Pediatric Neurosurgery: Theoretical Principles - Art of Surgical Techniques by G. TrasimeniPediatric Neurosurgery: Theoretical Principles - Art of Surgical Techniques by G. Trasimeni

Pediatric Neurosurgery: Theoretical Principles - Art of Surgical Techniques

byG. Trasimeni, Anthony J. Raimondi, F. Cardinale

Paperback | October 23, 2012

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Both a theoretic text book and a descriptive atlas, this standard reference in the field presents the individual steps of each surgical procedure. It represents the current perspective in the management of the child`s nervous system and discusses at great length the individual pathological entities which may be treated surgically. Numerous illustrations highlight both the operative technique and theoretic principles sections of the book, whereas the neuroimages are used in the theoretic principle section - accentuating the correlation of imaging with surgical planning and decision making. Recent world literature has been systematically reviewed, analysing critically different perspectives.
Title:Pediatric Neurosurgery: Theoretical Principles - Art of Surgical TechniquesFormat:PaperbackDimensions:631 pagesPublished:October 23, 2012Publisher:Springer NatureLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3642637477

ISBN - 13:9783642637476

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Table of Contents

List of Contents.- 1 Positioning.- General Discussion.- Age.- Premature Newborn.- Term Newborn and Infant.- Toddler.- Specific Positions.- Supine Position.- Prone Position.- Lounging (Sitting) Position.- Positioning of the Child Vis-à-vis the Surgeon's Line of Sight.- Positions of Surgeon, Assistants, and Nurse Around the Patient.- Accommodating Anesthesia.- General Positions.- Supine Position.- Anterior Fossa and Parasellar Area: Frontal Craniotomies.- Unilateral Frontopterional Craniotomy.- Bifrontopterional Craniotomy.- Craniofacial Procedures.- Parasagittal and Parietal Areas.- Parietal Craniotomies.- Unilateral Parietal Craniotomy.- Biparietal Craniotomy.- Convexity and Middle Fossa.- Temporal Craniotomy.- Craniocervical and Thoracoabdominal Positioning for Ventriculojugular or Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts.- Prone Position.- Occipital Craniotomy.- Suboccipital (Posterior Fossa) Craniotomy.- Laminotomy.- Cervical Laminotomy.- Thoracic Laminotomy.- Lumbar Laminotomy.- Lounging Position.- References.- 2 Incisions: Scalp, Muscle, Tissue, and Tumor Hemostasis.- Specific Incisions for Surgical Approaches.- Bifrontal Incision.- Frontal Incision.- Frontoparietal Skin Incision for Frontoparietal Bur Holes.- Frontoparietal Incision for Posterofrontal or Anteroparietal Lesions.- Parietal Incision.- Parasagittal Incision.- Temporal Incision.- Occipital Incision.- Suboccipital Incision.- Combined Supra-and Infratentorial Incision.- Hemispherical Incision.- Laminotomy.- Techniques for Scalp Hemostasis in Various Ages: Newborn, Infant, Toddler.- Skin.- Galea.- Loose Connective Tissue and Periosteum.- Temporalis Muscle.- Erector Capiti Muscle.- Periosteum-Suture Lines.- Techniques for Stopping Bleeding.- Use of Cotton Fluffies.- Use of Gelfoam, Surgicel, and Avitene.- Specific Types of Bleeding.- Bone Bleeding.- Bone Surface Bleeding.- Diploic Bleeding.- Dural Bleeding.- Arterial Dural Bleeding.- Dural Sinus Bleeding.- Cortical Bleeding.- Cortical Arterial Bleeding.- Sulcal or Cisternal Arteries.- Larger Cisternal Arteries.- Large Sulcal Arteries.- Venous Bleeding.- Cortical Veins.- Sulcal Veins.- Cisternal Veins.- Cortical Bridging Veins.- Choroid Plexus.- Tissue Bleeding.- Galeal Bleeding.- Parenchymal Bleeding.- Tumor Bleeding.- Closure.- Cranial Closure.- Fascia and Muscle Closure.- Temporalis Muscle.- Erector Capitis Muscles.- Skin Closure.- Laminotomy.- Muscles and Fascia Closure.- Muscle Bleeding.- Skin Closure.- 3 Bur Holes and Flaps.- Bur Holes: Frontoparietal (So-Called "Diagnostic").- Flaps.- Bifrontal Flap.- Frontal Flap.- Approaches to the Orbit.- Transethmoidal Approach.- Superior Lateral Approach.- Lateral Orbitotomy (Kronlein Approach).- Extended Lateral Orbitotomy of Jones.- Supraorbital Approach of Jane.- Transfrontal Approach to Orbit(s) or Cribriform Plate.- Parietal Flap.- Parietotemporal Flap.- Biparietal Craniotomy.- Temporal Flaps.- Anterior Temporal Flaps.- Posterior Temporal Flaps.- Mid-temporal Flap.- Occipital Flaps.- Medial Occipital Flap.- Lateral Occipital Flap.- Suboccipital Flaps.- Midline Suboccipital Craniotomy.- Suboccipital Craniotomy Versus Craniectomy.- Lateral Suboccipital Craniotomy.- Midline Suboccipital Craniotomies.- Inferior Suboccipital Craniotomy.- Superior Suboccipital Craniotomy.- Lateral Suboccipital Craniotomy.- Supra-and Infratentorial Craniotomy.- Hemispherical Craniotomy.- Laminotomy.- Laminotomy Procedure.- Bone Closure.- Craniotomy Closure.- Laminar Closure.- Postoperative Treatment and Follow-up of Laminotomy.- References.- 4 Suturotomy for Various Flaps in the Newborn and Infant.- 5 Dural Flaps.- General Comments.- Dural Openings.- Frontal Dural Openings.- Medial Frontal Dural Opening.- Lateral Frontal Dural Opening.- Bifrontal Dural Opening.- Parietal Dural Opening.- Superior Parietal Dural Opening.- Parietotemporal Dural Opening.- Biparietal Dural Opening.- Temporal Dural Openings.- Anterior Temporal Dural Opening.- Middle Temporal Dural Opening.- Posterior Temporal Dural Opening.- Enlarged Temporal Dural Opening.- Occipital Dural Openings.- Medial Occipital Dural Opening.- Lateral Occipital Dural Opening.- Posterior Fossa: Suboccipital Dural Openings.- Medial (Midline) Suboccipital Dural Opening.- Inferior Cerebellar Triangle Dural Opening.- Superior Cerebellar Triangle Dural Opening.- Lateral Suboccipital Opening.- Hemispherical Dural Opening.- Spinal Dural Openings.- Closure.- Cranial Closure.- Dural Closure.- Use of the Periosteum and Fascia to Reconstruct the Dura.- Spinal Closure.- Arachnoid Closure.- Dural Closure.- References.- 6 Cerebral Retraction.- Cistern Openings.- Use of Gravity.- Parasellar Area.- Sylvian Fissure.- Ambient Cistern Lesions.- Pineal Lesions.- Use of Cotton Fluffies and Telfa.- Self-Retaining Retractors.- References.- 7 Cerebrotomy.- Gyral Cerebrotomy.- Sulcal Cerebrotomy.- Small Vessels at the Depth of the Sulcus or Gyrus.- Cerebrotomy Through White Matter.- 8 Cerebral Resection.- Biopsy.- Lobectomy.- Frontal Lobectomy.- Temporal Lobectomy.- Occipital Lobectomy.- Cerebellar Lobectomy.- Hemispherectomy.- 9 Epilepsy.- Results.- Definitions.- Epidemiology.- Classification of Epileptic Seizures.- Patient Selection.- Noninvasive Methodologies.- History and Physical.- EEG and Video- EEG.- Diagnosis by Imaging Studies.- Invasive Methodologies.- Wada Test.- Intracranial Recordings.- Semi-invasive Electrodes.- Invasive Electrodes.- Operative Procedures.- Resective Surgery.- Temporal Lobe Resection.- "En bloc" Anterior Temporal Lobectomy.- Anteromedial Temporal Lobectomy.- Amygdalohippocampectomy.- Technique.- Exposure.- Lateral Resection.- Medial Resection.- Brief Anatomical Survey of the Temporal Horn.- Surgical Procedure.- Complications.- Results.- Extratemporal Resection.- Hemispherectomy.- Disconnection Surgery.- Callosotomy.- Results.- Complications.- Alternative Surgery.- Multiple Subpial Transections.- Chronic Intermittent Vagal Stimulation.- Clinical Evaluation.- References.- 10 Tumors.- Surgical Approach and Removal.- Bone Tumors.- Dermoid and Epidermoid Tumors.- Eosinophilic Granuloma.- Aneurysmal Bone Cyst.- Fibrous Dysplasia and Juvenile Aggressive Fibromatosis.- Osteoma.- Dural-and Osteo-Sarcoma.- Orbital Tumors.- Periorbital Tumors: General Comments.- Intraorbital Tumors.- Surgical Considerations.- Intracranial Approach to Orbital Tumors.- Anterior Cone Tumors.- Nerve Sheath Tumors.- Optic Nerve Tumor.- Age and Brain Tumors.- Materials and Methods.- Hemispherical Tumors.- Solid Hemispherical Tumors.- Highly Vascular Hemispherical Tumors.- Avascular Hemispherical Tumors.- Cystic Hemispherical Tumors.- Capsule.- Cystic Fluid.- Nodules.- Ventricular Tumors.- Lateral Ventricle Tumors: General.- Lateral Ventricle Ependymal Tumors.- Glial Tumors.- Subependymal Gliomas.- Gliomas of the Septum Pellucidum.- Papillomas.- Asymmetrical Hydrocephalus.- Choroid Plexus Papilloma of the Glomus.- Lateral Ventricle Choroid Plexus Papilloma.- Bilateral Lateral Ventricle Papilloma.- Midline Tumors.- Midline Ventricular Tumors.- Third Ventricle Tumors.- General Discussion.- General Comments Concerning Access to III Ventricle Tumors.- Anterior III Ventricle Tumors.- Superior III Ventricle Tumors.- Posterior III Ventricle Tumors.- Specific Comments Concerning Access to Tumors of the Anterior III Ventricle.- Lamina Terminalis Approach.- Tumors of the Roof of the III Ventricle.- Transcallosal Approach to Superior III Ventricle Tumors.- Septo-interthalamic Approach to Superior III Ventricle Tumors.- Posterior III Ventricle Tumors.- Clinical Criteria.- Intra(III)ventricular Pineal Region Tumors: Suboccipital, Supracerebellar Approach.- Superior to III Ventricle Pineal Tumors: Parasagittal Approach.- III Ventricle Pineal Tumors: Posterior and Inferior Occipital/Transtentorial Approach.- Hydrocephalus and Infratentorial Tumors.- Fourth Ventricular Tumors.- Medulloblastoma.- Operative Technique: Medulloblastoma.- Ependymoma.- Choroid Plexus Papilloma.- Brainstem Glioma.- Vermian Tumors.- Superior Triangle Tumors.- Inferior Triangle Tumors.- Surgical Consideration.- Posterolateral Approach.- Combined Supra/infratentorial Approach.- Foramen Magnum Tumors.- Dorsal Foramen Magnum Tumors.- Lateral Foramen Magnum Tumors.- Ventral Foramen Magnum Tumors.- Cerebellar Hemisphere Tumors.- Solid Cerebellar Hemisphere Tumors.- Cystic Cerebellar Hemisphere Tumors.- Parasellar Tumors.- General Anatomical Parameters.- Anatomy.- Patterns of Growth.- Craniopharyngioma.- Optic Pathway Gliomas.- Germinoma.- Clinical Characteristics of the Two Most Common Parasellar Tumors.- Parasellar Glioma.- Biopsy of Parasellar Glioma.- Hypothalamic Glioma.- Craniopharyngioma.- Surgical Considerations Regarding Craniopharyngioma Classification.- Classification of Craniopharyngioma.- Prechiasmatic Craniopharyngioma.- Intrasellar Craniopharyngioma.- Retrochiasmatic Craniopharyngioma.- "Les Formes Geantes".- Atypical Craniopharyngioma.- General Comments on Craniopharyngioma Surgical Anatomy and Technique.- Surgical Management of Children with Craniopharyngioma.- Supplemental Surgical Management of Craniopharyngioma.- Surgical Approach to Craniopharyngioma:General Comments.- Surgical Technique: Specific Procedures.- Rhinoseptal Transphenoidal Approach.- Subfrontal Approach.- Unilateral Anterior Subtemporal Approach.- Direct Transventricular Approach.- Recurrences.- Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-Term Effects of Conservative Surgical Procedures Combined with Radiation Therapy.- Different Treatment Modality Approaches with Long Follow-up.- Corpus Callosum and Septum Pellucidum Tumors.- Corpus Callosum: Surgical Anatomy.- Septum Pellucidum: Surgical Anatomy.- Spinal Tumors.- Extent of Resection.- Radiotherapy.- Neurological Status.- Metastatic Spinal Tumor.- Intradural-Extramedullary Tumors.- Arachnoidal Cyst.- Neurofibroma.- Intramedullary Tumors.- Cystic Intramedullary Astrocytoma.- Solid Astrocytoma.- Ependymoma.- Cauda Equina Ependymoma.- Arteriovenous Malformations of the Spinal Cord.- Dermoid and Epidermoid Tumors.- References.- 11 Vascular Disorders: Surgical Approaches and Operative Technique.- Saccular Aneurysms.- Internal Carotid Bifurcation Aneurysms.- Aneurysms of the Trifurcation of the Middle Cerebral Artery.- Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) Aneurysms.- Vascular Malformations.- Transcranial Venovenous Shunts.- Transcranial Arteriovenous Fistulae.- Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae.- Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis.- Parenchymal Arteriovenous Malformations.- Hemispherical Arteriovenous Malformations.- Venous Angiomas.- Cerebellar Hemisphere.- Arteriovenous Malformations.- Orbital Cavernoma.- Brainstem Arteriovenous Malformations.- Spontaneous Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage.- Intraventricular Arteriovenous Malformations.- Lateral Ventricle Malformation.- Third Ventricle Arteriovenous Malformations.- Arteriovenous Fistulae Involving Galenic System and/or Perimesencephalic Leptomeninges.- Heart Failure, Arteriovenous Shunting, Thrombophlebitis, and Hydrocephalus.- Endovascular Occlusion or Open Surgery.- Anatomic Classification and Surgical Anatomy.- Superior Category.- Inferior Category.- Posterior Category.- References.- 12 Infections.- Osteomyelitis.- Epidural Empyema.- Subdural Abscess and Subdural Empyema.- Acute Meningitis with Hydrocephalus.- Brain Abscess.- Bur Hole and Cannula Drainage.- Craniotomy and Resection of the Abscess.- Pyocephalus.- Ventriculitis.- Subdural Effusions.- Cerebritis and Cerebellitis.- Wound Infections.- Stitch Abscess.- Superficial Infection.- Deep Infection.- References.- 13 Trauma.- Injuries of the Scalp.- Fractures.- Linear Fractures.- Diastatic Fractures.- Basal Linear Fractures.- Depressed Fractures.- Compound Skull Fractures.- Cerebral Contusion and Edema.- Epidural Hematoma.- Convexity Epidural Hematoma.- Posterior Fossa Epidural Hematoma.- Subdural Hematoma.- Acute Subdural Hematoma.- Subacute Subdural Hematoma.- Chronic Subdural Hematoma.- Subdural Taps and Resection of Membranes.- Pathogenesis of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.- Operative Technique for Lowering the Superior Sagittal Sinus: Reduction Cranioplasty.- Bur Holes.- Subdural Peritoneal Shunt.- Cerebral Atrophy.- Membrane Resection.- Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks.- Direct Approach.- Intradural Approach.- Extradural Approach.- Indirect Approach.- Meningocele Spuria.- Child Abuse.- Post -traumatic Cerebrovascular Injuries.- Age Categories for Post-traumatic Cerebrovascular Injuries.- Anatomy of Post-traumatic Cerebrovascular Injuries.- False Aneurysms.- Cranioplasty.- Vertebral Fracture Dislocation.- References.- 14 Congenital Anomalies.- Congenital Anomalies Involving the Craniocerebrum and Craniocervical Junction.- Synostotic Cranial Anomalies.- General.- Metopic (Including Frontonasal) Synostosis: Trigonocephaly.- Sagittal Synostosis: Scaphocephaly.- Synostotic Craniofacial Anomalies.- General.- Plagiocephaly (Improperly Called Coronal Synostosis).- Unilateral Plagiocephaly.- Frontosphenoidal Synostosis.- Zygomaticofrontal Synostosis.- Frontonasal, Nasal, and Frontoethmoidal Stenosis.- Bilateral Coronal Synostosis: Plagiocephaly.- Occipital (Synostosis) Plagiocephaly.- Hypertelorism.- Crouzon and Apert.- Kleeblattschadel (Cloverleaf) Trilobed Skull Deformity.- Arachnoidal Cysts.- Midline Arachnoidal Cysts.- Craniotomy.- Cystoperitoneal Shunting.- Chiari IV Malformation.- Lateral Arachnoidal Cysts.- Craniofacial Encephalomeningoceles.- Craniofacial Meningoencephaloceles: Basal Craniofacial Meningoencephaloceles.- Sphenoidal Meningoencephaloceles.- Ethmoidal Meningoencephaloceles.- Frontal Ethmoidal Meningoencephaloceles: Sincipital Encephaloceles.- Nasal Orbital Meningoencephalocele.- Nasal Ethmoidal Meningoencephalocele.- Nasal Frontal Meningoencephalocele.- Cranioschisis.- Cranial Meningoencephalocele.- Orbital Encephaloceles.- Interfrontal Meningoencephalocele.- Anterior Fontanelle Meningoencephalocele.- Interparietal Meningoencephalocele.- Posterior Fontanelle Meningoencephalocele.- Chiari III Malformation: Occipital or Cervical Meningoencephalocele.- Craniocerebral Disproportions: Chiari Malformations.- Chiari I Malformation.- Chiari II Malformation.- Separation of Craniopagus Twins.- Preparation of Skin Flaps.- First Attempt at Separation.- Final Separation.- Vertebrospinal Congenital Anomalies.- The Dysraphic State.- Amyelia.- Defects in Closure of the Spinal Cord and Posterior Vertebral Arch.- Myelocele.- Meningocele.- Meningomyelocele.- Cystic Meningomyelocele.- Meningomyelohydrocele.- Diastematomyelia.- Dysraphic Hamartomas.- Lipomatous Hamartomas.- Lipomas.- Surgical Technique for Lipoma.- Leptomyelolipoma.- Dural Fibrolipoma.- Lipomeningocele.- Dermoid Hamartoma.- Endodermal Hamartoma.- Nondysraphic Spinal Cord Anomalies and Congenital Tumors.- Hydromyelia and Hydrosyringomyelia.- Syringomyelia.- The Tethered Cord.- References.- 15 Hydrocephalus.- Definition and Classification.- Surgical Treatment and Prognosis.- Genesis of Parenchymal Destruction.- Diagnosis.- Treatment.- Intellectual Development and Quality of Survival.- Surgical Management.- Techniques for Cannulation of the Ventricles.- Occipital Horn Cannulation.- Frontal Horn Cannulation.- Fourth Ventricle Cannulation.- Shunts.- Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt.- The Delta Valve.- Surgical Procedure.- Ventricular Catheter Placement.- Peritoneal Catheter Placement.- Ventriculoatrial Shunt.- Ventriculopleural Shunt.- Ventriculogallbladder Shunt.- Yarzagaray Technique for Ventriculogallbladder Shunting.- Ventriculoamniotic Shunt: JT Brown Technique.- Lumbar Peritoneal Shunt.- Open Technique for Lumbar Peritoneal Shunt.- Closed Technique for Lumbar Peritoneal Shunt.- Shunt Revisions.- Intracranial Shunting.- Ventriculoventricular Shunting.- Ventriculocisternostomies.- III Ventriculostomy.- Open Technique for III Ventriculostomy.- Closed Technique for III Ventriculostomy.- Ventriculoscopic III Ventriculostomy.- Torkildsen Procedure.- IV Ventriculocisternostomy.- Basic Structure of Shunt Systems.- Characteristics of the Flow Rate.- Opening Pressure and Closing Pressure.- References.