Physicochemical Basis of Pharmaceuticals by Humphrey MoynihanPhysicochemical Basis of Pharmaceuticals by Humphrey Moynihan

Physicochemical Basis of Pharmaceuticals

byHumphrey Moynihan, Abina Crean

Paperback | August 23, 2009

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What are the physical and chemical properties that determine how a drug interacts with the body? What determines which dosage form is best, if it will reach its intended target, and how it will be metabolised once it has entered the body?The Physicochemical Basis of Pharmaceuticals explores the phenomena which affect the formulation and bio-availability of drug substances to give a straightforward, accessible treatment of the essential concepts affecting the absorption and distribution of drugs. It provides the reader with theconceptual 'tool-kit' necessary to understand the physicochemical aspects of drug design and action, and shows how these concepts apply in practice. The book introduces key underlying physical chemistry principles before exploring pharmaceutical solutions, the pharmaceutical solid phase, solid - liquid dispersal systems, biological interfaces, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, to give a complete view of the field.Focusing at all times on the essential principles and concepts, The Physicochemical Basis of Pharmaceuticals avoids excessive detail, presenting the key facts, backed up with pertinent examples and easy-to-digest illustrations, making it the ideal primer for those who need to understandphysicochemical issues in the context of their broader field of study.
Having originally received his BSc and PhD degrees from University College Cork, Humphrey Moynihan returned in 2002, where he is now involved in the teaching of Organic and Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry. His research interest is the study and control of crystallisation of organic compounds. He is also involved in collaborative r...
Title:Physicochemical Basis of PharmaceuticalsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:304 pages, 9.69 × 7.44 × 0 inPublished:August 23, 2009Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199232849

ISBN - 13:9780199232840

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Table of Contents

1. Pharmaceuticals and medicines1.1 Introduction to the essential properties of pharmaceuticals1.1.1 Some key concepts1.2 Classes of pharmaceutical compounds1.2.1 Active pharmaceutical ingredients1.2.2 Excipients1.3 Drug delivery: getting the active pharmaceutical ingredient to the site of action1.3.1 Routes of administration1.3.2 Pharmaceutical dosage forms1.3.3 Factors influencing dosage form choice11.4 Summary2. Pharmaceutical solutions2.1 Definitions and expressions of solubility2.1.1 Measurement of solubility and solubility curves2.2 Solvent structure2.2.1 Hydrogen bonding and the structure of water2.2.2 Lipid-based media2.3 Dissolution and solvation2.4 Factors affecting solubility2.4.1 Molecular weight2.4.2 Hydrogen bonding2.4.3 Hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups2.5 Acidity and basicity2.5.1 pKa and pKb2.5.2 Acidity and environment2.6 Salt selection and formation2.7 Hydrolytic degradation2.8 Summary3. Pharmaceutical equilibria3.1 Essential concepts in thermodynamics3.1.1 Internal energy, enthalpy and the first law of thermodynamics3.1.2 Entropy and the second and third laws of thermodynamics3.1.3 Free energy, chemical potential and equilibrium3.1.4 Activities of ions in solution3.2 Phase equilibria3.2.1 One-component systems and the phase rule3.2.2 Two-component systems3.2.3 Osmotic pressure3.3 Drug delivery: Phase transitions3.3.1 Diffusion (movement within a phase)3.3.2 Dissolution (solid -liquid transition)3.3.3 Partitioning (liquid- liquid transition)3.3.4 Gas absorption (Gas-liquid phase transition)3.3.5 Phase transitions during drug delivery3.4 Summary4. The pharmaceutical solid phase4.1 Crystalline and amorphous solids4.2 The essentials of pharmaceutical crystal structure4.2.1 Unit cells, crystal systems and lattices4.2.2 Space groups and space group notation4.2.3 Crystal planes and faces4.3 Crystal polymorphism of pharmaceuticals4.3.1 Relative stabilities of polymorphs4.3.2 Solvates and hydrates4.4 Methods of characterising pharmaceutical solids4.4.1 X-ray diffraction methods4.4.2 Thermal methods4.4.3 Other methods of analysis4.5 Pharmaceutical crystallization4.5.1 Supersaturation4.5.2 Nucleation, growth and crystal morphology4.5.3 Ripening and the rule of stages4.6 Solid state properties of powder particles4.6.1 Particle shape4.6.2 Particle size4.6.3 Particle surface properties4.6.4 Gas adsorption4.6.5 Moisture adsorption4.6.6 Powder mechanical strength5. Two phase solid - liquid disperse systems5.1 Introduction to pharmaceutical disperse systems5.2 Molecular, colloidal and coarse dispersions5.3 The physical stability of disperse systems5.4 Properties of disperse systems5.4.1 Kinetic properties5.4.2 Rheology and viscosity5.4.3 Electrical properties5.4.4 Interfacial properties5.4.5 Optical properties5.5 Suspensions5.5.1 Nanosuspensions5.5.2 Coarse suspensions5.6 Emulsions5.6.1 Macroemulsions5.6.2 Multiple emulsions5.6.3 Microemulsions5.7 Vesicular systems5.7.1 Micellar systems5.7.2 Solubilised systems5.7.3 Liposomes5.8 Aerosols5.9 Foams5.10 Summary6. Biological interfaces6.1 Passive, active and other modes of transport6.2 Cell membranes6.3 Partition and partition co-efficients6.4 Measurement and calculation of partition co-efficients6.5 Diffusion, diffusion co-efficients and ionisation6.6 The gastrointestinal barrier6.7 The blood-brain barrier6.8 The skin6.9 Summary7. Physicochemical aspects of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics7.1 Bioavailability7.2 Distribution7.3 Drug target interaction7.4 Metabolism7.5 Excretion7.6 Summary