Plastics: Materials And Processing

Paperback | June 6, 2005

byA. Brent Strong

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This book is designed to introduce plastics to a wide range of non-chemists who need to either gain, improve, or refresh their knowledge of plastic materials and manufacturing. It fully discusses both materials and manufacturing processes in a carefully-constructed and logical presentation. While providing a fundamental overview of a b...

SHIE QIAN is the leading DSP researcher at National Instruments. He has been working on the theory and applications of time-frequency and wavelet analysis for over ten years, in applications including rotating machinery, communications, radar, seismology, and biomedicine. He was a co-guest editor of IEEE Signal Processing magazine's sp...
Format:PaperbackDimensions:944 pages, 9 × 7.2 × 1.8 inPublished:June 6, 2005Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0131145584

ISBN - 13:9780131145580

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PrefaceFor a long time, I wondered if the recently popularized time-frequency and wavelet transforms were merely academic exercises. Do applied engineers and scientists really need signal processing tools other than the FFT? After 10 years of working with engineers and scientists from a wide variety of disciplines, I have finally come to the conclusion that, so far, neither the time-frequency nor wavelet transform appear to have had the revolutionary impact upon physics and pure mathematics that the Fourier transform has had. Nevertheless, they can be used to solve many real-world problems that the classical Fourier transform cannot.As James Kaiser once said, "The most widely used signal processing tool is the FFT; the most widely misused signal processing tool is also the FFT." Fourier transform-based techniques are effective as long as the frequency contents of the signal do not change with time. However, when the frequency contents of the data samples evolve over an observation period, time-frequency or wavelet transforms should be considered. Specifically, the time-frequency transform is suited for signals with slow frequency changes (narrow instantaneous bandwidth), such as sounds heard during an engine run-up or run-down, whereas the wavelet transform is suited for signals with rapid changes (wide instantaneous frequency bandwidth), such as sounds associated with engine knocking. The success of applications of the time-frequency and wavelet transforms largely hinges on understanding their fundamentals. It is the goal of this book to provide a brief introduction to time-frequency and wavelet transforms for those engineers and scientists who want to use these techniques in their applications, and for students who are new to these topics.Keeping this goal in mind, I have included the two related subjects, time-frequency and wavelet transforms, under a single cover so that readers can grasp the necessary information and come up to speed in a short time. Professors can cover these topics in a single semester. The co-existence of the time-frequency and wavelet approaches in one book, I believe, will help comparative understanding and make complementary use easier.This book can be viewed in two parts. While Chapters Two through Six focus on linear transforms, mainly the Gabor expansion and the wavelet transform, Chapters Seven through Nine are dedicated to bilinear time-frequency representations. Chapter Ten can be thought of as a combination of time-frequency and time-scale (that is, wavelets) decomposition. The presentation of the wavelet transform in this book is aimed at readers who need to know only the basics and perhaps apply these new techniques to solve problems with existing commercial software. It may not be sufficient for academic researchers interested in creating their own set of basic functions by techniques other than the elementary filter banks introduced here.All chapters start with the discussion of basic concepts and motivation, then provide theoretical analysis and, finally, numerical implementation. Most algorithms introduced in this book are a part of the software package, Signal Processing Toolset, a National Instruments product. Visit www.ni.com for more information about this software.This book is neither a research monograph nor an encyclopedia, and the materials presented here are believed to be the most basic fundamentals of time-frequency and wavelet analysis. Many theoretically excellent results, which are not practical for digital implementation, have been omitted. The contents of this book should provide a strong foundation for the time-frequency and wavelet analysis neophyte, as well as a good review tutorial for the more experienced signal-processing reader.I wrote this book to appeal to the reader's intuition rather than to rely on abstract mathematical equations and wanted the material to be easily understood by a reader with an engineering or science undergraduate education. To achieve this, mathematical rigor and lengthy derivation have been sacrificed in many places. Hopefully, this style will not unduly offend purists.On the other hand, "Formulas were not invented simply as weapons of intimidation" 22. In many cases, mathematical language, I feel, is much more effective than plain English. Words are sometimes clumsy and ambiguous. For me, it is always a joy to refresh my knowledge of what I learned in school but have not used since.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Plastics.

 

Definitions of Plastics and Polymers.

History of Plastics.

Raw Material Supply and Pricing.

Strategic Materials.

Plastics Industry.

Uses of Plastics in Modern Society.

Case Study 1.1–The Development of Nylon.

 


2. Polymeric Materials (Molecular Viewpoint).

Introduction.

Fundamentals of Matter.

Bonding.

Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry.

Polymers.

Formation of Polymers.

Thermoplastics and Thermosets.

Copolymers.

Case Study 2.1–Modifications to Improve Teflon® Processing.

 


3. Micro Structures in Polymers.

 

Introduction.

Amorphous and Crystalline.

Solids, Liquids, and Gases.

Thermal Transitions of Polymers.

Effects of Thermal Changes on Polymers.

Polymer Length.

Molecular Weight.

Melt Index.

Shape (Steric) Effects.

Case Study 3.1–Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene (PE) as Functions of Density and Melt Index.

 


4. Mechanical Properties (Macro Viewpoint).

Introduction.

Mechanical Properties in Solids (Elastic Behavior).

Mechanical Properties in Liquids (Viscous Flow).

Viscoelastic Materials.

Plastic (High-Strain) Stress-Strain Behavior.

Creep.

Toughness and Impact Strength.

Reinforcements.

Fillers.

Toughness Modifiers.

Case Study 4.1–Testing of Trash Containers to Predict In-use Performance.

 


5. Chemical and Physical Properties (Macro Viewpoint).

Introduction.

Environmental Resistance and Weathering.

Chemical Resistivity and Solubility.

Permeability.

Electrical Properties.

Optical Properties.

Flammability.

Plastics Identification.

Case Study 5.1–Using Carbon Black to Protect Polyethylene from UV Degradation.

 

 

6. Designing with Plastics.

Design Methodology.

Layout/Drawing.

Constraints.

Material Choice.

Prototyping.

Case Study 6.1–Design of Plastic Stakes for Concrete Tilt-up Walls.

 


7. Thermoplastic Materials (Commodity Plastics).

Introduction.

Polyethylene (PE).

Polyethylene Copolymers.

Polypropylene (PP).

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC).

Polystyrene (PS).

Alloys and Blends.

Case Study 7.1–Typical PVC Formulation.



8. Thermoplastic Materials (Engineering Plastics).

Introduction.

Polyamides or Nylons (PA).

Acetals or Polyoxymethylenes (POM).

Thermoplastic Polyesters (PET/PBT).

Polycarbonate (PC).

Acrylics (PAN, PMMA).

Fluoropolymers (PTFE, FEP, PFA).

High-Performance Thermoplastics.

Cellulosics.

Case Study 8.1–Making Nonstick Electrosurgical Blades.



9. Thermoset Materials.

 

Introduction.

Crosslinking.

Thermoset Types, General Properties, and Uses.

Phenolics (PF).

Amino Plastics (UF and MF).

Polyester Thermosets (TS) or Unsaturated Polyesters (UP).

Epoxies (EP).

Thermoset Polimides.

Polyurethanes (PUR).

Case Study 9.1–Thermoset Composites for Wrapping Utility Poles.

 


10. Elastomeric (Rubber) Materials.

Introduction.

Aliphatic Thermoset Elastomers.

Thermoplastic Elastomers (EPM and EPDM).

Fluoroelastomers.

Silicones.

Processing of Elastomers.

Case Study 10.1–Elastomeric Lining for a Pump.



11. Extrusion Process.

Introduction.

Equipment.

Normal Operation and Control of the Process.

Extrusion Problems and Troubleshooting.

Material and Product Considerations.

Postextrusion Forming.

Coextrusion.

Case Study 11.1–Extrusion of Irrigation Tubing.



12. Injection Molding Process.

Introduction.

Equipment.

Material and Product Considerations.

Operations and Control.

Special Injection Molding Processes.

Modeling and Computer-aided Mold-flow Analysis.

Case Study 12.1–Estimating the Cost of an Injection Molded Pocket Knife.

Case Study 12.2–Mold Costs and Selection.



13. Blow Molding.

Introduction.

Molds and Dies.

Plant Concepts.

Product Considerations.

Operation and Control.

Case Study 13.1–Making Soda Pop Bottles.

 


14. Thermoforming Process.

Introduction.

Forming Processes.

Equipment.

Product Considerations.

Operation and Control.

Case Study 14.1–Continuous Thermoforming.

 


15. Rotational Molding Process.

Introduction.

Equipment.

Product Considerations.

Operation and Control of the Process.

Case Study 15.1–Trash Cart Manufacturing.

 


16. Casting Processes.

Introduction.

Casting Processes.

Equipment.

Product Considerations.

Operation and Control of the Casting Process.

Case Study 16.1–Casting a Polyester Thermoset Part in a Silicone Mold.

 


17. Foaming Processes.

Introduction.

Processes to Create Foams in Resins.

Processes to Shape and Solidify Foams.

Rebond.

Product Considerations.

Control and Operation.

Case Study 17.1–Foam Insulation.

 


18. Compression Molding, Transfer Molding and Related Processes.

Compression Molding.

Transfer Molding.

Product Considerations.

Control and Operation.

Reaction Injection Molding (RIM).

Cold Forming, Sintering, and Ram Extrusion.

Case Study 18.1–Manufacture of Automobile Body Panels.



19. Polymeric Composite Materials and Processes.

Introduction.

Matrix Materials.

Reinforcements.

Manufacturing Methods for Composite Parts.

Plant Concepts.

Case Study 19.1–Filament Winding of the Beech Starship Airplane Fuselage.



20. Radiation Processes.

Introduction.

Equipment and Process.

Properties, Materials, and Applications.

Plasma Polymerization and Reactions.

Case Study 20.1–Making Shrink-Tubing Using Electron Beam Crosslinking.



21. Finishing, Adhesion, and Assembly.

Introduction.

Runner System Trimming and Flash Removal.

Machining.

Nontraditional Machining.

Shaping (Postmold Forming).

Mechanical Joining and Assembly.

Adhesive Bonding.

 


22. Operations and Management.

Introduction.

Safety and Cleanliness.

Plastic Resin Handling, Conveying, and Drying.

Plant Layout.

Quality Assurance.

Case Study 22.1–Establishing QC for a PET Bottle Plant.



23. Environmental Aspects of Plastics.

Introduction.

Source Reduction.

Recycling of Plastics.

Regeneration.

Degradation.

Landfills.

Incineration.

Total Product Life Cycle.

Future.

Case Study 23.1–Recycling Solid Wastes.

 

 

Appendix 1. Typical Properties of Some Engineering Materials.

 

 

Appendix 2. Cost Estimating Form for Injection Molding.

 

 

Appendix 3. Plastics Design/Selection Matrix.

 

 

Appendix 4. Plastics Identification Chart.

 

 

Appendix 5. Process Procedures–Startup, Steady-state, and Shutdown.

 

 

Appendix 6. Plastic Machining Guidelines.

 

 

Appendix 7. Sample MSDS Form.

 

 

Appendix 8. Glossary (Combined for all Chapters).