Photosynthesis during leaf development by Zdenek SestPhotosynthesis during leaf development by Zdenek Sest

Photosynthesis during leaf development

byZdenek Sest

Paperback | February 12, 2012

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Title:Photosynthesis during leaf developmentFormat:PaperbackDimensions:396 pages, 23.5 × 15.5 × 0.02 inPublished:February 12, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401089418

ISBN - 13:9789401089418

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Table of Contents

0 Leaf Development - Terms and Photosynthetie Aspects.- 0.1 Phases of Leaf Development and Insertion Profile.- 0.2 Common Imperfections of Leaf Ontogenetic Studies.- 0.3 Specialized Monographs and the Scope of this Book.- 1 Ontogeny of Leaf Morphology and Anatomy.- 1.1 Leaf as a Photosynthetie Structure.- 1.2 Leaf Growth, Leaf Area and Size, Leaf Thickness.- 1.2.1 Leaf Area.- 1.2.2 Leaf Size and Shape.- 1.2.3 Leaf Thickness.- 1.2.4 Leaf Plastochron Index:.- 1.3 Leaf Epidermis.- 1.3.1 Number of Epidermal Cells, their Sizes, and Thickness of Epidermis.- 1.3.2 Cuticle, Waxes, Trichomes.- 1.3.3 Stomata.- 1.3.3.1 Stomata Density.- 1.3.3.2 Stomata Size.- 1.3.3.3 Absolute Number of Stomata per Leaf.- 1.3.3.4 Stomatal Index.- 1.4 Leaf Mesophyll.- 1.4.1 Leaf Anatomy of C3,C4, and CAM Plants.- 1.4.2 Mesophyll Thickness and Tissue Volumes.- 1.4.3 Intercellular Air Spaces and Internal Leaf Surface.- 1.4.4 Mesophyll Cells.- 1.4.5 Chloroplasts.- 1.4.5.1 Chloroplast Numbers.- 1.4.5.2 Chloroplast Sizes.- 1.4.6 Vascular System.- 1.5 Zalenski? Law.- 1.6 Conclusions.- 2 Chloroplast Development.- 2.1 Chloroplast Structure.- 2.2 Ontogeny of Chloroplast Structure.- 2.2.1 Outlines of Chloroplast Development.- 2.2.2 Non-ontogenetic Changes in Chloroplast Structure.- 2.2.3 Chloroplast Ultrastructure during Leaf Development.- 2.2.3.1 Leaves of Herbs and Deciduous Woody Plants.- 2.2.3.2 Leaves of Evergreen Woody Plants.- 2.2.3.3 Chloroplast Ontogeny in Relation to C3, C4, or CAM Pathway.- 2.2.4 Chloroplast Substructure during Leaf Development.- 2.2.5 Environmental or Experimental Modifications of the Chloroplast Ontogeny.- 2.3 Conclusions.- 3 Chlorophylls and Carotenoids during Leaf Ontogeny.- 3.1 The Importance of Chlorophyll and Carotenoids.- 3.2 Biosynthetic Processes.- 3.2.1 Chlorophyll Biosynthesis.- 3.2.1.1 Precursors of Chlorophyll.- 3.2.1.2 Enzymes of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis.- 3.2.1.3 Chlorophyll Biosynthesis in Various Parts of the Leaf Blade.- 3.2.1.4 Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Chloroplast Ultrastructure.- 3.2.2 Carotenoid Biosynthesis.- 3.3 Pigment Contents during Leaf Ontogeny.- 3.3.1 Chlorophyll Contents.- 3.3.1.1 Herbs and Deciduous Trees.- 3.3.1.2 Evergreen Plants.- 3.3.2 Carotenoid Contents.- 3.3.2.1 Herbs and Deciduous Trees.- 3.3.2.2 Evergreen Plants.- 3.4 Leaf Insertion and Pigment Contents.- 3.4.1 Chlorophyll and Leaf Insertion.- 3.4.2 Carotenoids and Leaf Insertion.- 3.5 Pigment Distribution in Leaf Blade.- 3.5.1 Chlorophylls.- 3.5.2 Carotenoids.- 3.6 State of Pigments in Vivo.- 3.6.1 Chlorophylls in Vivo.- 3.6.2 Carotenoids in Vivo.- 3.7 Leaf Age Effects Observed in Detached Leaves.- 3.8 Conclusion.- 4 Leaf Optical Properties.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Photoreceptors and Mechanisms.- 4.2.1 Absorption.- 4.1.2 Transmission.- 4.1.3 Reflection.- 4.2 Leaf as an Optical System.- 4.3.1 Scattering and Optical Path of Radiation Inside a Leaf.- 4.3.2 Dorsiventrality of a Leaf.- 4.3.3 Attenuation of Radiation Inside a Leaf.- 4.3 Variability in Leaf Optical Properties.- 4.4.1 Leaf Ontogeny.- 4.4.2 Insertion Level and Sequential Age of Leaves.- 4.4 Conclusions.- 5 Changes in Electron Transport Chain Composition, and Activities of Photosystems and Photophosphorylation during Leaf Ontogeny.- 5.1 Principles of Photosynthetie Electron Transport Chain and Photophosphorylation.- 5.2 Composition of Thylakoids: Components of Electron Transport Chain.- 5.2.1 Plastoquinones.- 5.2.2 Cytochromes.- 5.2.3 Ferredoxin.- 5.3 Activities of Photosystems.- 5.3.1 Photosystem 2.- 5.3.2 Photosystem 1.- 5.3.3 Ratio of Activities of Photosystems 1 and 2.- 5.4 Photophosphorylation.- 5.5 General Course of Photochemical Activities.- 6 Carbon Fixation Pathways, their Enzymes and Products during Leaf Ontogeny.- 6.1 Carbon Fixation Pathways.- 6.2 Enzyme Activities during Leaf Ontogeny.- 6.2.1 RuBPC and PEPC in C3 Plants.- 6.2.2 RuBPC and PEPC in C4 Plants.- 6.2.3 RuBPC and PEPC in CAM Plants.- 6.2.4 Other Enzymes of Carbon Metabolism in C3 Plants.- 6.2.5 Other Enzymes of Carbon Metabolism in C4 and CAM Plants.- 6.3 Changes in Carbon Fixation Pathways and Primary Photosynthates.- 6.4 Secondary Photosynthates.- 6.5 Conclusion.- 7 Gas Exchange and Dry Matter Accumulation during Leaf Development.- 7.1 Photosynthetie Gas Exchange.- 7.1.1 CO2 Fixation Types and their Response in CO2 Exchange.- 7.2 Net Photosynthetie Rate.- 7.2.1 Net Photosynthetie Rate during Leaf Ontogeny.- 7.2.2 Leaf Insertion and Net Photosynthetie Rate.- 7.2.3 Net Photosynthetie Rate on Leaf Blade Area.- 7.2.4 Modifications of Developmental Pattern in Net Photosynthetie Rate.- 7.2.1 Irradiance.- 7.2.5.1 The Dependence of Net Photosynthetie Rate on Leaf Irradiance.- 7.2.5.2 Adaptation to Growth Irradiance.- 7.2.5.3 Energy Conversion in Photosynthesis.- 7.2.5.4 Photosynthesis, Energy Conversion and Spectral Irradiance.- 7.2.2 Carbon Dioxide Concentration.- 7.2.6.1 Short Term C02 Effects on Net Photosynthetie Rate.- 7.2.6.2 Carbon Dioxide Compensation Concentration.- 7.2.6.3 Long Term C02 Effects (C02 Enrichment).- 7.2.3 Temperature.- 7.2.4 Water Stress.- 7.2.5 Oxygen Effect.- 7.2.6 Mineral Nutrition.- 7.2.7 True (Gross) Photosynthetie Rate and Leaf Ontogeny.- 4.1 Respiration Rate.- 7.3.1 Dark Respiration Rate and Leaf Age.- 7.3.2 Environmental Modifications of Ontogenetic Changes in Respiration.- 4.2 Dry Matter Accumulation.- 7.4.1 Dry Matter Accumulation during Leaf Ontogeny.- 7.4.2 Leaf Insertion and Dry Matter Accumulation.- 7.4.3 Carbon Budget of the Developing Leaf.- 4.3 Conclusions.- 8 Conductances for Carbon Dioxide Transfer in the Leaf.- 8.1 Carbon Dioxide Transfer in the Gaseous Phase.- 8.1.1 Conductance of Leaf Boundary Layer.- 8.1.2 Epidermal Conductance and its Components.- 8.1.3 Stomata and Stomatal Conductance.- 8.1.4 Ontogenetic Changes in Maximum Values of Stomatal Diffusive Conductance.- 8.1.5 Leaf Insertion Level and Stomatal Diffusive Conductance.- 8.1.6 Stomatal Conductance and Leaf Blade Heterogeneity.- 8.1.7 Ontogenetic Changes in Responses of Stomatal Diffusive Conductance to Environmental and Internal Factors.- 8.1.7.1 Diurnal Course of Stomatal Conductance.- 8.1.7.2 Response of Stomatal Conductance to Irradiance.- 8.1.7.3 Response of Stomatal Conductance to Water Stress.- 8.1.7.4 Response of Stomatal Conductance to Temperature.- 8.1.7.5 Effects of CO2, SO2, and Nitrogen Supply.- 8.1.8 Intercellular Conductance.- 8.2 Carbon Dioxide Transfer in the Liquid Phase.- 8.2.1 The Overall Intracellular Conductance.- 8.2.2 Ontogenetic Changes in the Overall Intracellular Conductance.- 8.2.2.1 Comparison of the Ontogenetic Changes in Intracellular Conductance of C3 and C4 Plants.- 8.2.3 Components of Intracellular Conductance.- 8.2.3.1 Transport and Carboxylation Components of Intracellular Conductance.- 8.2.3.2 Transport Component Calculated from Leaf Anatomy.- 8.2.4 Transport and Carboxylation Conductances and Enzyme Activities.- 8.2.1.1 Carbonic Anhydrase.- 8.2.1.2 Carboxylation Conductance and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase.- 8.2.2 Excitation Conductance and Photosynthetie Efficiency.- 8.2.3 CO2 Transport on Individual Cell Structures.- 8.3 Conclusions.- 9 Photorespiration during Leaf Ontogeny.- 9.1 Photorespiration and Photosynthesis.- 9.2 Measures of Photorespiration Rate.- 9.3 Ontogenetic Changes in Photorespiration Rate in C3 Plants.- 9.4 Ontogenetic Changes in Light Respiration in C4 Species.- 9.5 Conclusions.- 10 Integration of Photosynthetie Characteristics during Leaf Development.- 10.1 General Considerations.- 10.2 Leaf Structure and Photosynthesis.- 10.3 Chloroplast Formation and Degeneration.- 10.4 Chlorophyll and Photosynthetie Activities.- 10.5 Activities of Photochemical Reactions and the Photosynthetie Rate.- 10.6 Activities of Photosynthetie Enzymes and Photosynthetie Rate.- 10.7 Photosynthesis and Conductances for Carbon Dioxide Transfer.- 10.8 Photosynthesis and Respiration.- 10.9 Photosynthesis and Dry Matter Accumulation. The Carbon Balance of the Leaf.- 10.10 The Ratio between Photosynthetie and Transpiration Rates.- 10.11 Conclusions.- 11 References.- Author's Index.- Plant Index.