Plant Physiological Ecology

Hardcover | October 24, 2008

byHans Lambers, F. Stuart Chapin III, Thijs L. Pons

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The growth, reproduction and geographical distribution of plants are profoundly influenced by their physiological ecology: the interaction with the surrounding physical, chemical, and biological environments. This renowned textbook is notable in emphasizing that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, and whole-plant physiology. At the same time, the integrative power of physiological ecology is well-suited to assess the costs, benefits, and consequences of modifying plants for human needs, and to evaluate the role of plants in ecosystems.This new edition of Plant Physiological Ecology features updated material, as well as full color images throughout. Boxed entries provide extended discussions of selected issues, and a glossary and numerous references to the primary and review literature are included.

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The growth, reproduction and geographical distribution of plants are profoundly influenced by their physiological ecology: the interaction with the surrounding physical, chemical, and biological environments. This renowned textbook is notable in emphasizing that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the ...

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The growth, reproduction, and geographical distribution of plants are profoundly influenced by their physiological ecology: the interaction with the surrounding physical, chemical, and biological environments. This textbook describes mechanisms that underlie plant physiological ecology at the levels of physiology, biochemistry, biophys...

Hans Lambers is Professor of Plant Ecology and Head of School of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Western Australia. F. Stuart Chapin III is Professor of Ecology at the Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Thijs L. Pons recently retired as Senior Lecturer in Plant ...

other books by Hans Lambers

Format:HardcoverDimensions:640 pages, 10 × 7.01 × 0.03 inPublished:October 24, 2008Publisher:Springer New YorkLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0387783407

ISBN - 13:9780387783406

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Table of Contents

Contents  Foreword (by David T. Clarkson) About the authorsForeword to the first edition by David T. Clarkson)Acknowledgments Abbreviations 1. ASSUMPTIONS AND APPROACHES Introduction-History, Assumptions, and Approaches1 What is Ecophysiology?2 The Roots of Ecophysiology3 Physiological Ecology and the Distribution of Organisms4 Time Scale of Plant Responses to Environment5 Conceptual and Experimental Approaches6 New Directions in Ecophysiology7 The Structure of the BookReferences2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS, RESPIRATION, AND LONG-DISTANCE TRANSPORT2A. PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1 Introduction2 General Characteristics of the Photosynthetic Apparatus2.1 The "Light" and "Dark" Reactions of Photosynthesis2.1.1 Absorption of Photons2.1.2 Fate of the Excited Chlorophyll2.1.3 Membrane-bound Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Bioenergetics2.1.4 Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction2.1.5 Oxygenation and Photorespiration2.2 Supply and Demand of CO2 in the Photosynthetic Process2.2.1 The CO2-response Curve2.2.2 Supply of CO2 - Stomatal and Boundary layer Conductances2.2.3 The Internal Conductance3 Response of Photosynthesis to Light3.1 Characterization of the Light Climate under a Leaf Canopy3.2 Physiological, Biochemical, and Anatomical Differences between Sun and Shade Leaves3.2.1 The Light-response Curve of Sun and Shade Leaves 3.2.2 Anatomy and Ultrastructure of Sun and Shade Leaves3.2.3 Biochemical Differences between Shade and Sun Leaves3.2.4 The Light-response Curve of Sun and Shade Leaves Revisited3.2.5 The Environmental signal for Shade Acclimation in Chloroplasts3.3 Effects of Excess Irradiance3.3.1 Photoinhibition - Protection by Carotenoids of the Xanthophyll Cycle3.3.2 Chloroplast Movement in Response to Changes in Irradiance3.4 Responses to Variable Irradiance3.4.1 Photosynthetic Induction3.4.2 Light Activation of Rubisco3.4.3 Post-illumination CO2 Assimilation and Sunfleck Utilization Efficiency 3.4.4 Metabolite Pools in Sun and Shade Leaves3.4.5 Net Effect of Sunflecks on Carbon Gain and Growth4 Partitioning of the Products of Photosynthesis and Regulation by "feedback"4.1 Partitioning within the Cell4.2 Regulation of the Rate of Photosynthesis by feedback4.3 Sugar-induced Repression of Genes Encoding for Calvin-cycle Enzymes4.4 Ecological impacts Mediated by source-sink Interactions5 Responses to Availability of Water5.1 Regulation of Stomatal Opening5.2 The A-Ci Curve as Affected by Water Stress5.3 Carbon isotope Discrimination in Relation to Water-use Efficiency5.4 Other sources of Variation in Carbon isotope ratios in C3 Plants6 Effects of Nutrient Supply on Photosynthesis6.1 The Photosynthesis-nitrogen Relationship6.2 Interactions of Nitrogen, Light and Water6.3 Photosynthesis, Nitrogen, and Leaf Life-span7 Photosynthesis and Leaf Temperature: Effects and Adaptations7.1 Effects of High Temperatures on Photosynthesis7.2 Effects of Low Temperatures on Photosynthesis8 Effects of Air Pollutants on Photosynthesis9 C4 Plants9.1 Introduction9.2 Biochemical and Anatomical Aspects9.3 Physiology of C4 Photosynthesis9.4 Intercellular and Intracellular Transport of Metabolites of the C4 Pathway9.5 Photosynthetic Nitrogen-use Efficiency, Water-use Efficiency and Tolerance of High Temperatures9.6 C3-C4 Intermediates9.7 Evolution and Distribution of C4 Species9.8 Carbon isotope Composition of C4 Species10 CAM Plants10.1 Introduction10.2 Physiological, Biochemical and Anatomical Aspects10.3 Water-use Efficiency10.4 Incomplete and facultative CAM Plants10.5 Distribution and Evolution of CAM Species10.6 Carbon isotope Composition of CAM Species11 Specialized Mechanisms Associated with Photosynthetic Carbon Acquisition in aquatic Plants11.1 Introduction11.2 The CO2 Supply in Water11.3 The Use of bicarbonate by aquatic Macrophytes11.4 The Use of CO2 from the Sediment11.5 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in Water Plants11.6 Variation in Carbon isotope Composition between Water Plants and between aquatic and Terrestrial Plants11.7 The Role of aquatic Macrophytes in Carbonate Sedimentation12 Effects of the rising CO2 Concentration in the atmosphere10.1 Acclimation of Photosynthesis to Elevated CO2 Concentrations10.2 Effects of Elevated CO2 on Transpiration - Differential Effects on C3, C4 and CAM Plants13 Summary: what Can we Gain from Basic Principles and Rates of single-Leaf Photosynthesis?ReferencesBox 2A.1: Mathematical Description of the CO2 Response and further Modeling of Photosynthesis Box 2A.2: Discrimination of Carbon isotopes in Plants Box 2A.3: Carbon-fixation and Light-Absorption Profiles inside Leaves Box 2A.4: Chlorophyll fluorescence Box 2A.5 The Measurement of Gas Exchange 2B. RESPIRATION1 Introduction2 General Characteristics of the Respiratory System2.1 The Respiratory Quotient2.2 Glycolysis, the Pentose Phosphate Pathway, and the Tricarboxylic (TCA) Cycle2.3 Mitochondrial Metabolism2.3.1 The Complexes of the Electron-Transport Chain2.3.2 A Cyanide-resistant Terminal Oxidase2.3.3 Substrates, Uncouplers, and Inhibitors2.3.4 Respiratory Control2.4 A Summary of the Major Points of Control of Plant Respiration2.5 ATP Production in isolated Mitochondria and in vivo2.5.1 Oxidative Phosphorylation: the Chemiosmotic Model2.5.2 ATP Production in vivo2.6 Regulation of the Partitioning of Electrons between the Cytochrome and the Alternative Paths2.6.1 Competition or Overflow?2.6.2 The Intricate Regulation of the Alternative Oxidase2.6.3 Mitochondrial NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases that Are not Linked to Proton Extrusion3 The Ecophysiological Function of the Alternative Path3.1 Heat Production3.2 Can we really Measure the Activity of the Alternative Path?3.3 The Alternative Path as an Energy Overflow3.4 NADH Oxidation in the Presence of a High Energy Charge3.5 NADH Oxidation to Oxidize Excess Redox Equivalents from the Chloroplasts3.6 Continuation of Respiration when the Activity of the Cytochrome Path is Restricted3.7 A Summary of the Various Ecophysiological Roles of the Alternative Oxidase4 Environmental Effects on Respiratory Processes4.1 Flooded, Hypoxic, and anoxic Soils4.1.1 Inhibition of aerobic Root Respiration4.1.2 Fermentation4.1.3 Cytosolic Acidosis4.1.4 Avoiding Hypoxia: aerenchyma formation4.2 Salinity and Water Stress4.3 Nutrient Supply4.4 Irradiance4.5 Temperature4.6 Low pH and High Aluminum Concentrations4.7 Partial Pressures of CO24.8 Effects of Plant Pathogens4.9 Leaf Dark Respiration as Affected by Photosynthesis5 The Role of Respiration in Plant Carbon Balance 5.1 Carbon Balance5.1.1 Root Respiration5.1.2 Respiration of other Plant Parts5.2 Respiration Associated with Growth, Maintenance, and Ion Uptake5.2.1 Maintenance Respiration5.2.2 Growth Respiration5.2.3 Respiration Associated with Ion Transport5.2.4 Experimental Evidence6 Plant Respiration: why Should it Concern Us from an Ecological Point of View?ReferencesBox 2B.1 Measuring Oxygen-isotope fractionation in Respiration2C. LONG-DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF ASSIMILATES 1 Introduction2 The Major Transport Compounds in the Phloem: why not Glucose?3 Phloem Structure and Function 3.1 Symplastic and Apoplastic Transport3.2 Minor Vein Anatomy3.3 Sugar Transport against a Concentration Gradient3.4 Variation in Transport Capacity4 Evolution and Ecology of Phloem Loading Mechanisms5 Phloem Unloading6 The Transport Problems of Climbing Plants7 Phloem Transport: where to Move from here? References3. PLANT WATER RELATIONS 1 Introduction1.1 The Role of Water in Plant Functioning1.2 Transpiration as an inevitable Consequence of Photosynthesis2 Water Potential3 Water Availability in the Soil3.1 The field Capacity of Different Soils3.2 Water Movement toward the Roots3.3 Rooting Profiles as Dependent on Soil Moisture Content3.4 Roots Sense Moisture Gradients and Grow toward Moist Patches4 Water Relations of Cells4.1 Osmotic Adjustment4.2 Cell-wall Elasticity4.3 Osmotic and elastic adjustment as alternative strategies4.4 Evolutionary Aspects5 Water Movement through Plants5.1 General5.2 Water in Roots5.3 Water in Stems5.3.1 Can we Measure Negative Xylem Pressures?5.3.2 The Flow of Water in the Xylem5.3.3 Cavitation or Embolism: the breakage of the Xylem Water Column5.3.4 Can Embolized Conduits Resume their Function? 5.3.5 Trade-off between Conductance and safety5.3.6 Transport Capacity of the Xylem and Leaf Area5.3.7 Storage of Water in Stems5.4 Water in Leaves and Water Loss from Leaves5.4.1 Effects of Soil Drying on Leaf Conductance5.4.2 The Control of Stomatal Movements and Stomatal Conductance 5.4.3 Effects of vapor Pressure Difference on Leaf Conductance5.4.4 Effects of Irradiance on Leaf Conductance5.4.5 The Cuticular Conductance and the Boundary layer Conductance5.4.6 Leaf Traits that Affect Leaf Temperature and Leaf Water Loss5.4.7 The Compromise between Carbon Gain and Water Loss5.4.8 Water Storage in Leaves5.5 Aquatic Angiosperms6 Water-use Efficiency7 Water Availability and Growth8 Adaptations to Drought8.1 Desiccation-avoidance: Annuals, Drought-deciduous Species8.2 Desiccation-tolerance: Evergreen Shrubs8.3 "Resurrection Plants"9 Winter Water Relations and Freezing Tolerance 10 Salt Tolerance11 Final Remarks: The Message that Transpires ReferencesBox 3.1: The Water Potential of osmotic Solutes and of the Air Box 3.2: Positive and Negative Hydrostatic Pressures Box 3.3: Oxygen and Hydrogen Stable isotopes Box 3.4: Methods to Measure sap Flow in Intact Plants4. LEAF ENERGY BUDGETS - EFFECTS OF RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE 4A. THE PLANT'S ENERGY BALANCE1 Introduction2 Energy inputs and outputs2.1 A Short Overview of a Leaf's Energy Balance2.2 Short-wave Solar Radiation 2.3 Long-wave Terrestrial Radiation2.4 Convective Heat Transfer2.5 Evaporative Energy Exchange2.6 Metabolic Heat Generation3 Modeling the Effect of Components of the Energy Balance on Leaf Temperature 4. A Summary of Hot and Cool topicsReferences4B. EFFECTS OF RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE LEVEL 1 Introduction2 Radiation2.1 Effects of Excess Irradiance2.2 Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation2.2.1 Damage by UV2.2.2 Protection against UV: Repair or Prevention3 Effects of Extreme Temperatures3.1 How Do Plants Avoid Damage by Free Radicals at Low Temperature?3.2 Heat-shock Proteins3.3 Are isoprene and Monoterpene Emissions an Adaptation to High Temperatures?3.4 Chilling Injury and Chilling Tolerance3.5 Carbohydrates and Proteins Conferring Frost Tolerance4 Global Change and Future CropsReferences5. SCALING-UP GAS EXCHANGE AND ENERGY BALANCE FROM THE LEAF TO THE CANOPY LEVEL 1 Introduction2 Canopy Water Use3 Canopy CO2 fluxes4 Canopy Water-use Efficiency5 Canopy Effects on Microclimate: a Case Study6 Aiming for a Higher LevelReferencesBox 5.1: Optimization of Nitrogen Allocation to Leaves in Plants Growing in Dense Canopies 6. MINERAL NUTRITION 1 Introduction2 Acquisition of Nutrients2.1 Nutrients in the Soil2.1.1 Nutrient Availability as Dependent on Soil Age2.1.2 Nutrient Supply Rates2.1.3 Nutrient Movement to the Root Surface2.2 Root Traits that Determine Nutrient Acquisition2.2.1 Increasing the Roots' Absorptive Surface2.2.2 Transport Proteins: Ion Channels and Carriers2.2.3 Acclimation and Adaptation of Uptake Kinetics2.2.3.1 Response to Nutrient Supply2.2.3.2 Response to Nutrient Demand2.2.3.3 Response to other Environmental and Biotic factors2.2.4 Acquisition of Nitrogen2.2.5 Acquisition of Phosphorus2.2.5.1 Plants Can also Use some Organic Phosphate Compounds2.2.5.2 Excretion of Phosphate-solubilizing Compounds2.2.6 Changing the Chemistry in the Rhizosphere Changing the Rhizosphere pH2.2.6.2 Excretion of Organic Chelates2.2.7 Rhizosphere Mineralization2.2.8 Root Proliferation in Nutrient-rich Patches: is it Adaptive?2.3 Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Involved in Phosphate Acquisition3 Nutrient Acquisition from "Toxic" or "Extreme" Soils3.1 Acid Soils3.1.1 Aluminum Toxicity3.1.2 Alleviation of the Toxicity Symptoms by Soil Amendment3.1.3 Aluminum Resistance3.2 Calcareous Soils3.3 Soils with High Levels of Heavy Metals3.3.1 Why Are the Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Soil High?3.3.2 Using Plants to Clean or Extract Polluted Water and Soil: Phytoremediation and Phytomining3.3.3 Why Are Heavy Metals so Toxic to Plants?3.3.4 Heavy-metal-resistant Plants3.3.5 Biomass Production of Sensitive and Resistant Plants3.4 Saline Soils: an Ever-increasing Problem in Agriculture3.4.1 Glycophytes and halophytes3.4.2 Energy-dependent Salt Exclusion from Roots3.4.3 Energy-dependent Salt Exclusion from the Xylem3.4.4 Transport of Na+ from the Leaves to the Roots and Excretion via Salt Glands3.4.5 Compartmentation of Salt within the Cell and Accumulation of Compatible Solutes3.5 Flooded Soils4 Plant Nutrient-use Efficiency4.1 Variation in Nutrient Concentration4.1.1 Tissue Nutrient Concentration4.1.2 Tissue Nutrient Requirement4.2 Nutrient Productivity and Mean Residence Time4.2.1 Nutrient Productivity4.2.2 The Mean Residence Time of Nutrients in the Plant4.3 Nutrient Loss from Plants4.3.1 Leaching Loss4.3.2 Nutrient Loss by Senescence4.4 Ecosystem Nutrient-use Efficiency5 Mineral Nutrition: as vast Array of Adaptations and AcclimationsReferencesBox 6.1: Molecular Control of Local Root Proliferation 7. GROWTH AND ALLOCATION 1 Introduction: What is Growth?2 Growth of Whole Plants and of Individual Organs2.1 Growth of Whole Plants2.1.1 A High Leaf Area ratio Enables Plants to Grow Fast2.1.2 Plants with High Nutrient Concentrations Can Grow Faster2.2 Growth of Cells2.2.1 Cell Division and Cell Expansion: the Lockhart Equation2.2.2 Cell-wall Acidification and Removal of Calcium Reduce Cell-wall rigidity 2.2.3 Cell Expansion in Meristems is Controlled by Cell-wall Extensibility and not by turgor2.2.4 The Physical and Biochemical Basis of yield threshold and Cell-wall yield Coefficient2.2.5 The importance of Meristem size3 The Physiological Basis of Variation in RGR - Plants Grown with Free Access to Nutrients3.1 SLA is a Major factor Associated with Variation in RGR3.2 Leaf thickness and Leaf Mass Density3.3 Anatomical and Chemical Differences Associated with Leaf-mass Density3.4 Net Assimilation Rate, Photosynthesis, and Respiration3.5 RGR and the Rate of Leaf Elongation and Leaf Appearance3.6 RGR and Activities per Unit Mass3.7 RGR and Suites of Plant Traits4 Allocation to Storage4.1 The Concept of Storage4.2 Chemical Forms of Stores4.3 Storage and Remobilization in Annuals 4.4 The Storage Strategy of biennials4.5 Storage in Perennials4.6 Costs of Growth and Storage: Optimization5 Environmental Influences5.1 Growth as Affected by Irradiance5.1.1 Growth in Shade5.1.1.1 Effects on Growth Rate, Net Assimilation Rate, and Specific Leaf Area5.1.1.2 Adaptations to Shade5.1.1.3 Stem and Petiole Elongation: the Search for Light5.1.1.4 The Role of Phytochrome Phytochrome and Cryptochrome: Effects on Cell-wall Extensibility Parameters5.1.1.6 Effects of total Level of Irradiance5.1.2 Effects of the Photoperiod5.2 Growth as Affected by Temperature5.2.1 Effects of Low Temperature on Root Functioning 5.2.2 Changes in the Allocation Pattern5.3 Growth as Affected by Soil Water Potential and Salinity5.3.1 Do Roots Sense Dry Soil and then Send signals to the Leaves5.3.2 ABA and Leaf Cell-wall Stiffening5.3.3 Effects on Root Elongation5.3.4 A Hypothetical Model that Accounts for Effects of Water Stress on Biomass Allocation5.4 Growth at a Limiting Nutrient Supply5.4.1 Cycling of Nitrogen between Roots and Leaves5.4.2 Hormonal signals that Travel via the Xylem to the Leaves5.4.3 Signals that Travel from the Leaves to the Roots5.4.4 Integrating signals from the Leaves and from the Roots5.4.5 Effects of Nitrogen Supply on Leaf Anatomy and Chemistry5.5.6 Nitrogen Allocation to Different Leaves, as Dependent on incident Irradiance5.5 Plant Growth as Affected by Soil Compaction5.5.1 Effects on Biomass Allocation: is ABA Involved?5.5.2 Changes in Root Length and Diameter: a Modification of the Lockhart Equation5.6 Growth as Affected by Soil Flooding 5.6.1 The pivotal Role of Ethylene5.6.2 Effects on Water Uptake and Leaf Growth Effects on Adventitious Root FormationEffects on Radial Oxygen Loss 5.7 Growth as Affected by Submergence5.7.1 Gas Exchange5.7.2 Perception of Submergence and Regulation of Shoot Elongation5.8 Growth as Affected by Touch and wind 5.9 Growth as Affected by Elevated Concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere 6 Adaptations Associated with Inherent Variation on Growth Rate 6.1 Fast-growing and Slow-growing Species6.2 Growth of Inherently Fast- and Slow-growing Species under Resource-limited Conditions6.2.1 Growth at a Limiting Nutrient Supply6.2.2 Growth in the Shade6.3 Are there Ecological Advantages Associated with a High or Low RGR?6.3.1 Various Hypotheses6.3.2 Selection on RGRmax itself, or on Traits that Are Associated with RGRmax?6.3.3 An Appraisal of Plant Distribution Requires Information on Ecophysiology7 Growth and Allocation: the Message about Plant MessagesReferencesBox 7.1: Phytohormones Box 7.2: Phytochrome 8. LIFE CYCLES: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES AND ADAPTATIONS 1 Introduction2 Seed Dormancy and Germination2.1 Hard Seed Coats2.2 Germination Inhibitors in the Seed 2.3 Effects of Nitrate2.4 Other External Chemical signals2.5 Effects of Light2.6 Effects of Temperature2.7 Physiological Aspects of Dormancy2.8 Summary of Ecological Aspects of Seed Dormancy and Germination3 Developmental Phases3.1 Seedling Phase3.2 Juvenile Phase 3.2.1 Delayed Flowering in biennials3.2.2 Juvenile and Adult Traits 3.2.3 Vegetative Reproduction3.2.4 Delayed Greening during Leaf Development in Tropical Trees3.3 Reproductive Phase 3.3.1 Timing by Sensing Daylength: Long-day and Short-day Plants3.3.2 Do Plants Sense the Difference between a Certain Daylength in Spring and in Autumn?3.3.3 Timing by Sensing Temperature: Vernalization3.3.4 Effects of Temperature on Plant Development3.3.5 Attracting Pollinators3.3.6 The Costs of Flowering3.4 Fruiting 3.5 Senescence4 Seed Dispersal4.1 Dispersal Mechanisms4.2 Life-history Correlates5 The Message to Disperse: Perception, Transduction and ResponseReferences9. BIOTIC INFLUENCES 9A. SYMBIOTIC ASSOCIATIONS 1 Introduction2 Mycorrhizas2.1 Mycorrhizal Structures: Are they beneficial for Plant Growth?2.1.1 The Infection Process2.1.2 Mycorrhizal Responsiveness2.2 Nonmycorrhizal Species and their Interactions with Mycorrhizal Species2.3 Phosphate Relations2.3.1 Mechanisms that Account for Enhanced Phosphate Absorption by Mycorrhizal Plants2.3.2 Suppression of Colonization at High Phosphate Availability2.4 Effects on Nitrogen Nutrition2.5 Effects on the Acquisition of Water2.6 Carbon Costs of the Mycorrhizal Symbiosis2.7 Agricultural and Ecological Perspectives3 Associations with Nitrogen-fixing Organisms3.1 Symbiotic N2 Fixation is Restricted to a fairly Limited number of Plant Species3.2 Host-guest Specificity in the Legume-rhizobium Symbiosis3.3 The Infection Process in the Legume-rhizobium Association3.3.1 The Role of flavonoids3.3.2 Rhizobial nod Genes3.3.3 Entry of the bacteria3.3.4 Final Stages of the establishment of the Symbiosis3.4 Nitrogenase Activity and Synthesis of Organic Nitrogen3.5 Carbon and Energy Metabolism of the Nodules3.6 Quantification of N2 Fixation in situ3.7 Ecological Aspects of the nonsymbiotic Association with N2 Fixing Microorganisms3.8 Carbon Costs of the Legume-rhizobium Symbiosis3.9 Suppression of the Legume-rhizobium Symbiosis at Low pH and in the Presence of a large Supply of Combined Nitrogen4 Endosymbionts5 Plant Life among MicrosymbiontsReferences9B. ECOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY: ALLELOPATHY, DEFENSE AGAINST HERBIVORES, AND DETOXIFICATION OF XENOBIOTICS 1 Introduction2 Allelopathy (interference Competition)3 Chemical Defense Mechanisms3.1 Defense against herbivores3.2 Qualitative and Quantitative Defense Compounds3.3 The Arms race of Plants and herbivores3.4 How Do Plants Avoid being Killed by their own Poisons?3.5 Secondary Metabolites for Medicines and Crop Protection4 Environmental Effects on the Production of Secondary Plant Metabolites4.1 Abiotic factors4.2 Induced Defense and Communication between Neighboring Plants4.3 Communication between Plants and their Bodyguards5 The Costs of Chemical Defense5.1 Diversion of Resources from Primary Growth5.2 Strategies of Predators5.3 Mutualistic Associations with ants6 Detoxification of Xenobiotics by Plants: Phytoremediation7 Secondary Chemicals and Messages that Emerge from this ChapterReferences9C. EFFECTS OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS 1 Introduction2 Constitutive Antimicrobial Defense Compounds3 The Plant's Response to Attack by Microorganisms4 Cross-talk between Induced Systemic Resistance and Defense against herbivores5 Messages from One Organism to AnotherReferences9D. PARASITIC ASSOCIATIONS 1 Introduction2 Growth and Development2.1 Seed Germination2.2 Haustoria Formation2.3 Effects of the Parasite on Host Development3 Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition4 Carbon Relations5 What Can We Extract from this Chapter?References9E. INTERACTIONS AMONG PLANTS 1 Introduction2 Theories of Competitive Mechanisms3 How Do Plants Perceive the Presence of Neighbors?4 Relationship of Plant Traits to Competitive ability4.1 Growth Rate and Tissue turnover4.2 Allocation Pattern, Growth Form and Tissue Mass Density4.3 Plasticity5 Traits Associated with Competition for Specific Resources5.1 Nutrients5.2 Water5.3 Light5.4 Carbon Dioxide6 Positive Interactions among Plants6.1 Physical benefits6.2 Nutritional benefits6.3 Allelochemical benefits7 Plant-microbial Symbiosis8 Succession9 What Do we Gain from this Chapter?Box 9E.1: Plant Ecology Strategy Schemes (by Mark Westoby)References9F. CARNIVORY 1. Introduction2. Structures Associated with the Catching of the Prey and Subsequent Withdrawal of Nutrients from the Prey3. Some Case Studies3.1 Dionaea muscipula3.2 The Suction Traps of Utricularia3.3 The Tentacles of Drosera3.4 Pitchers of Sarracenia3.5 Passive Traps of Genlisea 4. The Message to CatchReferences10. ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM AND GLOBAL PROCESSES 10A. DECOMPOSITION 1 Introduction2 Litter Quality and Decomposition Rate2.1 Species Effects on Litter Quality: Links with Ecological Strategy2.2 Environmental Effects on Decomposition3 The Link between Decomposition Rate and Nutrient Supply3.1 The Process of Nutrient Release3.2 Effects of Litter Quality on Mineralization3.3 Root Exudation and Rhizosphere Effects4 The End-product of DecompositionReferences10B. ECOSYSTEM AND GLOBAL PROCESSES: ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL CONTROLS 1 Introduction2 Ecosystem Biomass and Production2.1 Scaling from Plants to Ecosystems2.2 Physiological Basis of Productivity2.3 Disturbance and Succession2.4 Photosynthesis and Absorbed Radiation2.5 Net Carbon Balance of Ecosystems2.6 The Global Carbon Cycle3 Nutrient Cycling3.1 Vegetation Controls over Nutrient Uptake and Loss3.2 Vegetation Controls over Mineralization 4 Ecosystem Energy Exchange and the Hydrologic Cycle4.1 Vegetation Effects on Energy Exchange4.1.1 Albedo4.1.2 Surface Roughness and Energy Partitioning4.2 Vegetation Effects on the Hydrologic Cycle4.2.1 Evapotranspiration and runoff4.2.2 Feedbacks to Climate5 Moving to a Higher Level: Scaling from Physiology to the GlobeReferencesGLOSSARY SUBJECT INDEX