Power Integrity for I/O Interfaces: With Signal Integrity/ Power Integrity Co-Design

Hardcover | October 13, 2010

byVishram S. Pandit, Woong Hwan Ryu, Myoung Joon Choi

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Foreword by Joungho Kim


The Hands-On Guide to Power Integrity in Advanced Applications, from Three Industry Experts


In this book, three industry experts introduce state-of-the-art power integrity design techniques for today’s most advanced digital systems, with real-life, system-level examples. They introduce a powerful approach to unifying power and signal integrity design that can identify signal impediments earlier, reducing cost and improving reliability.


After introducing high-speed, single-ended and differential I/O interfaces, the authors describe on-chip, package, and PCB power distribution networks (PDNs) and signal networks, carefully reviewing their interactions. Next, they walk through end-to-end PDN and signal network design in frequency domain, addressing crucial parameters such as self and transfer impedance. They thoroughly address modeling and characterization of on-chip components of PDNs and signal networks, evaluation of power-to-signal coupling coefficients, analysis of Simultaneous Switching Output (SSO) noise, and many other topics.


Coverage includes

• The exponentially growing challenge of I/O power integrity in high-speed digital systems

• PDN noise analysis and its timing impact for single-ended and differential interfaces

• Concurrent design and co-simulation techniques for evaluating all power integrity effects on signal integrity

• Time domain gauges for designing and optimizing components and systems

• Power/signal integrity interaction mechanisms, including power noise coupling onto signal trace and noise amplification through signal resonance

• Performance impact due to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), crosstalk, and SSO noise, as well as their interactions

• Validation techniques, including low impedance VNA measurements, power noise measurements, and characterization of power-to-signal coupling effects


Power Integrity for I/O Interfaces will be an indispensable resource for everyone concerned with power integrity in cutting-edge digital designs, including system design and hardware engineers, signal and power integrity engineers, graduate students, and researchers.

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From the Publisher

Foreword by Joungho Kim   The Hands-On Guide to Power Integrity in Advanced Applications, from Three Industry Experts   In this book, three industry experts introduce state-of-the-art power integrity design techniques for today’s most advanced digital systems, with real-life, system-level examples. They introduce a powerful a...

From the Jacket

Foreword by Joungho Kim   The Hands-On Guide to Power Integrity in Advanced Applications, from Three Industry Experts   In this book, three industry experts introduce state-of-the-art power integrity design techniques for today’s most advanced digital systems, with real-life, system-level examples. They introduce a powerful a...

Vishram S. Pandit is a technical lead in the Signal/Power Integrity Engineering team at Intel Corporation. He works on developing power delivery designs for high-speed interfaces. His focus areas include high-speed system power delivery, on-chip power delivery, and Signal/ Power Integrity co-design. Prior to Intel he worked at Hughes ...
Format:HardcoverDimensions:416 pages, 9.44 × 7.3 × 1.02 inPublished:October 13, 2010Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0137011199

ISBN - 13:9780137011193

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Read from the Book

PREFACE Power Integrity is becoming increasingly important in today’s high-speed digital I/O systems. The cover of this book gives a high-level summary of its system impact. It shows an electronic system with a Printed Circut Board (PCB), a daughter card, and their layer stackup. A driver chip is mounted on the PCB and a receiver chip is mounted on the daughter card. The expanded view of the power grid of the driver chip is also shown. The receiver jitter impact is due to Power Delivery (PD) to signal coupling, and there are different coupling mechanisms. Self impedance response of the PDN at the driver chip shows a resonance in the mid-frequency range. The PD to signal coupling response at the driver chip follows the PDN self impedance response. The jitter at the receiver follows a similar signature at those frequencies when the transmission line effect is negligible. The PD to signal coupling at the package to PCB interface increases as the frequency goes higher. The channel response shows resonances at high frequencies, due to impedance discontinuities. The power to signal coupling noise can get amplified due to the channel effects and resonances. This, in turn, gets translated into jitter at the receiver at high frequencies. Referencing scheme, such as dual referencing, also causes the PD to signal coupling. Intended audience for this book is Signal Integrity (SI) and Power Integrity (PI) Engineers (On-chip, package, and PCB designers). It can also be used by graduate students who want to pursue careers in these fields. Overall discussion level is beginner to intermediate; however, some advanced topics are also discussed. There may be different designers working on specific components, such as on-chip or package or PCB. However, this book presents power integrity design techniques along with power-to-signal coupling mechanisms at various stages in the system, such as chip level coupling and interconnect level coupling. This will give the component SI or PI engineers a perspective of system level impact of power integrity, and enable them to proactively design the system to avoid possible problem areas and also to identify the root-cause, in case of any system problems. Chapter 1, “Introduction,” describes digital electronic systems and gives a high-level overview of the PDN and signal network. It describes signal and power integrity effects on system performance and highlights power noise to signal coupling mechanisms. Finally, it addresses the need for concurrent SI/PI design methodology. Chapter 2, “I/O Interfaces,” describes basic Input Output interfaces. The currents in power node generate noise that is basis of power integrity effects for I/O interfaces. This chapter addresses details of single-ended and differential drivers and receivers. Single-ended and differential interfaces produce different current profiles in the PDN, and their dependency on the bit pattern is also different. The PDN current flows are demonstrated with corresponding noise. Chapter 3, “Electromagnetic Effects,” discusses the electromagnetic (EM) theory and how it is important in signal integrity, power integrity and ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) analysis. It begins with basic Maxwell’s equations, and addresses transmission line theory and interconnect network parameters (Z, Y, S). It also describes Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems and their properties. Chapter 4, “System Interconnects,” addresses the entire path for power and signal propagation, including the chip, package, and PCB. It gives an overview of the PCB technology and different package types. In the PDN section it describes PCB PDN components (DC/DC converter, PCB capacitors, PCB planes, vias, and so forth), package PDN, and on-chip PDN components (intentional/unintentional capacitors, and power-grid). In the signal network section, it describes PCB signal propagation with microstrip, stripline, and coupled line. It also addresses the package and on-chip signal networks. Then, it states the coupling mechanism from the PDN to signal network. Finally, it addresses modeling tools for the PDN and signal networks. Chapter 5, “Frequency Domain Analysis,” begins with Fourier transform and its properties. It lists the key frequency domain design parameters for signal integrity and power integrity applications. It then addresses frequency domain PDN design with Z11 impedance target. It utilizes chip, package, and PCB co-design approach for the PDN design. Some important frequency domain concepts in the PDN design, such as voltage transfer function, SSO in frequency domain, and power to signal coupling, are illustrated. The next section describes the frequency domain signal network analysis and its correlation. A case study for “crosstalk amplification by resonance” is discussed in detail. The signal network analysis is performed with the PDN and on-chip parameters (on-die termination, pad capacitor, and so on) taken into account. Differential signaling parameters in frequency domain are also presented. Chapter 6, “Time Domain Analysis,” begins with describing the necessary components for the time domain simulations. It addresses various kinds of buffer models used in signal integrity and power integrity analysis. Next, it describes the time domain PDN specifications, and simulation flow to achieve the specifications. Different examples of single ended drivers and differential drivers are presented for AC noise analysis. Next, the concept of chip level driver noise coupling on the signal is discussed. It shows examples of the jitter analysis due to the PDN noise, for single ended and differential interfaces. Chapter 7, “Signal/Power Integrity Interactions,” is devoted to unintended interactions between power/ground and signals, which has become an important consideration for optimizing high-bandwidth I/O signaling scheme. Power noise coupling can be amplified through channel resonance. It describes the power noise amplification mechanism that is due to a combination of three factors: SSO generation, power to signal coupling, and signal channel resonance. Then two case studies are demonstrated: DDR2-800 control bus resonance problem and DDR2667 Vref bus noise issue. Next, it describes the referencing/stitching/and decoupling effects for single ended and differential interfaces. Chapter 8, “Signal/Power Integrity Co-Analysis,” addresses the eye-margin analysis with SI-PI co-simulations. It describes the basic elements for the cosimulations: buffer models, 3D EM models for package and PCB, on-chip PDN models, and so on. The simulation deck is constructed and the worst case pattern is identified. Full-time domain simulations are performed with ISI, crosstalk, and SSO analysis; and response decomposition techniques are illustrated. The linear interaction indicator between power and signal is defined and evaluated for single ended and differential interfaces. Chapter 9, “Measurement Techniques,” covers the frequency domain and time domain measurement techniques for validating signal/power integrity, in high-speed I/O signaling. The theory and some applications of the enhanced 2-port VNA technique for low impedance power delivery network characterization are discussed in the first part of this chapter. It also describes the on-chip interconnect and pad capacitance characterization techniques. In addition, it presents S-parameter measurement-based extraction methods to obtain the high-frequency SPICE model, with microwave network analysis and parametric optimization. Next, it describes the time domain characterization techniques. It includes Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurement, PDN noise measurement, SSO coupling measurement, and jitter measurement. © Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents

Foreword by Joungho Kim     xiii

Preface     xv

About the Authors     xxi


Chapter 1   Introduction     1

1.1 Digital Electronic System     1

1.2 I/O Signaling Standards     2

     1.2.1 Single-Ended and Differential Signaling     3

1.3 Power and Signal Distribution Network     5

1.4 Signal and Power Integrity     6

1.5 Power Noise to Signal Coupling     8

     1.5.1 SSO     9

     1.5.2 Chip-Level SSO Coupling     9

     1.5.3 Interconnect Level SSO Coupling     10

1.6 Concurrent Design Methodology     12

References     13


Chapter 2   I/O Interfaces     15

2.1 Single-Ended Drivers and Receivers     15

     2.1.1 Open Drain Drivers     16

     2.1.2 Push-Pull Driver and Receiver     17

     2.1.3 Termination Schemes for a Single-Ended System     18

     2.1.4 Current Profiles in a Push-Pull Driver     18

          Push-Pull Driver with CTT     19

          Push-Pull Driver with Power Termination     22

     2.1.5 Noise for Push-Pull Driver     25

2.2 Differential Drivers and Receivers     26

     2.2.1 Termination Schemes for Differential System     28

     2.2.2 Current Profiles in Half Differential Driver     30

     2.2.3 Noise for Half Differential Driver     32

2.3 Prior Stages of I/O Interface     34

References     35


Chapter 3   Electromagnetic Effects     37

3.1 Electromagnetic Effects on Signal/Power Integrity     37

3.2 Electromagnetic Theory     39

     3.2.1 Maxwell’s Equations     40

3.3 Transmission Line Theory     46

3.4 Interconnection Network Parameters: Z,Y,S and ABCD     55

     3.4.1 Impedance Matrix [Z]     56

     3.4.2 Admittance Matrix [Y]     57

     3.4.3 The Scattering Matrix [S]     57

     3.4.4 The Scattering Matrix [S]     with Arbitrary Loads 59

     3.4.5 Relation Between Scattering Matrix [S] and Y/Z/ABCD Matrix    61

3.5 LTI System     64

     3.5.1 Reciprocal Network     64

     3.5.2 Parameter Conversion Singularity     64

     3.5.3 Stability     65

     3.5.4 Passivity     65

     3.5.5 Causality    67

References     67


Chapter 4   System Interconnects     69

4.1 PCB Technology     69

4.2 Package Types     70

4.3 Power Distribution Network    73

     4.3.1 PCB PDN     73

          Power Supply    74

          DC/DC Converter     75

          PCB Capacitors    76

          PCB Power/Ground Planes    81

          Impact of Vias     87

          Stitching Domains Together     90

     4.3.2 Package Power Distribution Network     92

   4.3.3 On-Chip Power Network     93

          Intentional Capacitors    94

          Unintentional Capacitors     96

4.4 Signal Distribution Network     97

     4.4.1 PCB/ Package Physical Signal Routing    97

          Microstrip Line    97

          Stripline     100

          Co-Planar Waveguide     101

          Coupled Lines     102

     4.4.2 Package Signal Distribution Network     107

     4.4.3 PCB/Package Material Properties     108

          Electrical Properties of Metal     108

          Electrical Properties of Dielectrics     110

          Frequency-Dependent Parameters of Microstrip Line    111

     4.4.4 On-Chip Signal Network     112

4.5 Interaction Between Interconnect Systems     115

     4.5.1 Reference, Ground, and Return Paths     116

     4.5.2 Referencing: Single-Ended and Differential Signaling     116

     4.5.3 Power to Signal Coupling     118

4.6 Modeling Tools for the PDN and Signal Networks     119

References     122


Chapter 5   Frequency Domain Analysis     127

5.1 Signal Spectrum     128

     5.1.1 Fourier Transform Interpretation     132

     5.1.2 Important Properties of the Fourier Transform     134

          Interpreting and Using Frequency Domain Representations of Waveforms     134

          Key Properties of Fourier Transforms (of Interest in SI)     134

          Fourier Transform Examples and Interpretation     135

          Trapezoidal Pulse Fourier Transform Tool     138

     5.1.3 FFT of Power Noise     141

     5.1.4 Convolution and Filtering     142

5.2 Signal and Power Integrity Applications     143

     5.2.1 S-Parameters with Global and Local Ground     145

5.3 Power Distribution Network Design in Frequency Domain     147

     5.3.1 Impedance Response Z11     148

     5.3.2 Impedance Targets for I/O Interface     150

          Single-Ended Driver     151

          Differential Driver     152

          Prior Stages     152

     5.3.3 PDN Design Example     153

          Package and PCB PDN     154

          PDN Co-Design: PCB, Package and Chip    155

     5.3.4 On-Chip Power Delivery: Modeling and Characterization     158

          Test Vehicle for On-Chip PDN     159

          2D TLM Empirical On-Chip PD Modeling Method    161

          On-Chip Capacitor Model Extraction     162

          Modeling and Correlation for On-Chip PDN of the I/O Interface    163

          EM Modeling of On-Chip PDN     165

     5.3.5 Insertion Loss and Voltage Transfer Function     166

     5.3.6 SSO in Frequency Domain     168

     5.3.7 Power-to-Signal Coupling     170

5.4 Signal Network Design in Frequency Domain     171

     5.4.1 Frequency Domain Optimization     172

     5.4.2 Simulation and Correlation of Signal Network     174

     5.4.3 Case Study: Crosstalk Amplification by Resonance     175

          Model Correlation     177

          Self-Impedance and Insertion Loss for the Entire Channel     180

          Voltage Transfer Function for the Victim Bit     181

          Far-End Crosstalk     182

          Self-Impedance and Transfer Impedance with Different Enablers    183

     5.4.4 Differential Signaling in Frequency Domain     184

References     190


Chapter 6   Time Domain Analysis     193

6.1 Time Domain Modeling and Simulation     193

     6.1.1 Transient Simulations     195

     6.1.2 Buffer Modeling     196

          IBIS and VCR Models     196

6.2 Simulation for Optimization     198

     6.2.1 Power Delivery Time Domain Specification     198

     6.2.2 Controllable Design Variables for Optimization     200

          Geometry and Material     201

          Passive Components on PCB and Package     203

          On-Chip Design Variables     203

6.3 PDN Noise Simulations     204

     6.3.1 VR Tolerance and IR Drop     204

     6.3.2 AC Noise Analysis     207

          Supply Droop and Resonance     207

     6.3.3 Internal Circuits     209

     6.3.4 Final Stage Circuits     210

     6.3.5 Single-Ended Systems     212

          Correlation with Measurements     214

          Noise Measurements at the Receiver     215

     6.3.6 Differential Systems     217

     6.3.7 Logic Stage     220

6.4 Jitter Impact for Time Domain Analysis     221

     6.4.1 Jitter Impact Due to PDN Noise     222

     6.4.2 Jitter Due to the SSO     223

          Single-Ended System     223

          Differential System     228

References     231


Chapter 7   Signal/Power Integrity Interactions     233

7.1 Background     234

7.2 Root Cause Analysis     236

7.3 SSO Coupling Mechanism     238

7.4 Case Study I: DDR2 800 Control Signal     241

     7.4.1 Noise Source     243

     7.4.2 Coupling Mechanism     244

     7.4.3 Resonant Structure on Control Networks     245

     7.4.4 Proposed Solutions     247

7.5 Case Study II: DDR2 667 Vref Bus     248

     7.5.1 Noise Source     249

     7.5.2 Coupling Mechanism     249

     7.5.3 Resonance Structure     250

     7.5.4 Proposed Solutions     252

7.6 Referencing/Stitching/Decoupling Effects--Single-Ended Interface     258

7.7 Stitching Effects--Differential Interface     263

     7.7.1 VNA Measurement Results     271

     7.7.2 Modeling and Measurement Correlations     273

     7.7.3 System-Level Impact Evaluation     274

7.8 EMI Trade-Off     276

     7.8.1 Power Islands Radiation     276

References     282


Chapter 8   Signal/Power Integrity Co-Analysis     285

8.1 Identifying Controllable Parameters     286

8.2 SI-PI Modeling and Simulation     288

     8.2.1 Modeling SI-PI Compatible Buffers     288

     8.2.2 Modeling On-Chip Passive Components     290

     8.2.3 Modeling Off-Chip Passive Components     291

     8.2.4 Model Check and Integration     291

     8.2.5 Construction of SI-PI Co-Simulation     292

     8.2.6 PDN Resonance Excitation of Driver Bit Pattern     292

     8.2.7 Worst-Case Eye     294

     8.2.8 Running SI-PI Co-Simulation     296

          ISI and Minimal ISI     297

          ISI and SSO     298

          ISI and Crosstalk     299

          ISI, SSO, and Crosstalk     299

8.3 SI-PI Co-Analysis     301

     8.3.1 Time Domain Analysis     301

          Optimization Using Sweep Parameters and Noise Decomposition     302

          Simple Comparison of Eye     305

     8.3.2 Eye Diagram Analysis     308

     8.3.3 Linear Interaction Indicator     309

          Single-Ended Signaling SI-PI Performance and Linearity     315

          Differential Signaling SI-PI Performance and Linearity     317

          SI-PI Linear Interaction Indicator     319

8.4 SI-PI Co-Simulation and Co-Analysis Flow: Summary     321

References     322


Chapter 9   Measurement Techniques     325

9.1 Frequency Domain Characterization     325

     9.1.1 Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)     326

     9.1.2 Smith Chart     327

     9.1.3 Low-Impedance VNA Measurement for Power Delivery Network     329

     9.1.4 On-Chip Characterization     335

          On-Chip Interconnect 2D Modeling and Correlation     338

          On-Chip Interconnection Line Performance Versus Different Structures     345

          On-Chip PDN Characterization     349

     9.1.5 Pad Capacitance Characterization     350

          Lower- and Upper-Frequency Limit     350

          De-Embedding Method     351

     9.1.6 Power Delivery-to-Signal Coupling Measurement     353

9.2 Equivalent Circuit Model Extraction     355

     9.2.1 Need for an Equivalent Circuit Model     355

          Validation Purpose     355

          Simulation Purpose     356

     9.2.2 Extraction Methodology     357

Numerical Error     358

     9.2.3 Extraction Examples     358

          Receiver Model for SI     358

          PDN Model     360

          Topology Identification     360

     9.2.4 Extension to Multiport Measurement     361

9.3 Time Domain Characterization     361

     9.3.1 Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)     361

          Development of 9ps TDR Measurement Setup     363

          Package Validation Using TDR     365

          Differential TDR and TDT     371

     9.3.2 PDN Noise Measurement     372

     9.3.3 SSO Coupling Measurement in Time Domain     376

     9.3.4 Jitter Measurement     379

References     380


Index     383