Predictions in the Brain: Using Our Past to Generate a Future

Hardcover | May 12, 2011

EditorMoshe Bar

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When one is immersed in the fascinating world of neuroscience findings, the brain might start to seem like a collection of "modules," each specializes in a specific mental feat. But just like in other domains of Nature, it is possible that much of the brain and mind's operation can beexplained with a small set of universal principles. Given exciting recent developments in theory, empirical findings and computational studies, it seems that the generation of predictions might be one strong candidate for such a universal principle. This is the focus of Predictions in the Brain.From the predictions required when a rat navigates a maze to food-caching in scrub-jays; from predictions essential in decision-making to social interactions; from predictions in the retina to the prefrontal cortex; and from predictions in early development to foresight in non-humans. The perspectives represented in this collection span a spectrum from the cellular underpinnings to the computational principles underlying future-related mental processes, and from systems neuroscience to cognition and emotion. In spite of this diversity, they share some core elements. Memory, forinstance, is critical in any framework that explains predictions. In asking "what is next?" our brains have to refer to memory and experience on the way to simulating our mental future. But as much as this collection offers answers to important questions, it raises and emphasizes outstanding ones. How are experiences coded optimally to afford using them for predictions? How do we construct a new simulation from separate memories? How specific in detail are future-oriented thoughts,and when do they rely on imagery, concepts or language? Therefore, in addition to presenting the state-of-the-art of research and ideas about predictions as a universal principle in mind and brain, it is hoped that this collection will stimulate important new research into the foundations of ourmental lives.

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When one is immersed in the fascinating world of neuroscience findings, the brain might start to seem like a collection of "modules," each specializes in a specific mental feat. But just like in other domains of Nature, it is possible that much of the brain and mind's operation can beexplained with a small set of universal principles....

Moshe Bar, Ph.D, is the Director of the Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at the Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital. He has been using methods from cognitive psychology, psychophysics, computational neuroscience, psychiatry and human brain imaging to explore issues concerning human vision, context and predic...

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:400 pages, 10 × 7 × 0.98 inPublished:May 12, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195395514

ISBN - 13:9780195395518

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Table of Contents

Moshe Bar: (Preface) Predictions: A universal principle in the operation of the human brain1. Karl K. Szpunar and Endel Tulving: Varieties of Future Experience2. Moshe Bar: The proactive brain3. Lawrence W. Barsalou: Simulation, Situated Conceptualization, and Predictions4. Aron K. Barbey, Frank Krueger, and Jordan Grafman .: The Prefrontal Cortex and the Construction of Mental Models for Future Thinking5. Daniel Schacter and Donna Rose Addis: On the nature of medial temporal lobe contributions to the constructive simulation of future events6. Demis Hassabis and Eleanor A. Maguire: The construction system of the brain7. Kathleen McDermott, Karl K. Szpunar , and Kathleen M. Arnold: Similarities in Episodic Future Thought and Remembering: The Importance of Contextual Setting8. Samuel T. Moulton and Stephen M. Kosslyn: Imagining Predictions: Mental Imagery as Mental Emulation9. Lisa Feldman Barrett and Moshe Bar: See It with Feeling: Affective Predictions During Object Perceptions10. Antoine Bechara: The somatic marker hypothesis and its neural basis: Using past experiences to forecast the future in decision-making11. Shelley E. Taylor: Envisioning the Future and Self-Regulation12. Nira Liberman, Yaacov Trope, and So Yon Rim: Prediction: A Construal Level Theory Perspective13. Daniel Gilbert and Timothy D. Wilson: Previews, Premotions, and Predictions14. Shimon Edelman: On look-ahead in language: navigating a multitude of familiar paths15. Marta Kutas, Katherine A. DeLong, and Nathaniel J. Smith: A look around at what's ahead: Prediction and predictability in language processing16. Stephen Grossberg: Cortical and Subcortical Predictive Dynamics and Learning during Perception, Cognition, Emotion, and Action17. Karl Friston and Stefan Kiebel: Predictive coding: A free-energy formulation18. Jeff Hawkins, Dileep George, and Jamie Niemasik: Sequence Memory for Prediction, Inference, and Behavior19. John Lisman and A. David Redish: Prediction, sequences and the hippocampus20. Howard Eichenbaum and Norbert J. Fortin: The neurobiology of memory based predictions21. Yadin Dudai: Predicting not to predict too much: How the cellular machinery of memory anticipates the uncertain future22. Michael J. Berry II and Gregory Schwartz: The Retina As Embodying Predictions About the Visual World23. Cristina Atance and Laura K. Hanson: Making Predictions: A Developmental Perspective24. Lucy G Cheke, James M Thom and Nicola S Clayton: Prospective Decision Making in Animals: A Potential Role for Intertemporal Choice in the study of Prospective Cognition25. Thomas Suddendorf: Mental Time Travel and the Shaping of the Human Mind