Police and Society

Paperback | February 18, 2014

byRoy Roberg, Kenneth Novak, Gary Cordner

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Police and Society is a mainstream text for introductory policing or law enforcement courses. It strikes an ideal balance between the abstractions of research and theory and the concrete realities of a police officer's duties, grounding theoretical discussions in real-world examples. Thiscomprehensive text also features a unique chapter on higher education and policing. Rich pedagogy enhances the learning experience with features such as "Voices from the Field" boxes, which contain interviews with law enforcement professionals and scholars.

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Police and Society is a mainstream text for introductory policing or law enforcement courses. It strikes an ideal balance between the abstractions of research and theory and the concrete realities of a police officer's duties, grounding theoretical discussions in real-world examples. Thiscomprehensive text also features a unique chapte...

Roy Roberg is Professor of Justice Studies at San Jose State University. Kenneth Novak is Associate Professor and Chair of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Gary Cordner is Professor of Criminal Justice at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania. Brad Smith is Associate Professor of Criminal Justic...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:576 pages, 10 × 8 × 0.68 inPublished:February 18, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199300887

ISBN - 13:9780199300884

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Table of Contents

PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the Authors1. Police in a DemocracyPolicing a Free SocietyPolice and GovernmentPolice and Rule of LawPolice, Terrorism, and Homeland SecurityPolice SystemsThe U.S. Police SystemOther Types of Law Enforcement AgenciesSimilarities and DifferencesPolice Role and PurposeLaw Enforcement or PoliticsCrime Fighting or Social ServiceProactive or ReactivePolice Activities and WorkloadPolice Goals and StrategiesLooking AheadSummary2. Police HistoryFoundations of PolicingEarly PolicingPolicing in Nineteenth-Century EnglandThe Emergence of Modern Policing in the United StatesThe First City Police ForcesThe County SheriffVigilance CommitteesModern American PolicingThe Political EraPolice DevelopmentCriticism in the Political EraThe Reform EraMinority Perspective on to the Development of American PoliceState PoliceTexas and MassachusettsPennsylvaniaHighway PatrolFederal Law EnforcementThe Revenue Cutter Service and the U.S. Marshal ServicePostal InspectorsThe Secret ServiceThe Federal Bureau of InvestigationSummary3. Legal IssuesCriminal ProcedureSearches and Seizures of PersonsSearches and Seizures of PropertyInterrogations and ConfessionCivil LiabilityCosts of Liability in PolicingAvenues of LiabilityCivil Liability in State CourtsCivil Liability in Federal CourtsEmerging Liability Issues for the Twenty-First CenturyUse of ForceImpact on OfficersSummary4. Police StrategiesEvolving Strategies of PolicingLandmark Studies of Police EffectivenessPatrol StudiesResponse Time StudiesCriminal Investigation StudiesStrategic DevelopmentsImproving Crime-Control EffectivenessImproving Police-Community RelationsImproving ProfessionalismDeveloping Evidence-Based PracticesStrategic AlternativesCommunity PolicingProblem-Oriented PolicingIntelligence-Led PolicingPredictive PolicingWhat Works in PolicingSummary5. Police ManagementThe Managerial ProcessThe Development of Police ManagementClassical Police ManagementBehavioral Police ManagementContemporary Police ManagementOrganizational DesignCriticisms of the Paramilitary DesignIncreasing Influence of Police Paramilitary UnitsBroken Windows and Zero-Tolerance PolicingCompstat ProcessPolice Legitimacy and Procedural JusticePolice Goals and Organizational PerformanceSupervisory Styles and Officer BehaviorMeasuring Police PerformanceChanging Performance MeasuresManaging Group BehaviorPolice SubculturesEmployee OrganizationsPolice UnionsMedia RelationsSummary6. Organization and ChangeThe Change ProcessResistance to ChangeOvercoming Resistance to ChangeThe Madison ExperienceLaying the FoundationKey Elements to ChangeResults From MadisonThe Chicago ExperienceLaying the FoundationKey Elements to ChangeResults From ChicagoLessons Learned from Madison and ChicagoA Final Lesson: Surviving Leadership ChangeChanging Officer Performance MeasuresInnovationCompstat as a Change ProcessLearning Organizations and RandDPolice-Researcher PartnershipsUtilize Middle ManagersSummaryCritical Thinking Questions7. Selection and DevelopmentRecruitmentRecruitment MethodsTargeting Females and MinoritiesTargeting the Service OrientedSelectionPreemployment StandardsGeneral SuitabilityPreemployment TestingRecruit Screening MethodsAmericans with Disability ActDevelopmentRecruit TrainingProgram OrientationPhilosophy and Instructional MethodsCurriculum Development and ContentCurriculum UpdatesEffectiveness of Recruit TrainingField TrainingCareer GrowthSummary8. Field OperationsThe Patrol FunctionHistorical DevelopmentPatrol MethodsUse of Patrol MethodsFocused InterventionsProactive Arrests and CrackdownsGuns and Gang ViolenceFocused Deterrence InitiatiavesPolicing Disorder: Zero-Tolerance and Quality-of-Life PolicingProblem-Oriented Policing Focused on DisorderReactive Arrests and Intimate Partner ViolencePolice PursuitsThe Investigative FunctionHistorical DevelopmentSelected Research on Investigative OperationsAdvances in Physical Evidence: AFIS and DNACareer Criminal ProgramsBias Crime ProgramsDetective-Patrol RelationshipsEnticement and EntrapmentSummary9. Behavior and MisconductPerspectives of Police BehaviorUniversalistic PerspectivesParticularistic PerspectivesSocialization Versus PredispositionClassic Studies of Police BehaviorViolence and the PoliceJustice Without TrialVarieties of Police BehaviorCity PoliceWorking the Street: Police DiscretionDecision Making and Police DiscretionOrganizational VariablesNeighborhood VariablesSituational VariablesIndividual (Officer) VariablesCareer OrientationPolice DevianceTypes of Deviance and MisconductThe Prevalence of Police DevianceThe Trouble With GratuitiesDeviant OfficersThe Persistence of CorruptionPolice Sexual MisconductThe Drug War and Police DevianceSummary10. Force and CoercionPolice-Citizen InteractionContext of ForceNational Estimates on Police Use of ForceLearning to Use ForceTrainingAreas of TrainingPolice Culture and the Use of ForceControversy and the Use of ForceInappropriate ForceBrutality and Excessive ForcePhysical and Psychological Force in Police HistoryFrequency of Excessive Force and BrutalityBrutality in the Twenty-First CenturyDeadly ForceIndividual and Situational FactorsEnvironmental and Departmental VariationsRacial ConsiderationsLegal and Policy ChangesSummary11. Accountability and EthicsInternal Accountability MechanismsBureaucratic Organization and ManagementInternal InvestigationIssues in Internal InvestigationsEarly Warning/Early Identification SystemsEffectiveness of Internal InvestigationsExternal Accountability MechanismsCivilian ReviewPolice Auditor SystemsThe Limits of Oversight MechanismsProfessional StandardsThe Police Professionalization MovemenCriteria of Police ProfessionalizationEthical StandardsEthical PerspectivesEthical DilemmasThe Limits of Professional and Ethical StandardsSummary12. DiversityRacial Minorities in PolicingUnequal TreatmenPerformance of African American PoliceWomen in PolicingUnequal TreatmentPerformance of Women OfficersAffirmative ActionEqual Employment OpportunityReverse DiscriminationIncreasing Diversity in Police DepartmentsPromotional OpportunitiesIntegration of Minorities and WomenInto PolicingPolice CultureStructural CharacteristicsPregnancy and MaternitySexual HarassmentFuture ProspectsSummary13. Stress and Officer SafetyThe Concept of StressOccupational StressOverview of StressorsPolice StressorsEmerging Sources of StressLine-of-Duty and Crisis SituationsPosttraumatic Stress DisordeShift WorkSocial Supports and Police StressConsequences of StressAlcohol AbuseDrug AbuseSuicideMarital and Family ProblemsPolicies and ProgramsOfficer SafetyDanger and Police WorkSafety and the Mentally IllImproving Safety and Reducing FatalitieSummary14. Higher EducationThe Development of Higher Education Programs for PoliceFederal Programs and Support for Higher EducationQuality of Higher Education ProgramsHigher Education Requirements for PoliceThe Impact of Higher Education on PolicingHigher Education and AttitudesHigher Education and PerformanceUse of Force and LiabilityLeadership and PromotionHigher Education and Job SatisfactionHigher Education and TerrorismHigher Education and Chief's Scholar ProgramValidating Higher Education for PoliceHigher Education as a Bona Fide Occupational QualificationHigher Education and DiscriminationHigher Education Incentive ProgramsHigher Education Requirements and Policy ImplicationsSummary15. Emerging IssuesChanges in American SocietyAging PopulationCultural DiversityShifting EconomicsImmigration and MigrationModern ProblemsCrime TrendsCyber CrimeEyewitness IdentificationShrinking BudgetsModern TechnologyCrime Detention and Crime SolvingSurveillance and PrivacyCommunications and InteroperabilitySocial MediaLong-Term TrendsCollaborationPrivatizationFederalizationMilitarizationTerrorism and Homeland SecuritySummaryGlossary of Key TermsName IndexSubject Index