India has expressed its commitment to improving the quality of its population through a large number of policies and programmes, which have highlighted the need for a healthy, educated, skilled and employed population. Additionally, legislative measures in the area of sexual and reproductivehealth, youth and gender issues have gone a long way in addressing the nation's commitment to addressing reproductive rights, as well as the rights of women and young people. Remarkable achievements have been made in meeting the health and development needs of the nation's 1.21 billion people,especially in terms of schooling, life expectancy, maternal and infant mortality, and family planning. However, there remain many areas in which progress has been uneven, and which, if not addressed soon, will affect people's wellbeing and violate their rights. This volume is a population needs assessment synthesising available evidence pertaining to the current situation and progress made in improving the health and population situation and realising rights. It highlights gaps or obstacles that may have impeded progress, and outlines priority areas foraction. It addresses several dimensions of the population situation, namely, size and structure, overall development, as well as its sexual and reproductive health situation and exercise of reproductive rights.