Pathology of Laboratory Animals: Volume I by Kurt BenirschkePathology of Laboratory Animals: Volume I by Kurt Benirschke

Pathology of Laboratory Animals: Volume I

EditorKurt Benirschke, F.M. Garner, T.C. Jones

Paperback | December 16, 2011

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Laboratory Animal Medicine has made enor­ We deeply appreciate the efforts of each of the mous strides in the 47 years since R. Jaffe published authors and co-authors of the 23 chapters in this his "Anatomy and Pathology of Spontaneous Dis­ two volume work. In some instances the reader will eases of Small Laboratory Animals" in 1931. So note what appears to be repetition in certain chap­ ters. This repetition was allowed to stand in some much new information had accumulated that in a cases because different approaches seemed useful, new edition in 1958, Jaffe, aided by Cohrs and Meessen, needed the assistance of 46 colleagues to although efforts were made to delete most of the do the subject justice. Like its predecessor, this two redundancy which inevitably arises in a venture of volume comprehensive treatise on "Pathologie der this kind. We will be grateful if our colleagues point out errors and send us specific and general Laboratoriumstiere" was written in German and criticism of this work to allow corrections in the thus not readily available to the widening circle of event of reprinting or a next edition. veterinarians and pathologists who now are inter­ One objective has been to assemble current in­ ested in laboratory animals. Aside from the need to have a comprehensive formation in the pathologic aspects of diseases of review of laboratory animal pathology in English, laboratory animals.
Title:Pathology of Laboratory Animals: Volume IFormat:PaperbackPublished:December 16, 2011Publisher:Springer New YorkLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1461299446

ISBN - 13:9781461299448

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Table of Contents

1 The Cardiovascular System.- Normal Anatomic Features.- Pericardium.- Myocardium.- Endocardium.- Arteries.- Veins.- Lymphatics.- Heart.- Pericardium.- Noninflammatory Fluid Accumulations.- Hydropericardium.- Hemopericardium.- Inflammation.- Pericarditis.- Miscellaneous Lesions.- Hemorrhage.- Mineralization.- Urate Deposits.- Pericardial Neoplasms.- Myocardium.- Inflammation.- Myocarditis.- Degenerative Lesions.- Fatty Change.- Lipofuscinosis.- Mineralization.- Myocardial Necrosis and Fibrosis.- Myocardial Lesions in Muscular Dystrophy.- Myocardial Infarction.- Miscellaneous Conditions.- Rhabdomyomatosis.- Round Heart Disease of Chickens and Turkeys.- Neoplasms.- Endocardium.- Inflammation.- Endocarditis.- Miscellaneous Conditions.- Depositions.- Valvular Telangiectasis.- Atrial Thrombosis.- Endocardiosis.- Endocardial Disease in the Rat.- Congenital Malformations.- Pericardial Defects.- Patent Ductus Arteriosus.- Persistent Right Aortic Arch.- Aortic Stenosis.- Pulmonic Stenosis.- Tetralogy of Fallot.- Septal Defects.- Endocardial Fibroelastosis.- Congestive Heart Failure.- Left-Sided Heart Failure.- Right-Sided Heart Failure.- Arteries.- Degenerative Arteriopathies.- Atherosclerosis.- Hypertension and Arteriosclerosis.- Mineralization (Calcification).- Aneurysm and Rupture.- Amyloidosis.- Nutritional and Metabolic Arteriopathies.- Toxic Arteriopathies.- Lead Poisoning.- Mercurial Poisoning.- Proliferative Arteriopathies.- Arteritis.- Polyarteritis (Panarteritis, Periarteritis).- Arterial Lesions in Hypersensitivity Syndromes.- Parasitic Diseases of Arteries.- Filariasis.- Spirocercosis.- Medial Hyperplasia of Feline Pulmonary Arteries.- Angiostrongylosis.- Protozoan Arterial Infections.- Other Arterial Parasitisms.- Thromboembolic Arteriopathies.- Vascular Neoplasms.- Veins.- Phlebitis and Thrombophlebitis.- Phlebothrombosis.- Lymphatics.- References.- 2 The Respiratory System.- Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Ultrastructure.- Gross Anatomy.- Preservation and Fixation of Pulmonary Tissue.- Microscopic Anatomy.- Ultrastructure.- Viral Diseases.- Giant Cell Pneumonia (Measles) in Primates.- Canine Distemper.- Poxviruses.- Adenoviruses.- Herpesviruses.- Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis.- Canine Herpesvirus.- Herpes simiae, Herpes tamarinus and Herpes Infections of Primates.- Cytomegalovirus.- Feline Picornavirus.- Reovirus Infection.- Feline Pneumonitis.- Pneumonia Virus of Mice.- Sendai Virus Infection.- K Virus of Mice.- Rat Coronavirus.- Mycoplasma Diseases.- Murine Chronic Respiratory Disease-Mycoplasma pulmonis.- Mycoplasma Infections of the Respiratory System of Other Species.- Bacterial Diseases and Agents.- Tuberculosis.- Pneumococcal Infection.- Klebsiella pneumoniae.- Pasteurella multocida.- Pasteurella pneumotropica.- Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.- Corynebacterium kutscheri.- Staphylococcus Species.- Melioidosis.- Bordetella bronchiseptica.- Mycobacterium lepraemurium.- Streptobacillus moniliformis.- Mycotic Diseases.- Geotrichum candidum in the Dog.- Protozoan Diseases.- Pneumocystosis.- Toxoplasmosis.- Miscellaneous Disorders of the Respiratory System.- Pneumoconiosis and Aspiration of Foreign Material.- Kaolinite Aspiration and Granulomas in Primates.- Amyloidosis.- Lipid Pneumonia.- Fat Embolism.- Pulmonary Edema.- Histiocytosis.- Hemothorax.- Pulmonary Arterial Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia.- Parasites.- Cestodes.- Trematodes.- Nematodes.- Aelurostrongylus abstrusus.- Filaroides milksi.- Filaroides osleri.- Filaroides gordius.- Angiostrongylus cantonensis.- Crenosoma vulpis.- Gongylonema spices.- Capillaria aerophila.- Anatrichosoma cutaneum and Anatrichosoma cynamolgi.- Pentastomes.- Linguatula serrata.- Arthropods.- Annelida.- Neoplasms.- Pulmonary Adenomatosis.- Primary Neoplasms of the Respiratory System.- Metastatic Neoplasms of the Respiratory System.- References.- 3 The Urinary System.- Glomerulonephritis.- Mice.- New Zealand Black (NZB) Mice.- Mice Infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus.- RF Mice.- NH Mice.- Mice Infected with Murine Tumor Viruses.- Rats and Mastomys.- Guinea Pigs.- Aleutian Disease of Mink.- Nonhuman Primates.- Cats.- Dogs.- Reptiles.- Chickens.- Interstitial Nephritis.- Focal Interstitial Nephritis.- Diffuse Interstitial Nephritis.- Acute and Subacute.- Chronic.- Canine.- Feline.- Suppurative Nephritis and Pyelonephritis.- Acute and Subacute.- Chronic.- Parasitic Nephritis.- Nonhuman Primates.- Dogs.- Mice, Rats, and Guinea Pigs.- Rabbits.- Progressive Renal Disease in Rats (Glomerulonephrosis).- Nephropathy in Mice.- Nephrosis.- Renal Amyloidosis.- Nonhuman Primates.- Mice.- Hamsters.- Dogs.- Cats.- Vascular Lesions.- Renal Infarcts.- Bilateral Cortical Necrosis.- Papillary Necrosis.- Renal Calcification (Mineralization).- Nonviral Cellular Inclusions in the Urinary Tract.- Pigment Deposition in the Urinary Tract.- Urolithiasis.- Cystitis.- Congenital Malformations.- Renal Agenesis and Aplasia.- Renal Hypoplasia.- Renal Fusion.- Glomerular Dysplasia.- Kidney Disease of Mice and Familial Renal Disease of Norwegian Elkhounds.- Polycystic Kidney Disease.- Hydronephrosis.- Ectopic Ureter.- Congenital Ureteral Valves.- Uremia.- References.- 4 The Digestive System.- Oral Cavity.- Salivary Glands.- Esophagus.- Stomach.- Small Intestine.- Large Intestine.- Liver.- Biliary System.- Avian Bursa Fabricius.- Pancreas.- Abdominal Cavity and Peritoneum.- References.- 5 The Nervous System.- Viral Infections.- Canine Herpesvirus Encephalitis.- Herpesvirus Encephalitis in Nonhuman Primates.- Encephalitis due to Herpes simplex (Herpesvirus hominis).- Herpes B (B virus, Herpesvirus simiae).- Herpesvirus T (Herpesvirus tamarinus, Herpesvirus M).- Marek's Disease.- Rat Virus Encephalitis.- Cerebellar Hypoplasia Due to Feline Panleukopenia Virus.- Encephalitis Due to Reovirus III.- Canine Distemper.- Old Dog Encephalitis.- Newcastle Disease in Chickens.- Rabies.- Mouse Encephalomyelitis (Poliomyelitis in the Mouse, Theiler's Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection).- MHG Virus Encephalomyelitis in Rats.- Poliomyelitis in Nonhuman Primates.- Avian Encephalomyelitis.- Type C RNA Virus Myelitis in Mice.- Encephalitis due to Murine Hepatitus Virus (MHV) (Hepatoencephalitis Group).- Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis.- Mycoplasmal, Bacterial, and Fungal Infections.- Rolling Disease of Mice and Rats-Mycoplasma neurolyticum Infection.- Purulent Meningitis and Brain Abscesses.- Tuberculosis.- Cryptococcosis.- Parasitic Infections.- Encephalitozoonosis (Nosematosis, Microsporidiosis).- Toxoplasmosis.- Helminth and Insect Infections of the Central Nervous System.- Neoplasms.- Nutritional, Demyelinating, Toxic, Metabolic, and Degenerative Diseases.- Thiamine Deficiency in the Cat.- Coonhound Paralysis (Idiopathic Polyradiculitis).- Lead Poisoning.- Lipid Storage Diseases (Lipidoses).- Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System.- Selected Neurologic Mutations in Mice.- References.- 6 The Endocrine System.- Pituitary.- Developmental Anomalies of the Pituitary.- Pharyngeal Hypophysis.- Cysts of the Craniopharyngeal Duct.- Cystic Dilation of the Residual Hypophyseal Lumen of Rathke's Cleft.- Aplasia or Hypoplasia of the Pituitary.- Atrophic Changes in the Pituitary.- Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases of the Pituitary.- Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia of the Pituitary.- Benign and Malignant Tumors of the Pituitary.- Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Dysfunction.- Dwarfism, Cretinism, and Dwarf-cretinism in Rabbits.- Hypothalamic Diabetes Insipidus.- Cushing-like Syndrome and Disease.- Caudal Neurosecretory System in Fish.- Adrenal.- Developmental Disturbances.- Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, and Neoplasia of the Adrenal.- Degenerative and Inflammatory Changes of the Adrenal.- Hypoadrenocorticism.- Hyperfunction of the Adrenal.- Thyroid.- Developmental Anomalies of the Thyroid Gland.- Aplasia and Hypoplasia.- Ectopic Thyroid Tissue.- Persistent Thyroglossal Duct.- Degenerative Changes of the Thyroid.- Atrophy.- Miscellaneous.- Autoimmune Thyroiditis.- Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia of the Thyroid.- Nodular Goiter.- Diffuse Hyperplastic Goiter.- Colloid Goiter.- Exophthalmic Goiter.- Goiter in Fish.- Goiter in Amphibians and Reptiles.- Goiter in Birds.- Goiter in Mammals.- Primary Benign and Malignant Tumors of the Thyroid.- Parathyroids.- Calcium Metabolism.- Control of Parathyroid Hormone Secretion.- Biologic Effects of Parathyroid Hormone.- Ultimobranchial Gland and Thyroid C-Cells.- Biological Effects of Calcitonin.- Regulation of Calcitonin Secretion.- Physiologic Significance of Calcitonin.- Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis in Fish.- Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D).- Metabolic Activation of Vitamin D.- Biologic Effects and Mechanism of Action of Active Metabolites.- Disorders of Parathyroid Glands.- Hypoparathyroidism.- l-Asparaginase-induced Hypoparathyroidism in Rabbits.- Isoimmune Hypoparathyroidism in Dogs.- Autoimmune Parathyroiditis Following Ozone Inhalation.- Parathyroid Suppression.- Parturient Hypocalcemia in Cows Fed a High Calcium Diet Prepartum.- Secondary Hyperparathyroidism-Nutritional Origin.- Pathophysiologic Mechanisms.- Clinical Features.- Diagnosis.- Secondary Hyperparathyroidism-Renal Origin.- Pathophysiologic Mechanisms.- Clinical Features.- Diagnosis.- Primary Hyperparathyroidism.- Pathophysiologic Mechanisms.- Histologic Features.- Ultrastructural characteristics.- Clinical Features.- Diagnosis.- Differential Diagnosis.- Pseudohyperparathyroidism.- Disorders of Thyroid C-Cells.- Hypercalcitoninism.- Frequency.- Clinical Characteristics.- Gross Morphology.- Histologic Features.- Ultrastructural Characteristics.- Bioassay for Calcitonin Activity.- Etiology.- Growth and Metastases.- Hypocalcitoninism.- References.- 7 The Reproductive Tract.- Embryology.- Germ Cells.- Gonadal Differentiation.- Sexual Differentiation of the Tubular Genitalia and Accessory Sex Glands.- Sexual Differentiation of the External Genitalia.- Ovary.- Developmental Abnormalities.- Agenesis.- Dysgenesis.- Sex Reversal.- Functional Disorders.- Atrophy.- Ovarian Cysts.- Retained Corpora Lutea.- Infectious Diseases.- Neoplasms.- Adenoma, Adenocarcinoma, and Cystadenocarcinoma.- Granulosa-Theca Cell Tumors.- Dysgerminomas.- Teratomas.- Arrhenoblastoma, Gynandroblastoma, Hilar Cell Tumors, Carcinosarcoma.- Nonintrinsic Stromal Tumors.- Metastatic Lesions.- Oviducts.- Developmental Abnormalities.- Agenesis, Segmental Aplasia, Hypoplasia.- Functional Disorders.- Atrophy.- Hyperplasia.- Oviductal Pregnancy.- Infectious Diseases.- Neoplasms.- Uterus.- Developmental Abnormalities.- Agenesis, Aplasia, Dysgenesis.- Hypoplasia.- Intersex.- True Hermaphroditism.- Male Pseudohermaphroditism.- Female Pseudohermaphroditism.- XO Chromosomal Constitution (Turner-like Syndrome).- Sex-Reversed Mice.- Syndrome of Testicular Feminization.- Functional Disorders.- Atrophy.- Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia.- Endogenous Estrogens.- Exogenous Estrogens.- Endogenous Progesterone.- Exogenous Progesterone.- Pyometra.- Squamous Metaplasia.- Infectious Diseases.- Viral Diseases.- Herpesviruses.- Rubella.- Rubeola.- Panleukopenia.- Other Viruses.- Bacterial Diseases.- Canine Brucellosis.- Listeriosis.- Rabbit Venereal Spirochetosis.- Mycoplasmal Infections.- Mycoplasma.- Protozoan Infections.- Trichomoniasis.- Neoplasms.- Endometriosis.- Endometrial Polyps.- Adenocarcinoma of the Endometrium.- Carcinoma of the Cervix.- Leiomyoma and Leiomyosarcoma.- Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas.- Other Neoplasms.- Vagina, Clitoris, and Vulva.- Developmental Abnormalities.- Agenesis, Hypoplasia, Dysgenesis.- Functional Disorders.- Atrophy.- Hyperkeratinization.- Infectious Diseases.- Viral Diseases.- Bacterial Diseases.- Mycotic Infections.- Protozoan Infections.- Neoplasms.- Leiomyoma and Fibroma.- Transmissible Canine Venereal Tumor.- Testis and Epididymis.- Developmental Abnormalities.- Agenesis, Anorchia.- Hypoplasia.- Dysgenesis.- Functional Disorders.- Atrophy.- Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia.- Inflammation and Infectious Disease.- Neoplasms.- Sertoli-cell Tumor (Sustentacular-cell, Tumor, Tubular Adenoma).- Interstitial cell Tumor (Leydig cell Tumor).- Seminoma.- Teratoma.- Other Neoplasms.- Vas Deferens.- Developmental Abnormalities.- Agenesis, Segmental Aplasia, Hypoplasia.- Functional Disorders.- Atrophy.- Inflammation and Infectious Disease.- Neoplasms.- Accessory Sex Glands.- Developmental Abnormalities.- Agenesis, Hypoplasia.- Functional Disorders.- Atrophy.- Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia.- Squamous Metaplasia.- Inflammation and Infectious Disease.- Neoplasms.- Penis and Prepuce.- Developmental Abnormalities.- Agenesis.- Hypoplasia.- Phimosis and Paraphimosis.- Hypospadias and Epispadias.- Functional Disorders.- Inflammation and Infectious Disease.- Neoplasms.- References.- 8 Diseases of Skin.- Structure and Function.- Hair Follicles.- Sebaceous Glands.- Apocrine Sweat Glands.- Ceruminous Glands.- Eccrine Sweat Glands.- Peri- or Circumanal Glands.- Anal Sac or Pouch (Sinus Paranalis).- Reaction to Injury.- Tumors of Skin.- Epithelial Tumors.- Basal Cell Tumor.- Clinical Appearance.- Microscopic Appearance.- Squamous Cell Tumors.- Squamous Papilloma.- Squamous Cell Carcinoma.- Microscopic Appearance.- Keratoacanthoma.- Mummifying (Calcifying) Epithelioma.- Microscopic Appearance.- Sebaceous Gland Tumors.- Clinical Appearance.- Microscopic Appearance.- Perianal (Hepatoid) Gland Tumors of Dogs.- Clinical Findings.- Microscopic Appearance.- Age Incidence.- Breed Incidence.- Sex Incidence.- Site Incidence.- Sweat Gland Tumors.- Clinical Appearance.- Microscopic Appearance.- Hair Follicle Tumors (Trichoepithelioma).- Clinical Appearance.- Microscopic Appearance.- Mesenchymal Tumors.- Fibrous Tissue Tumors.- Fibroma.- Fibrosarcoma.- Hemangiopericytoma (Perithelioma).- Clinical Findings.- Microscopic Appearance.- Neurofibroma.- Neurofibrosarcoma.- Fatty Tissue Tumors.- Lipoma.- Liposarcoma.- Xanthomatosis of Chickens.- Vascular Tissue Tumors.- Hemangioma.- Hemangioscarcomas (Malignant Endothelioma).- Lymphangioma and Lymphangiosarcoma.- Lymphoid Tumors.- Mast Cell Tumors (Mastocytoma).- Clinical Appearance.- Clinicopathologic Correlations.- Histologic Appearance.- Tumors of Unclassified Cells.- Yaba Virus Lesions.- Canine Histiocytoma.- Clinical Appearance.- Histologic Appearance.- Transmissible Veneral Tumor.- Melanogenic Tumors.- Benign Dermal Melanomas.- Malignant Melanomas.- Tumorlike Nodules.- Calcinosis Circumscripta.- Microscopic Appearance.- Endocrine Dermatosis.- Hyperestrogenism.- Hyperadrenocorictism (Cushing's Syndrome).- Hypothyroidism.- Acanthosis Nigricans.- Parasitic Diseases.- Mite Infestations.- Scabies.- Ear Mites.- Cheyletiellosis.- Psorergates Simplex.- Myobia musculi and Myoptes musculinus.- Dermanyssus Gallinae.- Knemidocoptes.- Other Mites.- Tick Lesions.- Insect Lesions.- Fleas (Siphonaptera).- Lice.- Flies.- Helminthic Lesions.- Hookworm Dermatitis.- Filariasis.- Dracunculosis.- Mycotic Lesions.- Superficial Mycoses.- Dermatophytosis.- Dermatophilosis (Cutaneous Streptotrichosis).- Moniliasis (Candidiasis or Thrush).- Lobo's Disease (Lobomycosis).- Mycotic Granulomas.- Cryptococcosis (Torulosis).- Blastomycosis.- Maduromycosis.- Phycomycosis.- Sporotrichosis.- Rhinosporidiosis.- Epizootic Lymphangitis.- Bacterial Diseases.- Nocardiosis.- Actinomycosis.- Mycobacteriosis.- Actinobacillosis.- Staphylococcosis.- Streptococcosis.- Aeromoniasis.- Hemophilosis.- Myxobacteriosis.- Vibriosis.- Clostridiosis.- References.- 9 Special Senses.- Diseases of the Ear.- Malformations.- External Ear.- External Auricular Canal.- Foreign Bodies.- Bacterial Inflammations (Otitis Externa Acuta).- Otitis Externa Purulenta.- Otitis Externa Ulcerosa.- Otitis Externa Hyperplastica.- Parasitic Diseases.- Acarus (Sarcoptes).- Psoroptes.- Chorioptes.- Demodex.- Trombidiidae.- Fungal Diseases.- Aspergillus fumigatus.- Favus.- Spirochaetosis cuniculi.- Middle Ear.- Otitis Media Acuta.- Otitis Media Chronica.- Labyrinthitis.- Complication of Labyrinthitis.- Primates.- References.- Pathology of the Eye.- Degenerations of the Retina.- Retinal Degeneration in the Rat.- Retinal Degeneration in the Mouse.- Generalized Progressive Retinal Atrophy in Dogs.- Central Progressive Retinal Atrophy in Dogs.- Atrophy of Retinal Cones in Dogs.- Retinal Degeneration in Cats.- Feline Central Retinal Degeneration.- Diffuse Retinal Atrophy in Cats.- Retinal Dysplasia.- Cataracts.- Comparative Pathology of Ocular Tumors.- Classification of Tumors of the Eye and Adnexa.- Extraocular Tumors.- Epithelial Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of the Eyelids, Conjunctiva, and Cornea.- Soft Tissue (Mesenchymal) Tumors of the Orbit and Adnexa.- Tumors of the Melanogenic System.- Epithelial Tumors of the Lacrimal Glands.- Tumors of the Optic Nerve.- Secondary Tumors of the Orbit and Adnexa.- Intraocular Tumors.- Tumors of the Uveal Tract.- Melanogenic Tumors.- Vascular Tumors.- Muscle Tumors.- Tumors of the Iris and Ciliary Epithelium.- Congenital Tumors.- Acquired or Adult-Type Tumors.- Tumors of the Retina.- Secondary Tumors of the Eye.- References.- 10 The Musculoskeletal System.- Bones.- Gross and Microscopic Anatomy of Bone.- Evolutionary Changes in Bone Structure.- Variation Among Vertebrates.- Vertebrae.- Ribs and Sternum.- Pectoral Girdle.- Pelvic Girdle.- Appendages.- Skull.- Variation in Microscopic Structure.- Types of Osseous Tissue.- Differences in Bone Development.- Variation in Normal Element of Mature Bone.- Bone Development and Growth.- Genetic Influences.- Environmental Influences (Teratology).- Hormonal Influences,.- Nutritional Influences.- Abnormalities Associated with Systemic Metabolic Disorders.- Abnormalities of Uncertain Pathogenesis.- Chondrodysplasia.- Osteopetrosis.- Spondylolisthesis.- Bone Homeostatsis.- Factors Influencing Mineral Metabolism.- Hormonal.- Calcium and Phosphorus Absorption.- Renal.- Factors Influencing Bone Morphology.- Abnormalities of Bone Homeostasis.- Osteoporosis.- Rickets and Osteomalacia.- Fibrous Osteodystrophy.- Scurvy and Vitamin C.- Hyperostoses.- Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy.- Hyperostoses of Nutritional Origin.- Hypervitaminosis D.- Canine Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy.- Hypervitaminosis A.- Canine Panostosis (Panosteitis).- Canine Craniomandibular Osteopathy.- Multiple Cartilaginous Exostoses.- Lead Toxicity.- Fluorosis.- Osteosclerosis Myelofibrosis.- Disorders of Individual Epiphyses and Apophyses.- Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (Legg-Perthes Disease, Coxa Plana).- Traumatic Avulsion and Slipped Epiphysis.- Atlanto-axial Subluxation.- Osgood-Schlatter's Disease.- Osteochondrosis of the Canine Shoulder (Osteochondritis Dissecans/Transverse Fracture of Articular Cartilage of the Canine Humerus).- Bone Necrosis (Osteosis).- Inflammatory Bone Disease.- Bacteria, Actinomycetales, and Spirochetales.- Pyogenic Osteitis.- Chronic Osteitis.- Tuberculosis.- Treponema.- Turbinate Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease.- Fungi.- Parasites.- Viruses.- Parvoviruses.- Feline Herpesvirus.- Avian Osteopetrosis.- Joints, Bursae, and Tendon Sheaths.- Anatomy.- Chondrocalcinosis (Pseudogout).- Gout.- Degenerative Joint Disease.- Classification.- Primary Degenerative Arthropathy.- Secondary Degenerative Arthopathy.- Ankylosing Spondylosis and Degeneration of Intervertebral Discs.- Joint Dysplasia.- Inflammatory Joint Disease.- Infectious Arthritis, Bursitis, and Tendonitis.- Rheumatoid Arthritis.- Ankylosing Spondylitis.- General References.- References.- Muscle Diseases.- Procedures for Morphologic Studies of Skeletal Muscle and Some Associated Artifacts.- Gross Examination.- Histologic and Ultrastructural Study.- Fixation.- Staining.- Artifacts.- Normal Anatomy and Histology of Muscle.- Rigor Mortis.- General Reactions of Muscle to Injury.- Alterations in Fiber Size.- Nuclear Changes.- Degeneration and Regeneration.- Cellular Reactions.- Circulatory Disturbances.- Calcification and Ossification.- Congenital Defects.- Congenital Clefts of the Diaphragm.- Hyperplasia of Muscle in Calves and Lambs.- Myofibrillar Hypoplasia of Piglets.- Arthrogryposis and Dysraphism.- Muscular Hypertonicity in Scottish Terrier Dogs.- Myotonia.- Muscular Dysgenesis in the Mouse.- Inflammatory Diseases (Myositis).- Bacterial Myositis.- Viral Myositis.- Mycotic Myositis.- Leptospirosis.- Sarcosporidiosis.- Toxoplasmosis.- American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas' Disease).- Helminthic Myositis.- Toxic Myopathy.- Miscellaneous Disease of Muscle.- Myasthenia Gravis.- Eosinophilic Myositis and Atrophic Myositis (Masticory Myositis) of Dogs.- Idiopathic Myositis of Dogs.- Polymyositis.- Hindleg Myopathy of Old Rats.- Myositis in Guinea Pigs.- Myoglobinuria.- Transport and Stress Myopathy.- Myopathies of Poultry.- Hereditary Muscle Dystrophy.- Mouse.- Syrian Hamster.- Chicken.- Turkey.- Mink.- Sheep.- Dog.- Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy.- Historical Background.- Clinical Disease and Pathology.- References.- 11 Hematologic Disorders.- The Evaluation of the Hemic System.- Introduction: Laboratory Techniques.- Specimen Handling.- Quality Control in the Laboratory.- Specimen Testing in Hemic System Examination.- Standard Testing Procedures.- Microscopic Examination of the Blood Film.- Cytochemical Staining.- The Rabbit.- Blood Collection Techniques.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Strain or Breed.- Age.- Sex.- Seasonal or Diurnal Variations.- Nutritional Changes.- Stress or Trauma.- The Erythrocyte.- Reticulocytes.- Osmotic Fragility.- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.- The Leukocyte.- Amphophil (Neutrophil).- Eosinophil.- Basophil.- Lymphocyte.- Monocyte.- The Platelet.- The Bone Marrow.- The Hamster.- Blood Collection Techniques.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Age.- Seasonal or Diurnal Variations.- Stress or Trauma.- The Erythrocyte.- Morphology.- Normal Values.- The Leukocyte.- Neutrophil.- Lymphocyte.- Monocyte.- Eosinophil.- Basophil.- The Platelet.- Morphology.- Normal Values.- The Bone Marrow.- The Guinea Pig.- Blood Collection Techniques.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Strain or Breed.- Age.- Sex.- Seasonal or Diurnal Variation.- The Erythrocyte.- Morphology.- Normal Values.- The Leukocyte.- Pseudoeosinophil.- Lymphocyte.- Monocyte.- Eosinophil.- Basophil.- The Platelet.- Morphology.- Normal Values.- The Bone Marrow.- The Mouse.- Blood Collection Techniques.- The Erythrocyte.- Reticulocyte.- Osmotic Fragility.- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Strain.- Aging in the CFi Strain.- Aging in the C57BL/6J Strain.- Aging in the Regular Yellow AY Strain.- Aging in the Parkes Strain.- Sex.- The Leukocyte.- Neutrophil.- Eosinophil.- Basophil.- Lymphocyte.- Monocyte.- The Platelet.- Hemopoiesis in the Spleen.- The Bone Marrow.- The Rat.- Blood Collection Techniques.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Strain.- Age.- Aging in the Fischer Strain.- Aging in the AXC Strain.- Aging in the Wistar Strain.- Aging in the Long-Evans Strain.- Aging in the Sprague-Dawley Strain.- Sex.- Pregnancy and Lactation.- The Erythrocyte.- Morphology.- Life-Span.- Reticulocyte.- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.- Osmotic Fragility.- Blood Volume.- The Leukocyte.- Neutrophil.- Lymphocyte.- Monocyte.- Eosinophil.- Basophil.- Normal Values.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Leukopenia.- Leukocytosis.- The Platelet.- Morphology.- Normal Values.- The Bone Marrow.- Normal Cellularity.- The Cat.- Blood Collection Techniques.- The Erythrocyte.- Morphology.- Life-Span.- Reticulocyte.- Erythrocyte-Refractile Inclusions.- Osmotic Fragility.- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.- The Leukocyte.- Neutrophil.- Eosinophil.- Basophil.- Lymphocyte.- Monocyte.- Normal Values.- Platelet.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Sex.- Age.- The Bone Marrow.- The Dog.- Blood Collection Techniques.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Strain and Breed.- Age.- Sex.- Diurnal Variations.- Season and Altitude.- Breeding Cycles and Pregnancy.- Excitement and Conditioning.- The Erythrocyte.- Morphology.- Osmotic Fragility.- Blood Volume.- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.- The Leukocyte.- Neutrophil.- Lymphocyte.- Monocytes.- Eosinophil.- Basophil.- The Platelet.- Morphology.- Normal Values.- The Bone Marrow.- Miniature Swine.- Blood Collection Techniques.- Sources of Variation in Normal Values.- Strain or Breed.- Age.- Sex.- Stress.- The Erythrocyte.- Osmotic Fragility.- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.- The Leukocyte.- Neutrophil.- Lymphocytes.- Monocyte.- Eosinophil.- Basophil.- The Platelets.- Nonhuman Primates.- Blood Collection Techniques.- Conditioning.- The Prosimians.- Erythrocyte.- Leukocyte.- New World Primates.- The Callithricidae.- The Owl Monkey.- The Squirrel Money (Saimiri sciureus).- Old World Primates-Cercopithecidae.- The Macaque.- Variations Due to Sex in the Macaque.- Age-Related Changes in Macaca mulatta.- Variations Due to Pregnancy and Parturation in Macaca mulatta.- Bone Marrow-Macaca mulatta.- The African Guenon (Cercopithecus sp.).- The Baboon (Papio sp.).- Diseases of the Erythron.- Nutritional Diseases of the Erythron.- Protein Deprivation.- Iron-Deficiency Anemia.- Copper-Deficiency Anemia.- Folic Acid-Deficiency Megaloblastic Anemia.- Pyrodoxine (Vitamin B6) Deficiency.- Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Deficiency.- Ribonflavin Deficiency.- Magnesium Deficiency.- The Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Hemic System.- Immunohemolytic Anemias.- Isoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.- Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.- Drug-Induced, Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia.- Genetic Disease.- Stem Cell Disorders.- Stem Cell Function.- Other Effects.- The Steel Mutations.- Hertwig's Anemia (Gene Symbol, an).- Anemia Associated with Diminutive (Gene Symbol, dm).- Anemia Associated with Tail-Short (Gene Symbol, Ts).- Cyclic Hemopoiesis in Gray Collie Dogs (Gene Symbol, d).- Hypochromic Anemias.- Anemia of Flex-Tailed Mice (Gene Symbol, f).- Sex-Linked Anemia of Mice (Gene Symbol, sla).- Hereditary Microcytic Anemia of the Mouse (Gene Symbol, mk).- Anemia of the Belgrade Laboratory Rat (Gene Symbol, b).- "Hemoglobin Deficit" in Mice (Gene Symbol, hbd).- Hemolytic Anemias.- Hereditary Spherocytosis in the Deer Mouse (Gene Symbol, sp).- Hereditary Spherocytosis in the House Mouse (Gene Symbol, sph).- Jaundiced (Gene Symbol, ja).- Hemolytic Anemia (Gene Symbol, ha).- Nörmoblastic Anemia (Gene Symbol, nb).- Pyruvate Kinase-Deficiency Hemolytic Anemia in Dogs.- Alaskan Malamute Chondrodysplasia with Hemolytic Anemia (Gene Symbol, dan).- Miscellaneous Disorders.- Fetal Erythroblastic Anemia (No Gene Symbol Allocated).- Anemia Associated with Luxoid (Gene Symbol lst).- Cribriform Degeneration (Gene Symbol, cri).- Infectious Diseases of the Erythron.- Malaria.- General.- Nonhuman Primates and Rodents.- Plasmodium cynomolgi.- Plasmodium gonderi.- Plasmodium simium.- Plasmodium fieldi.- Plasmodium simiovale.- Plasmodium coatneyi.- Plasmodium fragile.- Plasmodium maleriae.- Plasmodium brasilianum.- Plasmodium inui.- Plasmodium knowlesi.- Plasmodium reichenowi.- Plasmodium schwetzi.- Plasmodium sp. (Gibbons).- Plasmodium sp. (Orangutans).- Plasmodium sp. (Rodents).- Hepatocystis.- Babesiosis.- General.- Canine Babesiosis.- Simian Babesiosis.- Entopolypoides macaci.- Rodent Babesiosis.- Haemobartonellosis, Eperythrozoonosis, and Grahamellosis.- General.- Description of the Genus Haemobartonella.- Description of the Genus Eperythrozoon.- Description of the Genus Grahamella.- Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology.- Ehrlichiosis.- Disorders of Leukocytes.- Hematologic Response.- Nonneoplastic Diseases of Leukocytes.- Pelger-Huët Anomaly.- Chediak-Higashi Syndrome.- Benign Infectious Lymphocytosis.- Vacuolization of Granulocytic Precursors.- Disorders of Platelets.- Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.- Thrombocytopenia Associated with Bone-Marrow Depression.- Isoimmune Thrombocytopenia.- Drug-induced Disorders of Platelet Function.- Canine Glanzmann's Disease.- Thrombopathy of Fawn-hooded Rats.- Disorders of Hemostasis.- Disease Affecting the Vessel Wall.- Inherited Defects of the Procoagulants.- Hemophilia.- von Willebrand's Disease.- Christmas Disease (Factor XI Deficiency, Hemophilia B).- Factor VII Deficiency.- Factor X Deficiency.- Hypofibrinogenemia and Afibrinogenemia.- Hemorrhagic Diathesis of the Owl Monkey.- Acquired Disorders of Coagulation.- Prothrombin Deficiency of the Newborn.- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.- Vitamin K Deficiency.- Hemorrhagic Diathesis Associated with Scurvy in the Guinea Pig.- Species-specific Characteristics of the Hemostatic Mechanism.- References.