patent, the applicant may file a continuation and attempt pros-)Tj T* 0 Tw (ecution a second time.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0358 Tw (Alternatively, the U.S. Congress has afforded the USPTO a limited role)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.093 Tw (in reconsidering patentability decisions after patents are granted through)Tj T* 0 Tw (reissue or reexamination proceedings.)Tj 7.47 0 0 7.47 267.4106 317.295 Tm 0.0006 Tc (20)Tj /F6 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 96 277.5 Tm -0.0001 Tc (After Patent Grant)Tj /F5 1 Tf 0 -1.913 TD -0.0219 Tw (Maintenance fees are due on U.S. utility patents at 3.5, 7.5, and 11.5 years)Tj 0 -1.2609 TD 0.0984 Tw (after patent grant. The PTO does not remind patent holders of this re-)Tj T* 0 Tw (sponsibility, but if unpaid, the patent will expire early.)Tj 7.47 0 0 7.47 342.9412 230.2951 Tm 0.0006 Tc (21)Tj 11.5 0 0 11.5 108 212 Tm -0.0001 Tc -0.0181 Tw (Also, following the granting of a patent, new possibilities present them-)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0133 Tw (selves to the owners of the patent in the form of licensing agreements. As)Tj T* 0.0304 Tw (a patent is property, it may be sold, mortgaged, or willed to another, just)Tj T* 0 Tw (as any other form of property.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0035 Tw (It is not necessary for a patent to be issued before it is licensed. Because)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0386 Tw (of the high bar required for patentability, licensors often stipulate compen-)Tj T* 0.0254 Tw (sation even when a patent does not issue. Sometimes, this is a gamble for)Tj T* -0.0019 Tc -0.0399 Tw (licensees. They may reap the first-to-market benefit of being the first to re-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (veal the technology in a marketing effort.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.65 0 0 7 294.4599 646.927 Tm -0.0268 Tc (patent examination process)Tj /F6 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 422.9677 646.927 Tm -0.0001 Tc (17)Tj ET Q 0 0 0 0 k /GS2 gs 43 721 205 11.015 re f BT /F11 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc -0.0061 Tw [(ch01_4750.qxd 11/21/06 12:59 PM Page 17)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 0.2 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 69 0 obj > endobj 70 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS3 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 0.2 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n /GS2 gs BT /F2 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 84 616.9929 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (Backlog of Patent Applications)Tj /F5 1 Tf 11.5 0 0 11.5 84 594.9929 Tm 0.0075 Tw (Several patent offices are faced with backlogs of unexamined applications,)Tj 0 -1.2609 TD 0.0173 Tw (most notably the United States. Currently, the USPTO reports a backlog)Tj T* -0.0006 Tc -0.0411 Tw (of 600,000 patent applications and is grappling with ways to expedite pros-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0086 Tw (ecution. The average patent application pendency is 24.6 months)Tj 7.47 0 0 7.47 393.0859 555.288 Tm 0.0006 Tc 0 Tw (22)Tj 11.5 0 0 11.5 403.7047 551.4929 Tm 0 Tc (and)Tj -27.8004 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc (far from the PTO goal of 14 months.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0121 Tw (In response, the PTO is continually hiring a record number of examin-)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0635 Tw (ers and executing other measures to improve their situation. Among the)Tj T* -0.0071 Tw (other measures is hiring contractors to assist with the searching and exam-)Tj T* 0.0754 Tw (ination of PCT searches \(PCT/ISA 210 and 237\). This began as a PCT)Tj T* 0.0735 Tw (Pilot Search program in October 2005. The USPTO later extended the)Tj T* 0 Tw (pilot to longer-term contracts with qualified commercial search vendors.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0328 Tw (We predict that the PTO will need to make more significant changes in)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD 0.0065 Tw (the examination process to handle the backlog. There will continue to be)Tj T* 0 Tw (a need for high-quality, professional patent searches in this process.)Tj 1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.004 Tc -0.0377 Tw (As more data is added to the public domain and the patent systems of the)Tj -1.0435 -1.2609 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0167 Tw (world become harmonized, the opportunities for profitable patent protec-)Tj T* 0 Tw (tion will increase.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 84 326.9929 Tm -0.0002 Tc (Notes)Tj /F5 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 87.2522 309.4929 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0.0315 Tw [(1.)-555.7(It can take years for a potential new drug to advance from an idea to a drug approved by)]TJ 1.3053 -1.1111 TD 0.0972 Tw (the FDA, and can cost more than $800 million. \(PhRMA. )Tj /F4 1 Tf 24.4063 0 TD (Pharmaceutical Industry Profile)Tj /F5 1 Tf -24.4063 -1.1111 TD -0.0261 Tw (2004.\) There is only a 30 percent chance that an approved drug will produce revenues that)Tj T* 0 Tw (match or exceed average research and development costs.)Tj -1.3053 -1.1111 TD 0.0058 Tw [(2.)-555.7(Of the patent systems twin purposes, encouraging new inventions and adding knowledge)]TJ 1.3053 -1.1111 TD 0.0085 Tw (to the public domain, the economic justification is probably the most important rationale.)Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (\()Tj /F4 1 Tf 0.3018 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0767 Tw (The Disclosure Function of the Patent System \(or Lack Thereof\))Tj /F5 1 Tf 23.5502 0 TD (, 118 Harv. L.R. 2007, 2008)Tj -23.852 -1.1111 TD 0 Tw (\(2005\)\).)Tj -1.3053 -1.1111 TD [(3.)-555.7(www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/nature.htm.)]TJ T* 0.0123 Tw [(4.)-555.7(Submarine patent is used to describe the practice of an applicant by which an originally)]TJ 1.3053 -1.1111 TD -0.0031 Tc -0.0387 Tw (unclaimed feature becomes a part of a claimed invention as a result of successively filed con-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0104 Tw (tinuation applications. Literally, the patents undergoing this extended prosecution are sub-)Tj T* -0.0177 Tw (merged from the public within the PTO until the issuance of a patent. Prior to the passage)Tj T* 0.0267 Tw (of the AIPA in 1999, the United States did not publish applications until 18 months after)Tj T* 0.0737 Tw (filing, and therefore an inventor never had to publicly disclose their subject matter until)Tj T* -0.0219 Tw (their patent issued. As a result, a submarined patent would avoid being issued until more)Tj T* -0.0073 Tw (modern technologies had been incorporated into the application during its extended pros-)Tj T* 0.065 Tw (ecution. In the end, the incorporation was somewhat anachronistic, considering that the)Tj T* 0.0049 Tw (novelty of many added claim limitations did not necessarily predate the applications filing)Tj T* -0.0383 Tw (date. As a result, considering the secret nature of the changes being made during its pros-)Tj T* 0.058 Tw (ecution, many infringement suits naturally followed after its issuance. The GATT agree-)Tj T* 0.0715 Tw (ment shifted the financial consequences of a delayed prosecution onto the inventor, and)Tj /F6 1 Tf -1.6667 60.826 TD 0 Tw (18)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.65 0 0 7 111 646.927 Tm -0.0268 Tc [(chapter 1)-1724.6(patent law and examination as context for patent searching)]TJ ET Q 0 0 0 0 k /GS2 gs 43 721 205 11.015 re f BT /F11 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc -0.0061 Tw [(ch01_4750.qxd 11/21/06 12:59 PM Page 18)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 0.2 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 71 0 obj > endobj 72 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS3 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 0.2 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n /GS2 gs BT /F5 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 111 618 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc -0.0282 Tw (with the AIPA passage in 1999, 90 percent of all patents filed become published, according)Tj 0 -1.1111 TD 0.1217 Tw (to a Federal Trade Commission report \(How To Promote Innovation Trough Balanc-)Tj T* 0.0048 Tc 0.3248 Tw [(ing)-607.6(Competition with Patent Law and Policy \(2003\); www.ftc.gov/opa/2003/10/)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.051 Tw (cpreport.htm\), limiting submarine patents. The most egregious prosecution of submarine)Tj T* 0.0785 Tw (patents was performed by the late Jerome H. Lemelson, who holds the top 13 places in)Tj T* 0.0321 Tw (American history of the longest patent prosecutions. Recently, many Lemelson patents)Tj T* -0.0017 Tc -0.04 Tw (have been ruled unenforceable due to the unreasonable and prejudicial delay taking place)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (in their prosecution before the USPTO. \()Tj /F4 1 Tf 16.5842 0 TD -0.0002 Tc (Symbol)Tj /F5 1 Tf 2.676 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (, 2004 WL 161331.\))Tj -20.5656 -1.1111 TD 0.013 Tw [(5.)-555.7(Under 37 CFR 1.213, a nonpublication request can be made if the invention disclosed in)]TJ 1.3053 -1.1111 TD 0.0538 Tw (an application has not been and will not be the subject of an application filed in another)Tj T* 0.0011 Tw (country, or under a multilateral international agreement that requires publication of appli-)Tj T* -0.0007 Tc -0.0411 Tw (cations 18 months after filing, the application will not be published under 35 U.S.C. 122\(b\))Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (and 1.211 provided:)Tj T* [(\(1\))-489.9(A request \(nonpublication request\) is submitted with the application upon filing;)]TJ T* 0.0158 Tw [(\(2\))-489.9(The request states in a conspicuous manner that the application is not to be published)]TJ 1.5833 -1.1111 TD 0 Tw (under 35 U.S.C. 122\(b\);)Tj -1.5833 -1.1111 TD -0.0086 Tc -0.0381 Tw [(\()-8.3(3)-8.3(\))-498.4(The request contains a certification that the invention disclosed in the application has not)]TJ 1.5833 -1.1111 TD -0.005 Tc 0.0359 Tw (been and will not be the subject of an application filed in another country, or under a)Tj T* -0.0057 Tc -0.0409 Tw (multilateral international agreement, that requires publication 18 months after filing; and)Tj -1.5833 -1.1111 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(\(4\))-490.1(The request is signed in compliance with 1.33\(b\).)]TJ -1.3053 -1.1111 TD [(6.)-555.7(See 35 U.S.C 119121.)]TJ T* [(7.)-555.7(www.uspto.gov/web/patents/classification.)]TJ T* [(8.)-555.7(According to Fed. Cir. \(CAFC\) rulings as of 2006.)]TJ T* -0.002 Tc [(9.)-557.6(See )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 2.8988 0 TD -0.0031 Tc -0.0387 Tw (In re Van Geuns)Tj /F5 1 Tf 6.0168 0 TD -0.003 Tc -0.0388 Tw (, 988 F.2d 1181, 26 USPQ2d 1057 \(Fed. Cir. 1993\). The rampant prac-)Tj -7.6103 -1.1111 TD -0.004 Tc -0.0378 Tw (tice of doing so can be seen in )Tj /F4 1 Tf 11.8594 0 TD (C.R. Bard, Inc. v. United States Surgical Corp.)Tj /F5 1 Tf 17.0751 0 TD (, where the court)Tj /F4 1 Tf -28.9345 -1.1111 TD -0.0031 Tc -0.0387 Tw (imported the limitation)Tj /F5 1 Tf 8.187 0 TD -0.0029 Tc -0.0389 Tw (pleated into a broad claim reciting a surgical mesh plug used for her-)Tj -8.187 -1.1111 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0112 Tw (nia repair, relying heavily in doing so on the Summary of the Invention that described a)Tj T* 0.0048 Tc 0.2309 Tw (plug having pleats. The court repeatedly referenced the Summary of the Invention)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.058 Tw (throughout the opinion, notwithstanding the fact that 23 narrow claims of the 25 in the)Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (patent )Tj /F4 1 Tf 2.7404 0 TD (did)Tj /F5 1 Tf 1.4174 0 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0236 Tw (recite a pleated plug, without even mentioning, let alone reconciling, the im-)Tj -4.1579 -1.1111 TD 0.096 Tw (mutable doctrine of claim differentiation that should have sustained the broad claims.)Tj T* 0 Tw (www.patentresources.com/advs06/adv_crfdrf.html.)Tj -1.6667 -1.1111 TD -0.0231 Tw [(10.)-427(This figure is based on a survey of U.S. patent file histories owned by Landon IP, Inc. as of)]TJ 1.6667 -1.1111 TD 0 Tw (2006, numbering over 80,000.)Tj -1.6667 -1.1111 TD [(11.)-427(www.uspto.gov/main/glossary/index.html.)]TJ T* -0.0124 Tw [(12.)-427(A useful item is capable of achieving some identifiable benefit. )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 27.457 0 TD (Juicy Whip, Inc. v. Orange)Tj -25.7904 -1.1111 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0012 Tw (Bang, Inc.)Tj /F5 1 Tf 3.7882 0 TD -0.0001 Tc (, 185 F. 3d 1364, 1366 \(Fed. Cir. 1999\). Novelty and nonobviousness are deter-)Tj -3.7882 -1.1111 TD -0.0323 Tw (mined by comparing the invention with prior art. )Tj /F4 1 Tf 20.7227 0 TD (Graham v. John Deere Co. of Kan. City)Tj /F5 1 Tf 14.6842 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (,)Tj -35.4069 -1.1111 TD -0.0001 Tc (383 U.S. 1, 15 \(1966\); 35 U.S.C.A. 102\(a\)\(e\), 103 \(2005\).)Tj -1.6667 -1.1111 TD -0.008 Tw [(13.)-427(Under the statute 35 U.S.C. 121, the claims of an application may properly be required to)]TJ 1.6667 -1.1111 TD -0.03 Tw (be restricted to one of two or more claimed inventions only if they are able to support sep-)Tj T* -0.0118 Tw (arate patents and they are either independent \(MPEP 802.01, 806.06, and 808.01\) or)Tj T* 0 Tw (distinct \(MPEP 806.05? 806.05\(j\)\).)Tj -1.6667 -1.1111 TD [(14.)-427(MPEP 706.02706.03\(x\).)]TJ T* -0.0043 Tc -0.0375 Tw [(15.)-431.2(Under the statute 35 U.S.C. 112, paragraph 1: The specification shall contain a written de-)]TJ 1.6667 -1.1111 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0256 Tw (scription of the invention, and of the manner and process of making and using it, in such)Tj T* -0.0008 Tc -0.041 Tw (full, clear, concise, and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in the art to which it per-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0632 Tw (tains, or with which it is most nearly connected, to make and use the same and shall set)Tj T* 0.0031 Tw (forth the best mode contemplated by the inventor of carrying out his invention. Written)Tj T* 0.0062 Tw (Description: The claims contain subject matter which was not described in the specifica-)Tj T* -0.016 Tw (tion in such a way as to reasonably convey to one skilled in the relevant art that the inven-)Tj T* 0.0028 Tc 0.136 Tw (tor\(s\), at the time the application was filed, had possession of the claimed invention.)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0037 Tw (Enablement: The claims contain subject matter which was not described in the specifica-)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.65 0 0 7 381.7087 646.927 Tm -0.0269 Tc 0 Tw (notes)Tj /F6 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 422.9677 646.927 Tm -0.0001 Tc (19)Tj ET Q 0 0 0 0 k /GS2 gs 43 721 205 11.015 re f BT /F11 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm /Cs8 cs 1 scn -0.0006 Tc -0.0061 Tw [(ch01_4750.qxd 11/21/06 12:59 PM Page 19)]TJ ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 0.2 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S /Cs8 CS 1 SCN 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 73 0 obj > endobj 74 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS3 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 0.2 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n /GS2 gs BT /F5 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 99 618 Tm 0 0 0 1 k -0.0001 Tc 0.0044 Tw (tion in such a way as to enable one skilled in the art to which it pertains, or with which it)Tj 0 -1.1111 TD 0 Tw (is most nearly connected, to make and/or use the invention.)Tj -1.6667 -1.1111 TD 0.0807 Tw [(16.)-427(There are generally two types of double patenting rejections. One is the same inven-)]TJ 1.6667 -1.1111 TD 0.0175 Tw (tiontype double patenting rejection based on 35 U.S.C. 101, which states in the singu-)Tj T* 0.015 Tw (lar that an inventor may obtain a patent. The second is the nonstatutory-type double)Tj T* 0.0875 Tw (patenting rejection based on a judicially created doctrine grounded in public policy and)Tj T* 0.1335 Tw (which is primarily intended to prevent prolongation of the patent term by prohibiting)Tj T* 0.0204 Tw (claims in a second patent not patentably distinguishing from claims in a first patent. Non-)Tj T* 0.0094 Tw (statutory double patenting includes rejections based on either a one-way determination of)Tj T* 0.0817 Tw (obviousness or a two-way determination of obviousness. Nonstatutory double patenting)Tj T* 0.0256 Tw (could include a rejection that is not the usual obviousness-type double patenting rejec-)Tj T* 0.0105 Tw (tion. This type of double patenting rejection is rare and is limited to the particular facts of)Tj T* -0.0099 Tc -0.0398 Tw (the case. )Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.4515 0 TD -0.0103 Tc (In re Schneller)Tj /F5 1 Tf 4.8753 0 TD -0.0099 Tc (, 397 F.2d 350, 158 USPQ 210 \(CCPA 1968\). www.uspto.gov/web/)Tj -8.3268 -1.1111 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (offices/pac/mpep/documents/0800_804.htm.)Tj -1.6667 -1.1111 TD -0.0364 Tw [(17.)-427(ABSS \(Automated Biotechnology Sequence Search System\) Coverage: Current, Full Text:)]TJ 1.6667 -1.1111 TD -0.0033 Tw (Current Genetic sequence search system. USPTO internal genetic sequence search system)Tj T* -0.0028 Tc -0.039 Tw (composed of commercially available databases such as Genbank/EMBL, Geneseq, PIR, and)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.059 Tw (UniProt. In-house databases \(pending applications, issued patents, and published applica-)Tj T* -0.0286 Tw (tions \(PGPubs\)\) are also available for interference and prior art purposes. Useful for routine)Tj T* 0.1282 Tw (sequence searching as well as specialized searches, including alignments, length-limited,)Tj T* 0 Tw (oligomer, and score/length.)Tj -1.6667 -1.1111 TD 0.025 Tw [(18.)-427(For instance, if applicant is claiming a method of diagnosing all types of cancers through)]TJ 1.6667 -1.1111 TD -0.0106 Tw (the detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism \(SNP\) in the LSCP gene and provides)Tj T* -0.0019 Tw (no corroborative data, an enablement rejection would be written and would cite the great)Tj T* 0.0074 Tw (unpredictability that exists in practicing such a method as portrayed in the postfiling date)Tj T* 0.0167 Tw (art. 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Table of Contents

About the Editors.

About Landon IP, Inc.

Acknowledgments.

Preface.

Chapter 1: Patent Law and Examination as Context for Patent Searching.

The U.S. Patent System.

Look before You Leap: Considerations before Filing.

Patent Examination Process.

Backlog of Patent Applications.

Chapter 2: Types of Patent Searches.

Patentability.

Validity.

Infringement.

Clearance.

State of the Art.

Patent Landscape.

Benefits of Prior Art Searching.

Chapter 3: The Mechanics of Searching.

Introduction.

Properly Scoping the Search.

Conducting the Search.

Issues Peculiar to Certain Technical Disciplines.

Estimating Search Time.

Chapter 4: Patent Analysis.

The Precursor to Patent Analysis.

Searches versus Analyses: What’s the Difference?

Features of Patent Analyses and Reporting.

Sample Patent Analysis Report.

Chapter 5: Approaches to Reporting Search Results.

Purpose of the Search Report.

Anatomy of a Search Report.

Writing a Summary.

Presenting the Subject Matter.

Discussing References.

Writing Discussions.

Indicating Claims.

Prioritizing References.

Central References.

Peripheral References.

Central and Peripheral References.

Search History.

Classification Areas.

Databases Accessed.

Examiners Contacted.

Conclusion.

Chapter 6: Search Tools.

The Availability of Patent Information.

Criteria for Selecting Search Tools.

When to Select a Search Tool.

Data Sources for Chemical Searches.

Data Sources for Mechanical Searches.

Data Sources For Electrical/Computer Searches.

Data Sources for Business Methods Searches.

Methods of Access.

Text Search Syntax.

Discussion of Specific Search Tools.

Access to Nonpatent Literature.

Value-Added Capabilities of Search Tools.

Conclusion.

Index.