The most common cause of premature death in the U.S. and in many of the world's countries is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which includes coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Most epidemiologic studies of risk factors for atherosclerosis have beenconducted in adult populations, yet there is now clear evidence that the atherosclerotic process begins at a very early age. This book reviews recent findings that help physicians identify and manage children and adolescents who are at the highest risk for developing premature cardiovascular diseasein later life. It reviews cholesterol levels, blood pressure levels, body size and tobacco use as risk factors for obesity, diabetes, coronary artery calcification and increased carotid artery intimal-medial thickness; it also discusses the measurement, familial aggregation, tracking and managementof each of these risk factors. The book merges epidemiology and pathophysiology with descriptions of risk factors in childhood and adolescence and how they affect blood vessels and the heart. The organization of the book makes clear the most up-to-date clinical recommendations from the National High Blood Pressure EducationProgram, the National Cholesterol Education Program, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association, while also presenting the results of epidemiologic studies that support the clinical recommendations. This provides the reader with both the science and application ofpediatric preventive cardiology. This book is for doctors and other health professionals who practice preventive cardiology in children, adolescents and young adults. It is for school nurses and school administrators who are committed to developing a healthful school environment with appropriate attention to school lunches andphysical activity. For those who teach epidemiology and public health, it provides a complete discussion of pediatric atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease epidemiology. For medical historians, the book also offers an historical perspective on the development of knowledge regarding risk ofcardiovascular disease in children, adolescents and young adults, and the clinical practice of pediatric prevention.