This book examines the many ethical issues related to health and health care in children. It describes the field of Pediatric ethics, a unique and important aspect of the discipline of bioethics, the study of moral conduct in health care and the rational process for determining the best course of action in the face of conflicting choices. The book begins with an exploration of what it means to be a child in America and the unique kinship relationships and obligations engendered by the decision of parents to have a child, and it examines ethical principles and professional obligations related to the care of children. Each of the chapters in the book focuses on important ethical concerns. It begins with ethical issues in creating babies using reproductive technologies, and then continues with an analysis of the ethical issues in labor and delivery of a child. The book continues with an in depth analysis of the many hard choices faced by families and clinicians in the care of critically ill neonates, and then goes on to describe current controversies in caring for older children who are dying and their families, as well as ethical issues concerning adolescents, research ethics as it relates to children, issues concerning genetic testing, screening and biobanking, and surgical and medical enhancement of children. Each chapter has case examples to illustrate the real life concerns of patients, families and clinicians. The book is intended for students in pediatrics and ethics, as well as for practicing clinicians, and interested families.