Physics Of Magnetic Flux Tubes

byMargarita Ryutova

Hardcover | November 13, 2018

Physics Of Magnetic Flux Tubes by Margarita Ryutova
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This book presents the physics of magnetic flux tubes, including their fundamental properties and collective phenomena in an ensemble of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is vital for understanding fundamental processes in the solar atmosphere that are shaped and governed by magnetic fields. The concept of magnetic flux tubes is also central to various magnetized media ranging from laboratory plasma and Earth''s magnetosphere to planetary, stellar and galactic environments.

The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms that are tailored to practical applications. These are welded together with empirical data extending from the early pioneering observations to the most recent state-of-the-art data.

This new edition of the book is updated and contains a significant amount of new material throughout as well as four new chapters and 48 problems with solutions. Most problems make use of original papers containing fundamental results. This way, the original paper, often based on complex theory, turns into a convenient tool for practical use and quantitative analysis.

Margarita Ryutova (Kemoklidze) received her MSc and PhD from the famous Landau Theoretical Department, Kapitsa Institute for Physical Problems, Moscow and worked there until she married and moved to Budker Institute  of Nuclear Physics. Since 1994 she lives in the United States where she has been affiliated with Stanford L...
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Title:Physics Of Magnetic Flux TubesFormat:HardcoverDimensions:747 pages, 9.41 X 7.24 X 0.98 inPublished:November 13, 2018Publisher:Springer NatureLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3319963600

ISBN - 13:9783319963600

Appropriate for ages: All ages

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Table of Contents

Preface

Contents

Chapter 1. The Sun''s Magnetic fields

1.1 The Sun as a Star

1.1.2 Legacy of ancients

1.1.2 Hidden interior

1.1.3 Magnetic dipole

1.2 Magnetic Surface

1.2.1 Quiet sun

1.2.2 Sunspots and active regions

1.2.3 Plages

1.2.4 High latitudes and polar regions

1.3 Mass Flows

1.4 Magnetic Skeleton

References

Chapter 2. A Quick Look on Small Scale Flux Tubes

2.1 Early Years

2.1.1 First observational signs of magnetic flux tubes

2.1.2 The Sunspot dilemma

2.2 Elements of Theory for de facto Flux Tubes

2.3 Numerical visualization and Observations

2.4 Filamentary Structures in Laboratory and Universe

2.5 Problems

References

Chapter 3. Intrinsic Properties of Flux Tubes - Wave Phenomena

3.1 Equations of Motion or How are Tube Waves Excited

3.1.1 Equation of Motion for a Single flux tube

3.1.2 Macroscopic Motions of an Ensemble of flux tubes

3.2 Absorption of Acoustic Waves - Landau Resonance

3.3 Effects of Non-collinearity of Flux Tubes

3.4 Exact Theory of Linear Oscillations of Magnetic Flux Tube

3.5 Radiation of Secondary Waves by Oscillationg Flux Tubes

3.6 Scattering of Acoustic Waves and Maximum Energy input

3.7 Axisymmetric Oscillations of Flux Tube

3.7.1 Types ofm= 0 mode

3.7.2 Equation of Motion for Sausage Oscillations

3.7.3 Dispersion Relation

3.7.4 Sausage and and Fast Oscillations in homogeneous flux tube

3.7.5 Effects of Radial Inhomogeneities on Sausage oscillations

3.8 Problems

Appendix A. Analogy with Landau Damping

Appendix B. Derivation of Equation for Kink Oscillations from MHD

References

Chapter 4. Effects of Flux Tube Inhomogeneities and Weak Nonlinearity

4.1 Radially Inhomogeneous Flux Tube - Internal Resonances

4.1.1 Anomalous resonance in kink oscillations

4.1.2 Alfv´en resonance

4.2 Boundary Value Problem

4.2.1 Phase-mixing in flux tubes

4.2.3 Phase-mixed torsional waves

4.2.3 Phase-mixed kink oscillations

4.3 Longitudinal resonances

4.3.1 Loss of radial equilibrium

4.3.2 Bullwhip effect

4.4 Standing resonances and the temperature jump

4.4.1 Growth of the oscillation amplitude - first resonance

4.4.2 Spectral density and strong enhancement of the oscillation amplitude

4.5 Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Flux Tubes

4.5.1 Nonlinear kink oscillations - KdV-B¨urgers equation

4.5.2 Possibility of solitary sausage wave

4.6 Problems

References

5.1 Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability and Negative Energy Waves

5.2 Shear Flow Instabilities in Magnetic Flux Tubes

5.2.1 Specifics of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability along flux tubes

5.2.2 Flux tubes and Negative Energy Waves (NEWs)

5.3 Basic Equations of Flux tube Oscillations with Shear Flows

5.4 Dissipative Instabilities of Negative-energy Kink Oscillations

5.5 Radiative Instability of Flux Tube Oscillations in Presence of Flows

5.5.1 Sausage oscillations

5.5.2 Kink oscillations

5.6 Parity of Negative and Positive Energy Waves

5.7 Explosive Instability of Negative-energy Waves

5.8 Sub-critical Mass Flows - Absence of Instabilities

5.8.1 Can the Alfv´en waves heat the corona?

5.8.2 Effect of mass flows on the efficiency of heating by Alfv´en waves

5.9 Phase-Mixed Alfv´en Waves at Sub-alfv´enic Mass Flows

5.9.1 Damping rate and height of energy release

5.9.2 Observable morphological effects

5.10 The Asymptotic Behavior of the Total Energy Flux

5.11 The Wave Extinction in the Presence of Downflows

5.12 Problems

Appendix A. Equation for Alfv´en Waves in the Presence of Parallel Mass Flows

References

Chapter 6. Collective Phenomena in Rarefied Ensembles of Flux Tubes

6.1 Response of Flux Tubes to Propagation of Sound Waves

6.1.1 Energy exchange between the waves and ensembles of flux tubes

6.1.2 Near-resonance condition

6.2 Nonlinear Estimates of the Maximum Energy Input

6.3 Axisymmetric Oscilation in Flux Tube Ensembles

6.3.1 Equations of motion

6.3.2 Dispersion relation - resonance and frequency shift

6.4 The Interaction of Unsteady Wave Packets with an Ensemble of Flux Tubes

6.5 Spreading of the Energy Absorption Region - "Clouds of Energy"

6.5.1 Large wave packets

6.5.2 Short wave packets - energy absorption and release

6.6 The Energy Transfer from Unsteady Wave Packets to the Medium

6.7 Problems

Appendix A.

References

Chapter 7. Effects of Magnetic Flux Tubes in Helioseismology

7.1 The Time-distance Tomography

7.1.1 Key Points of Time-distance Analysis with Magnetic Fields

7.1.2 The Travel Times

7.2 The Effects of Horizontal Flows

7.3 Effects of Horizontal Magnetic Field

7.4 Effects of Background Inhomogeneities

7.4.1 Weak Inhomogeneities

7.4.2 Variations of Flow Velocities

7.5 Practical Use of the Forward-Backward Information

7.5.1 Symmetry properties

7.5.2 Reconstruction of flow and magnetic fields from observations

7.6 Magnetic Corrections in a Vertically Stratified Atmosphere

7.7 Estimate of the Energy Flux from Time-distance Analysis

7.7.1 Heat and magnetic energy fluxes

7.7.2 Contribution of eddy fluxes

7.7.3 Reconstruction of energy fluxes from observational data

7.8 Raman Spectroscopy of Solar Oscillations

7.8.1 Stokes and anti-Stokes satellites

7.8.2 Using Raman spectroscopy in observations

7.9 Problems

References

Chapter 8. Wave Phenomena in Dense Conglomerate of Flux Tubes

8.1 Propagation of MHD Waves in an Ensemble of Closely Packed Flux tubes

8.1.1 Basic Equations and Dispersion Relation

8.1.2 Spacial Cases

8.2 Dissipative processes

8.2.1 Weakly Inhomogeneous Medium

8.2.2 Medium with Moderate and Strong Inhomogeneities

8.2.3 Dissipation by Thermal Conduction

8.2.4 Dissipation by Viscosity

8.2.5 Total Dissipation Rate

8.3 Anomalous Damping at Small Wavevectors

8.4 Absorption of p-modes by Sunspots and Active Regions - Observations

8.5 The Interpolation Formula and Comparison with Observations

8.6 Problems

References

Chapter 9. NonlinearWave Phenomena in Dense Conglomerate of Flux Tubes

9.1 Nonlinear Equations in Strongly Inhomogeneous Medium

9.2 Formation of Shocks Across Small Scale Inhomogeneities

9.2.1 Validation of the overturning condition

9.3 Effect of Inhomogeneities on the Dispersion Properties of the System

9.3.1 Basic Equations

9.3.2 Dispersion Relation&

9.3.3 KdV - B¨urgers'' Equation with Strong Inhomogeneities

9.4 Numerical Analysis

9.4.1 The Model

9.4.2 Formation of Shock Waves

9.4.3 Energy Dissipation

9.5 Problems

References

Chapter 10. "Magnetosonic Streaming"

10.1 Secondary Flows - Boundary Layer Effects

10.1.1 Acoustic Streaming - History and Nature of Faraday''s Effect

10.1.2 Secondary Flows In Magnetohydrodynamics

10.2 Magnetosonic Streaming due to the Action of Ponderomotive Force

10.3 Process of Filamentation and Diffusive Vanishing of Flux Tubes

10.3.1 Diffusive broadening of flux tube

10.3.2 Quantitative estimates - Lifetimes and spatial scales of flux tubes

10.4 Generation of Mass Flows due to the Absorption Mechanisms

10.5 Numerical Analysis

10.5.1 Basic Equations and Numerical Method

10.5.2 Numerical Results

10.6 Intrinsic nature of flux tube fragmentation

10.7 Problems

References

Chapter 11. Moving Magnetic Features (MMFs)

11.1 Types of MMFs and Their General Properties

11.2 Impossibility of the Origin of MMF''s in Conservative Systems

11.2.1 The Mechanism

11.3 Nonlinear Kink and its Evolution in the Presence of Shear Flows

11.4 Soliton and Shocklike Formations along the Flux Tube - Numerical Studies

11.5 Observations and Comparison with Theory

11.6 Quantitative Analysis

11.7 Unification of Known Types of Moving Magnetic Features

11.8 Impact of MMFs on the Overlying Atmosphere

11.9 Anticorrelation between Population of MMF''s and Coronal Loop Formation

11.10 Problems

References

Chapter 12. Reconnection of Flux Tubes - Specifics of High Plasma¯

12.1 Basics of Magnetic Reconnection

12.2 Photospheric Reconnections - No Immediate Gain in Energy&

12.2.1 Specifics of Photospheric Reconnections

12.2.2 Flux Tubes Carrying Different Amount of Magnetic Flux

12.2.3 Number of Events - Importance of Noncollinearity of Flux Tubes

12.3 Dynamics of the Post-reconnection Products

12.3.1 Self-similarity of solution

12.3.2 Energy Analysis

12.3.3 Transsonic Motion

12.4 Dynamics of S-shaped Flux Tubes

12.5 Dynamics of-shaped Part of Flux Tube

12.6 Problems

References

Chapter 13. Post-reconnection Processes - Shocks, Jets and Microflares

13.1 Key Regularities Observed in the Photosphere/Transition Region

13.2 Post-reconnection Shocks and Hydromagnetic Cumulation of Energy

13.2.1 Head-on Convergence of Shock-fronts

13.2.2 Energy Distribution between Heat, Jet and Their Combinations

13.3 Observation of Photospheric Reconnections and Their Impact on Overlying

Atmosphere

13.3.1 Microflares, jets and their combinations

13.3.2 Effects of Converging Supergranular Flows

13.4 Key Elements of Energy Production and Observation of Shocks

13.5 Explosi