This study examines the administrative tools and techniques that U.S. presidents have used to influence environmental policy. A major portion of the book assesses current techniques and recent administrations, particularly Reagan, Carter, and Bush strategies. Experts, students, policymakers, and activists concerned with public policy and environmental issues will find this unique study invaluable for understanding the administrative procedures, the powers, and the limitations of the administrative presidency. Robert Shanley opens with a brief overview of how presidents have affected conservation policy in the first part of the century and then discusses the more complex environmental policymaking in recent administrations. Focusing on the Reagan administration, he shows how it controlled the flow of agency information and the gathering of statistical data to curb agency policy and enforcement, and then traces the reaction of Congress and the Federal Courts to these initiatives. He demonstrates how presidential executive orders may significantly affect environmental policy and then contrasts different perspectives of the Carter and Reagan administrations on risk assessment and on various agency programs. Shanley goes on to discuss Bush's record and his efforts to work out compromises between environmental and economic interests. Finally, Shanley posits that administrative procedures are often counter-productive in the long term. The book concludes with an overview of the resources at the disposal of presidents today and the problems confronting national leaders in initiating and shaping environmental policy.