Principles of chemistry by Joel Henry HildebrandPrinciples of chemistry by Joel Henry Hildebrand

Principles of chemistry

byJoel Henry Hildebrand

Paperback | January 9, 2012

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This historic book may have numerous typos, missing text or index. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. 1918. Not illustrated. Excerpt: ... CHAPTER XIII CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM. PROPERTIES WHICH MAY AFFECT CONCENTRATION We have seen, in Chapter XII, that it is possible to control reactions which come to equilibrium by changing the concentrations of the reacting substances. A reaction may be made more complete by using the reacting substances at greater concentration, or by removing one or more of the products of the reaction. We may now ask the questions: In what ways may substances be added to or taken away from reacting mixtures, and what properties of substances determine whether a reaction proceeds more completely in one direction or another? The ability to answer these questions enables one, without previous experiment, to predict and control reactions in a large number of cases. It is important that the amount of experimental material to be memorized should be the minimum necessary to deal with the vast number of reactions likely to be encountered. How this material may be arranged and applied will be shown in the following pages. Volatility. 0ne of the properties of substances that may be utilized in bringing about reactions is volatility. If a certain reacting mixture is in an inclosed space, equilibrium may be reached long before all of the desired products are obtained; but if one of the substances produced is volatile at the temperature of the reaction, it may be allowed to escape, or be pumped off, and its removal will allow more of it to be formed, according to the principle set forth in the last chapter. If this removal is continued, it may be possible to make the reaction go to completion. For example, if solutions of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid are mixed, there is only a small tendency to form hydrochloric acid, since the latter is a little stronger than the former. However, since...
Title:Principles of chemistryFormat:PaperbackDimensions:80 pages, 9.69 × 7.44 × 0.17 inPublished:January 9, 2012Publisher:General Books LLCLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0217793258

ISBN - 13:9780217793254