Practically Speaking by J. Dan RothwellPractically Speaking by J. Dan Rothwell

Practically Speaking

byJ. Dan Rothwell

Paperback | November 13, 2013

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* Fresh and Practical Advice You Will Need* Sound Scholarship You Can TrustPractically Speaking is a brief text that covers the essentials of public speaking without sacrificing student interest or sound scholarship. Using a conversational and edgy style, author Dan Rothwell gives practical advice and a fresh perspective on classic and contemporary theories and research.This essential guide provides students with a solid foundation in public speaking and then teaches them how to add their own voices to the conversation.
J. Dan Rothwell is chair of the Communication Studies Department at Cabrillo College. Dr. Rothwell has received numerous teaching awards, including among others: the 2010 "Ernest L. Boyer International Award for Excellence in Teaching, Learning, and Technology"; the 2010 Cabrillo College "Innovative Teacher of the Year"; the 2011 Natio...
Title:Practically SpeakingFormat:PaperbackDimensions:304 pages, 9 × 6 × 0.68 inPublished:November 13, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195337662

ISBN - 13:9780195337662


Table of Contents

1. Communication Competence and Public SpeakingDEFINING COMMUNICATIONCommunication as Transactional: Working with an AudienceCommunication as Process: The Continuous FlowCommunication as Sharing Meaning: Making SenseDEFINING COMMUNICATION: COMPETENCE IN PUBLIC SPEAKINGEffectiveness: Achieving Goals- Degrees of Effectiveness: From Deficiency to Proficiency- Audience Orientation: You are Not Talking to YourselfAppropriateness: Speaking by the RulesACHIEVING COMPETENT PUBLIC SPEAKINGKnowledge: Learning the RulesSkills: Showing not Just KnowingSensitivity: Developing Receptive AccuracyCommitment: Acquiring a Passion for ExcellenceEthics: Determining the Right and Wrong of Speaking2. Speech AnxietySPEECH ANXIETY AS A CHALLENGEPervasiveness of Speech Anxiety: The General PopulationAnxiety and Professionals: Not Just the NovicesSYMPTOMS: FIGHTORFLIGHT RESPONSEBasic Symptoms: Your Body's Response to ThreatAppropriateness of Symptoms: Relevance to Public SpeakingCAUSES OF DYSFUNCTIONAL ANXIETYSelf-Defeating Thoughts: Sabotaging Your Speech- Catastrophic Thinking: Fear of Failure- Perfectionist Thinking: No Mistakes Permitted- Desire for Complete Approval: Trying Not to Offend- The Illusion of Transparency: Being Nervous About Looking NervousAnxiety-Provoking Situations: Considering Context- Novelty of the Speaking Situation: Uncertainty- Conspicuousness: In the Spotlight- Types of Speeches: Varying ResponsesSTRATEGIES FOR MANAGING SPEECH ANXIETYPrepare and Practice: Transforming Novelty into FamiliarityGain Realistic Perspective: Rational Not Irrational ThinkingAdopt a Noncompetitive Communication Orientation: ReframingUse Coping Statements: Rational ReappraisalUse Positive Imaging: Visualizing SuccessUse Relaxation Techniques: Reducing Fight-or-Flight ResponseTry Systematic Desensitization: Incremental Relaxation3. Delivering Your SpeechMETHODS OF COMPETENT DELIVERYManuscript Speaking: Looking for PrecisionMemorized Speaking: Memory Do Not Fail Me NowImpromptu Speaking: Off the Cuff PresentationsExtemporaneous Speaking: The Virtues of an OutlineDEVELOPING COMPETENT DELIVERYEye contact: Connecting with Your AudienceVoice: Developing Vocal VarietyFluency: Avoiding Excessive Vocal FillersSpeaking Rate: Finding the Right PaceArticulation and Pronunciation: Striving for Clarity of SpeechBody Movements: Finding the Right BalancePodium Usage: Avoiding the Lectern LeanMicrophone Usage: Amplifying Your DeliveryDistracting Behaviors: Avoiding InterferenceAudience-Centered Delivery: Matching the Context4. Audience AnalysisTYPES OF AUDIENCESCaptive Audience: Disengaged ListenerCommitted Audience: Agreeable ListenersContrary Audience: Hostile ListenersConcerned Audience: Eager ListenersCasual Audience: Unexpected ListenerAUDIENCE COMPOSITIONAge: Possible Generation GapsGender: Go Beyond Simplistic StereotypesEthnicity and Culture: Sensitivity to DiversityGroup Affiliations: A Window into Listeners' ViewsADAPTING TO DIVERSE AUDIENCESEstablish Identification: Connecting with Your Audience- Likeability: I Can Relate to You- Stylistic Similarity: Looking and Acting the Part- Substantive Similarity: Establishing Common GroundBuild Credibility: Establishing BelievabilityAdapt While Speaking: Exhibit SensitivityTOPIC CHOICE AND AUDIENCE ADAPTATIONExploring Potential Topics: Important ChoiceDo a Personal Inventory: You as Topic SourceBrainstorm: New Possibilities- Scanning for Topics: Quick IdeasAppropriateness of Topic: Blending Topic and Audience- Speaker Appropriateness: Suitability for You- Audience Appropriateness: Suitability for Your Listeners- Occasion Appropriateness: Suitability for the EventNarrowing the Topic: Making Subjects Manageable5. Attention: Getting People to ListenNATURE OF ATTENTIONSelective Attention of Listeners: Filtering StimuliMindful Listening: Focused AttentionATTENTION STRATEGIES: TRIGGERING LISTENINGNovelty: The Allure of the New- Unusual Topics: Choosing Outside the Box- Unusual Examples: The Anti-Sedative- Unusual Stories: Nothing Like a Good Tale- Unusual Phrasing: It is in the WordingStartling Appeal: Shake Up Your Listeners- Inappropriate Use: Beware of Bizarre BehaviorThe Vital Appeal: MeaningfulnessHumorous Appeal: Keep Listeners Laughing- Do Not Force Humor: Not Everyone is Funny- Use Only Relevant Humor: Stay Focused- Be Sensitive to Audience and Occasion: Humor Can Backfire- Consider Using Self-Deprecating Humor: "I'm Not Worthy"Movement and Change: Our Evolutionary ProtectionIntensity: Extreme Degree of a Stimulus6. Introductions and ConclusionsOBJECTIVES FOR COMPETENT INTRODUCTIONSGain Attention: Focusing Your Listeners- Begin With a Clever Quotation: Let Others Grab Attention- Use Questions: Engage Your Listeners- Begin with a Simple Visual Aid: Show and Tell- Tell a Relevant Story: Use Narrative Power- Refer to Remarks of Introduction: Acknowledging PraiseMake a Clear Purpose Statement: Providing IntentEstablish Topic Significance: Making Your Listeners CareEstablish Your Credibility: Why Listeners Should Believe YouPreview the Main Points: The Coming AttractionsOBJECTIVES FOR COMPETENT CONCLUSIONSSummarize the Main Points: Connecting the DotsRefer to the Introduction: Bookending Your SpeechMake a Memorable Finish: Sizzle Do Not Fizzle7. Outlining and Organizing SpeechesEFFECTIVE OUTLININGStandard Formatting: Using Correct SymbolsDivision: Dividing the PieCoherence: Logical Consistency and ClarityCompleteness: Using Full SentencesBalance: No Lopsided Time AllotmentEFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION: CREATING PATTERNSTopical Pattern: By the SubjectsChronological Pattern: According to TimeSpatial Pattern: VisualizationCausal Pattern: Who or What is ResponsibleProblem-Solution Pattern: Meeting NeedsProblem-Cause-Solution Pattern: Knowing Why and HowComparative Advantages Pattern: Who or What is BetterMonroe's Motivated Sequence: Five-Step PatternNarrative Pattern: Telling a StoryCONNECTING THE DOTS: ADDITIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL TIPSProvide DefinitionsUse SignpostsMake TransitionsUse Internal PreviewsGive Internal SummariesCULTURAL CHALLENGES8. Gathering MaterialTHE INTERNET: ONLINE RESEARCHSearch EnginesDirectoriesMetasearch EnginesVirtual LibrariesInternet Search TipsiWikipedia/i: Credible Scholarship or Mob Rule?Blogging Sites: Be Very ChoosyEvaluating Internet Information: Basic StepsLIBRARIES: BRICKSANDMORTAR RESEARCH FACILITYLibrarian: Expert NavigatorLibrary Catalogues: Computer VersionsPeriodicals: Popular Information SourcesNewspapers: An Old StandbyReference Works: Beyond iWikipedia/iINTERVIEWING: QUESTIONING EXPERTSInterview Plan: Be PreparedInterview Conduct: Act AppropriatelyInterviewing by Email: Surprise YourselfPLAGIARISM AND ETHICS: CUTTING CORNERS ON RESEARCH9. Skepticism: Becoming Critical Thinking Speakers and ListenersSKEPTICISM, TRUE BELIEF, AND CYNICISMDANGERS OF TRUE BELIEFTHE PROCESS OF TRUE BELIEVINGConfirmation Bias: Searching for SupportRationalization of Disconfirmation: Clinging to FalsehoodsShifting the Burden of Proof: Whose Obligation Is It?THE PROCESS OF SKEPTICISM: INQUIRING MINDS WANT TO KNOWProbability Model: Likely but Not Certain- Possibility: Could Happen, but Do Not Bet on it- Plausibility: Making a Logical Case- Probability: What are the Odds?- Certainty: Without ExceptionSkepticism and Open-Mindedness: Inquiring Minds, Not Empty Minds10. Argument, Reasoning, and EvidenceAN ARGUMENT: STAKING YOUR CLAIMSyllogism: Formal LogicToulmin Structure of Argument: Informal LogicCRITERIA FOR REASONING AND EVIDENCE: IS IT FACT OR FALLACY?Credibility: Should We Believe You?- Questionable Statistics: Does It Make Sense?- Biased Source: Grinding an Ax- Incomplete Source Citation: Something to Hide?- Expert Quoted Out of Field: No Generic Experts Allowed- Relevance: Does it Follow?- Ad hominem Fallacy: Diversionary Tactic- Ad populum Fallacy: Arguing from Public Opinion- Sufficiency: Got enough?- Self-Selected Sample: Partisan Power- Inadequate Sample: Large Margin of Error- Hasty Generalization: Arguing from Example- Correlation Mistaken for Causation: X Does not Necessarily Cause Y- False Analogy: Ming Apples and Oranges11. Presenting Supporting MaterialsUSING EXAMPLES COMPETENTLYTypes of Examples: Specific Illustrations- Hypothetical Examples: It Could Happen- Real Examples: It Did Happen- Brief Examples: Short and to the Point- Extended Examples: Telling a StoryHow to Use Examples: Choose Carefully- Use Relevant Examples: Stay on Point- Choose Vivid Examples: Create Images- Use Representative Examples: Reflect What is AccurateStack Examples: When One is Not EnoughUSING STATISTICS COMPETENTLYMeasures of Central Tendency: Determining What is Typical- Mean: Your Average Statistic- Median: An in-the-Center Statistic- Mode: Most Frequent StatisticHow to Use Statistics: Beyond Numbing Numbers- Use Accurate Statistics Accurately: No Distorting- Make Statistics Concrete: Meaningful Numbers- Make Statistical Comparisons: Gaining Perspective- Stack Statistics: Creating Impact- Use Credible Sources: Build BelievabilityUSING TESTIMONY COMPETENTLYTypes of Testimony: Relying on Others- Testimony of Experts: Relying on Those in the Know- Eyewitness Testimony: You Had To be there- Testimony of Non-Experts: Ordinary Folks Adding Color to EventsHow to Use Testimony- Quote or Paraphrase Accurately: Consider Context- Use Qualified Sources: Credibility MattersGENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ACROSS TYPESChoose Interesting Supporting Materials: Counteracting BoredomAbbreviate Source Citations: Brief Reference RemindersCombine Examples, Stats, and Quotes: The Power of Three12. Speaking StyleORAL VERSUS WRITTEN STYLESTYLE IN THE ELECTRONIC AGESTANDARDS OF COMPETENT ORAL STYLEClarity: Saying What You MeanPrecision: Picking the Apt WordsVividness: Painting a PictureMetaphor and Simile: Figures of SpeechAlliteration: Several of the Same Sounds- Repetition: Rhythmic CadenceAntithesis: Using Opposites13. Visual AidsBENEFITS OF VISUAL AIDS: REASONS TO USE THEMTYPES OF VISUAL AIDS: MAKING APPROPRIATE CHOICESObjects: Show and TellModels: Practical RepresentationsGraphs: Making Statistics Clear and InterestingMaps: Making a Point GeographicallyTables: Factual and Statistical ComparisonsPhotographs: Very Visual AidsDrawings: Photo SubstitutesVISUAL AIDS MEDIA: SIMPLE TO TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCEDChalkboard and Whiteboard: All Dinosaurs are not ExtinctPoster Board: Simplicity ItselfHandouts: An Old StandbyVideo Excerpts: DVDs, YouTube, and Visual PowerProjection Equipment: Blowing it UpComputer-Assisted Presentations: PowerPointGUIDELINES FOR COMPETENT USE: AIDS NOT DISTRACTIONSKeep Aids SimpleMake Aids VisibleMake Aids Neat, Attractive, and AccurateDo not Block the Audience's ViewKeep Aids Close to YouPut the Aid Out of Sight When Not in UsePractice with AidsDo Not Circulate Your AidsDo Not Talk in the DarkAnticipate Problems14. Informative SpeakingDISTINGUISHING INFORMATIVE FROM PERSUASIVE SPEAKINGNoncontroversial Information: Staying NeutralPrecursor to Persuasion: No Call to ActionTYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECHESReports: Facts in BriefExplanations: Deeper UnderstandingDemonstrations: Acting OutNarratives: StorytellingSpeeches that Compare: Balancing the Pros and ConsGUIDELINES FOR COMPETENT INFORMATIVE SPEAKINGBe Informative: Tell Us What We Do Not KnowAdapt to Your Audience: Topic Choice and Knowledge BaseAvoid Information Overload: Beware of the Data DumpTell Your Story Well: Narrative Tips15. Foundations of Persuasive SpeakingDEFINING PERSUASIONATTITUDE. BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCYDirect Experience: No Second-Hand AttitudesSocial Pressure: Getting Heat from OthersEffort Required: Degree of DifficultyGOALS OF PERSUASIONConversion: Radical PersuasionModification: Do Not Ask for the MoonMaintenance: Keep 'em Coming BackELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODELCULTURE AND PERSUASION16. Persuasive Speaking StrategiesENHANCE THE SPEAKER: IDENTIFICATION AND CREDIBILITYBUILD ARGUMENTS: PERSUASIVE LOGIC AND EVIDENCEPropositions: Fact, Value, and Policy ClaimsPersuasive Arguments: Quality and QuantityPersuasive Evidence: Statistics versus NarrativesTRY EMOTIONAL APPEALS: BEYOND LOGICGeneral Emotional Appeals: Motivating ChangeFear Appeals: Are You Scared Yet?Anger Appeals: Moderately UpsetEthics and Emotional Appeals: Is it Wrong to be Peripheral?FRAME YOUR CASE: SHAPING ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR WITH LANGUAGEINDUCE COGNITIVE DISSONANCE: CREATING TENSIONUSE THE CONTRAST EFFECT: MINIMIZE THE MAGNITUDEUse a Two-Sided Organizational Pattern: Refutation17. Speeches for Special OccasionsTRIBUTE ADDRESSESToasts: Raising a Glass in TributeRoasts: Poking Fun with AdmirationTribute to Colleagues: Honoring the DepartingEulogies: Praising the DepartedINTRODUCTIONS OF FEATURED SPEAKERSSPEECHES OF PRESENTATIONSPEECHES OF ACCEPTANCECOMMENCEMENT ADDRESSESAFTER DINNER SPEECHES- Appendix A. Text of an Informative Speech: "The Annual Plague"- Appendix B. Text of a Persuasive Speech: "Get Big Money Out of College Sports"