Recognized scholars from 15 countries offer rich political analyses of 71 European leaders chosen for the significant roles that they have played nationally, regionally, or internationally since 1945. Each in-depth political and intellectual biography assesses the leader's achievements and failures in historical context, key career moments, major allies and opponents and their impact, and the leader's interplay with different political institutions. The profiles cover representative types of political leaders across the political spectrum from left to right, heads of state and chiefs of government, and political figures that have been important in European history over the last 50 years. Leaders describe important political moments in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The essays arranged alphabetically also give a few primary and secondary sources for further research. A short chronology and bibliographical essay on the subject of European political leadership and a full index further enhance this major reference designed for undergraduates and graduate students and for scholars, government officials, and journalists in political affairs, European studies, world history, and international relations.