Principles Of Field Crop Production

Paperback | June 22, 2005

byJohn H. Martin, Warren H. Leonard, David L. Stamp

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Extensive progress has been made in the science and practice of field crop production since the Third Edition was published in 1976. Advances in the knowledge of how plants grow and respond to their environment, a better understanding of plant processes at the molecular level, and the ability to directly manipulate chromosomal material...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:976 pages, 9.9 × 8.1 × 2.1 inPublished:June 22, 2005Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0130259675

ISBN - 13:9780130259677

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NEW TO THIS EDITION This book is about children's play and development. Changes to this new edition include new information and research on the following: History, theories, and culture of play Montessori and child development views of play Examples of play in Chapters 1 and 2 Nature and consequences of play deprivation Benefits of playground play, more on safety in both indoor and outdoor play, and additional emphasis on nature, gardens, and wild places in children's play Effects of electronic play (video games, computers, immersive reality) on children's development Roles of play leaders Strategies for adults for facilitating play with children with disabilities Bullying and aggressive behavior in school-age children and characteristics of these children CONTENTS AND ORGANIZATION OF THIS TEXT To understand any human activity, such as play, it is necessary to explore that activity as it has evolved over time. We begin in Chapter 1 with a look at "Play's History: Ideas, Beliefs, and Activities." Indeed, play does have an epic history, dating back thousands of years. As we state in Chapter 1, play activities existed long before recorded history. As a result, we have both prerational knowledge of play, which has remained with us since before the onset of recorded history, and rational knowledge of play, those aspects of play that we have come to be aware of by means of scholarship. Our earliest rational knowledge of Western play can be described in terms of three themes: agon, mimesis, and chaos. These themes continue to describe play across the centuries, although the relative weight of each is seen to vary over time. Agon, or conflict, appears in competitive games and-has its present manifestation in sport. Mimesis, or imitative action, is associated with theater, role play, and creative forms of play. Chaos, or leaving things to the Fates, is reflected in games of chance. During the Enlightenment and Romance periods of history, versions of mimesis were exalted, to call attention to humankind's creative spirit. It was during these times that particular attention from scholars began to focus on children's play. Freedom and the human spirit were associated with play by educators such as Johan Pestalozzi and Friedrich Froebel. This belief has remained with us and forms a cornerstone for understanding children's play. The history of children's play developed a life of its own during the 19th century, with the scholarly research efforts of individuals such as G. Stanley Hall, John Dewey, and child development researchers who soon followed them. Although these scholars reflected differing assumptions about play, their combined efforts, building on the work of earlier philosophers, kept play at the center of children's development. Our history of prerational and rational experience with children's play serves as a basis for our current efforts to study play. Through the past century, research on children's play contributed to theories about play and its role in development. As we look at our efforts to make sense of play, we see a variety of rhetorics for play and a wider variety of theories to make sense of it. Chapter 2 introduces a number of theories that dominated play scholarship throughout the 20th century, as well as a number of emerging theories that are leading us into the 21st century. These theories are illustrated with an example of children at play, showing how play must be understood from multiple perspectives. Being able to put on different theoretical lenses allows the observer of play to understand its many meanings. Chapter 2 also provides a model for deciding which theory may be most useful for professionals who are supporting play. Theory is placed in the model as a tool for assisting teachers to plan, observe, and assess children as they play. Values and beliefs about play must be articulated and aligned with relevant play theories. The model is supplemented by research on teacher beliefs as they relate to theory and practice. History and theory are invaluable tools for understanding play and for seeking keys to practice. During the 20th century, additional tools emerged from research in several disciplines. Chapter 3 details the work of behavioral scientists who, during the 1960s, introduced the notion of plasticity of the human brain with particular reference to very young children. This set the stage for national attention to early development in playful contexts. More recently neuroscientists, employing high-tech brain imaging, have opened a new front in understanding children's behavior, including play, and implications for practitioners are tenuously being drawn. Chapter 3 also discusses the growing tendency among educators and politicians to substitute academic rigor and high-stakes testing for free, spontaneous play, resulting in loss of time for recess, physical education, and the arts. A parallel trend, substituting technology play and pay-for-play, also impose impediments to spontaneous play, presenting an ever-growing threat to children's health and development. Three chapters address play and development. The first, Chapter 4, discusses the first 2 years of development. The preschool years are discussed iri Chapter 5, and school-age children in Chapter 6. Issues of culture and gender are addressed in Chapter 7. Because so many societies are multicultural at this time, there are always questions about the traditions, meanings, relationship, and communications that may vary with different groups of people. Building on earlier reviews by Schwartzman and Slaughter and Dombrowsky, we present research on the topics of continuities and discontinuities in children's play. Gender differences in play are universal and apparent from many studies. A discussion of theories of gender development introduces a description of the continuing debate on the nature and nurture of play. Studies, while not resolving the debate, illustrate girl/boy differences in social patterns, toys used, and texts dramatized in play. Implications for practice in child care center and school contexts naturally arise from discussions of play theory and research. Over recent decades, a number of approaches have evolved which address the integration of play into curriculum and the roles of teachers. In Chapter 8, we examine the dominant approaches, ranging from hands-off play to broadly and narrowly focused play intervention. Since all these approaches are drawn from serious examination of theory and research, practitioners may borrow relevant dimensions from more than one model. In a multi-ethnic, pluralistic society, the developmental needs of individuals and groups may not be appropriately met by a single approach. Play is not all that children need, but knowledge is constructed through play, and, through sensitive adult intervention, play and work become complementary activities. The questions of how children with disabilities engage in play and what adaptations need to be made to adult roles and the environment to expand play are the focus of Chapter 9. Researchers interested in the nature of play in children with disabilities have conducted studies comparing the play of children with specific disabilities with the play of peers who have typical development. The play of children with specific disabilities has also been studied to determine how changes in the environment and adaptations of toys can enhance play opportunities for children. The use of technology, particularly computers, for modification of play possibilities for all children in the classroom is becoming more prevalent. Most significantly, modification of the outdoor environment has become a significant design challenge within the last two decades as play specialists have sought to make outdoor play more accessible to children with all types of disabilities. The natural therapeutic qualities of play lend even greater emphasis to the importance of play for child development. As seen in Chapter 10, play therapy has its roots in the psychoanalytic tradition, but, over the years, theorists and practitioners modified the practical applications of this tradition to develop several approaches. The fundamental tenets of child-centered play therapy are rooted in the beliefs that children play out their phobias, feelings, and emotions and that play has natural healing powers. Play therapy is now successfully conducted with children of all age groups and in individual, family, clinical, school, hospital, and group contexts. Since play is an important ingredient of both indoor and outdoor activities, Chapter 11 focuses on the creation of special, magical, creative outdoor play environments. (Indoor play environments and indoor safety are discussed in Chapter 8). This section is intended to counter the growing pattern of cookie-cutter (standardized) playgrounds in U.S. child care centers, schools, and public parks by focusing on comprehensive environments featuring natural elements such as sand, water, tools, materials for construction, nature areas, and "special places." Fundamental to countering this trend is convincing adults that recess and outdoor play are essential to children's healthy development. Even the best outdoor play environments have little effect unless children have ample time to experience and create over extended periods of time. The extensive analysis of child safety in public places, discussed in Chapter 12, is unique in child development texts, perhaps because of the prevailing view that accidents and injuries are inherent in growing up. Safety experts and a growing body of safety research conclude that accidents can be prevented, especially those that expose children to risks of permanent injury or death. We wish to make one point crystal clear: We do not advocate "dumbing down" playgrounds or play venues in an effort to make them safe. Quite the contrary—play environments can be made safer than traditional settings while simultaneously expanding challenges and opportunities for physical development and other areas of development. Risk is an essential element in developing safety skills. The discussion of play leadership in Chapter 13 promotes the concept that all adults who supervise children at play—parents, aides, teachers, youth workers—need certain skills. The term play leader is intended to apply to all such workers/players. The skills needed appear to be inherent or natural for many adults. For example, most parents play peek-a-boo with infants and toddlers, cuddle them, talk to them, and provide toys. But as the child matures and is passed from one caretaker to another, play leadership skills frequently take a back seat to didactic instruction, scheduling, and academic pursuits. Good play leaders respect children and play; they sense the flow of children's play, recognize this as the release of ultimate creative impulses, and know this is the stuff from which learning and development emerge.

Table of Contents

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CROP PRODUCTION.

1. The Art and Science of Crop Production.

Crop Production as an Art.

Crop Production as a Science.

Population and Food Supply.

Origin of Cultivated Plants.

Variation in Cultivated Plants.

Spread of Cultivated Plants.

Classification of Crop Plants.

Botanical Classification of Crop Plants.

The Leading Field Crops.

Future Increases in Productivity.

2. Crop Plants in Relation to the Environment.

Factors in Crop Distribution.

Climate.

Air.

Soil Requirements.

Indicator Significance of Native Vegetation.

Insects and Diseases.

Economic Factors in Crop Choice.

Cropping Regions in the U.S.

3. Botany of Crop Plants.

General Nature of Crop Plants.

The Plant Cell.

Structure and Functions of Crop Plants.

Reproductive Processes in Crop Plants.

Seeds and Fruits.

Growth Processes in Crop Plants.

Plant Competition.

4. Crop Improvement.

Possibilities in Crop Improvement.

Objectives in Crop Breeding.

Methods of Crop Breeding.

Production of Hybrid Seed.

Breeding for Disease Resistance.

Biotechnology and Crop Improvement.

Experimental Methods.

5. Tillage Practices.

History of Tillage Operations.

Purposes of Tillage.

Implements for Seedbed Preparation.

Surface Implements in Final Seedbed Preparation.

Tillage in Seedbed Preparation.

Subsoiling.

Conservation Tillage.

Fallow.

Soil Mulches for Moisture Conservation.

Cultivation in Relation to Soil Nitrates.

Other Effects of Cultivation.

Intertillage or Cultivation.

Artificial Mulches.

Tillage in Relation to Water Erosion.

Tillage in Relation to Wind Erosion.

6. Fertilizer, Green Manuring, Rotation, and Multiple Cropping Practices.

Purpose of Fertilization.

Effect of Nutrient Elements on Plant Growth.

Commercial Fertilizers.

Lime as a Soil Amendment.

Animal Manure.

Sewage Sludge (Biosolids).

Green Manure and Cover Crops.

Crop Rotation.

Organic Farming.

Multiple Cropping.

7. Seeds and Seeding.

Importance of Good Seeds.

Chemical Composition of Seeds.

Seed Germination.

Germination and Purity Tests.

Seed Laws and Regulations.

Seed Associations.

Sources of Farm Seeds.

Seeding Crops. 

8. Harvest of Field Crops.

Grain and Seed Crops.

Hay and Hay Making.

Silage.

9. Handling and Marketing Grain, Seeds, and Hay.

Marketing Grain.

Marketing Seeds.

Handling Grain at a Terminal Market.

Hedging.

Futures Trading.

Grain Trading.

Storage and Drying of Grain and Seeds.

Drying Grain and Seeds.

Cleaning Grain and Seeds.

Insects in Stored Grain.

Marketing Hay.

Forage Quality.

Crop Judging.

10. Pastureland and Rangeland.

Importance of Pastures and Range.

Advantages of Pastures.

Kinds of Pastures.

Permanent Pastures.

Adapted Pasture Species.

Characteristics of Pasture Plants.

Basic Principles of Plant Behavior.

Plants in Pasture Mixtures.

Pasture Mixtures for Different Regions.

Establishment of Permanent Pastures.

Fertilization of Pastures.

Renovation and Reseeding.

Grazing Systems.

Burning Grasslands and Brush.

Eradication of Weeds or Brush.

Poisonous Plants.

Crops for Temporary or Annual Pastures.

Winter Wheat for Pasture. 

11. Weeds and Their Control.

Economic Importance.

Types of Crop Weeds.

Losses Caused by Weeds.

Persistence of Weeds.

Dissemination of Weeds.

Control of Common Crop Weeds.

Serious Perennial Weeds.

Serious Annual Weeds.

Parasitic Plants.

II. CROPS OF THE GRASS FAMILY.

12. Corn or Maize.

Economic Importance.

History of Corn Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Characteristics.

Types of Corn.

Open-Pollinated Varieties.

Corn Hybrids.

Popcorn and Sweet Corn.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Corn Culture.

Corn Stover.

Corn Fodder.

Corn Silage.

Harvest by Livestock.

Seed Corn.

Uses of Corn.

Milling of Corn.

Making Corn Whisky.

Popping Corn.

Processing Sweet Corn.

Composition of the Corn Kernel.

Diseases.

Insect Pests. 

13. Sorghum.

Economic Importance.

History of Sorghum Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Sorghum Groups.

Prussic Acid Poisoning.

Hybrids.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Sorghum Culture.

Sudangrass Culture.

Johnsongrass as a Crop.

Uses of Sorghum.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

Biological Control of Sorghum Pests.

14. Sugarcane.

Economic Importance.

History of Sugarcane Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Sugarcane Species.

Varieties.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Sugarcane Culture.

Sugar and Syrup Manufacture.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

15. Wheat.

Economic Importance.

History of Wheat Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Species of Wheat.

Wheat Classes.

Wheat Relatives.

Hybrid Wheat.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Wheat Culture.

Uses of Wheat.

Milling of Wheat.

Chemical Composition of Wheat and Flour.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

16. Rye and Triticale.

Economic Importance.

History of Rye Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Varieties.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Rye Culture.

Uses of Rye.

Diseases.

Insects.

Triticale (X Triticosecale).

17. Barley.

Economic Importance.

History of Barley Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Cultivated Barley Species.

Regional Types and Varieties.

Barley Improvement.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Barley Culture.

Uses of Barley.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

18. Oat.

Economic Importance.

History of Oat Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Species of Oat.

Natural Cross-Pollination.

Dormancy in Oat.

Oat Types.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Cultural Practices.

Uses of Oat.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

19. Rice.

Economic Importance.

History of Rice Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Rice Types.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Rice Culture.

Rice Culture in Asia.

Milling of Rice.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

Wild Rice.

20. Millets.

Economic Importance.

Foxtail Millet.

Proso Millet.

Pearl Millet.

Japanese Barnyard Millet.

Browntop Millet.

Other Millets.

21. Perennial Forage Grasses.

Economic Importance.

Grass Types.

Adaptation.

Seeding.

Timothy.

Smooth Bromegrass.

Orchardgrass.

Tall Fescue.

Reed Canarygrass.

Kentucky Bluegrass.

Bermudagrass.

Redtop.

Crested Wheatgrass.

Western Wheatgrass.

Slender Wheatgrass.

Other Wheatgrasses.

Perennial Ryegrass.

Italian Ryegrass.

Other Wildrye Grasses.

Meadow Foxtail.

Tall Oatgrass.

Blue Grama.

Buffalograss.

Other Range Grasses.

Carpetgrass.

Napiergrass.

Dallisgrass.

Other Southern Grasses.

III. CROPS OF THE LEGUME FAMILY.

22. Alfalfa.

Economic Importance.

History of Alfalfa Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Groups.

Hard or Impermeable Seed.

Winter Hardiness.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Alfalfa Culture.

Alfalfa Quality.

Dehydrated Alfalfa.

Alfalfa as a Pasture Crop.

Seed Production.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

23. Sweetclover.

History of Sweetclover Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Sweetclover Species.

Varieties.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Sweetclover Culture.

Uses of Sweetclover.

Coumarin in Sweetclover.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

24. The True Clovers.

Economic Importance.

Important Clover Species.

Red Clover.

Alsike Clover.

Kura Clover.

White Clover.

Strawberry Clover.

Crimson Clover.

Other Winter Annual Clovers.

25. Lespedeza.

Economic Importance.

History of Lespedeza Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Hard Seeds in Lespedeza.

Varieties.

Chemical Composition..

Rotations.

Cultural Methods for Annual Lespedezas.

Cultural Methods for Sericea Lespedeza.

Role in Soil Conservation.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

26. Soybean.

Economic Importance.

History of Soybean Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Varieties.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Soybean Culture.

Uses of Soybean.

Chemical Composition.

Soybean-Oil Extraction.

Diseases.

Nematodes.

Insect Pests.

27. Cowpea.

Economic Importance.

History of Cowpea Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Varieties.

Rotations.

Cowpea Culture.

Uses of Cowpea.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

28. Field Beans.

Economic Importance.

History of Bean Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Bean Types.

Lentil.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Bean Culture.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

29. Peanut.

Economic Importance.

History of Peanut Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Types of Peanut.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Peanut Culture.

Processing Peanuts.

Uses of Peanut.

Chemical Composition.

Diseases.

Insect and Mite Pests.

30. Miscellaneous Legumes.

Field Pea.

Vetch.

Velvetbean.

Annual Medics.

Kudzu.

Crotalaria.

Trefoil.

Crownvetch.

Cicer Milkvetch.

Sainfoin.

Sesbania.

Lupine.

Guar.

Florida Beggarweed.

Roughpea.

Hairy Indigo.

Alyceclover.

Pigeon Pea.

Other Forage Legumes.

IV. CROPS OF OTHER PLANT FAMILIES.

31. Buckwheat.

Economic Importance.

Adaptation.

History of Buckwheat Culture.

Botanical Description.

Types.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Buckwheat Culture.

Uses of Buckwheat.

Chemical Composition.

Milling.

Pests.

32. Flax.

Economic Importance.

History of Cotton Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Varieties.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Cotton Culture.

Defoliation, Desiccation, and Topping.

Cotton Ginning.

Uses of Cotton.

Market Quality of Cotton Fiber.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

34. Tobacco.

Economic Importance.

History of Tobacco Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Classification of Tobacco.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Tobacco Culture.

Changes in Tobacco Production.

Curing Tobacco Leaves.

Handling and Marketing.

Tobacco Quality.

Diseases.

Nutritional or Physiological Disorders.

Insect Pests.

35. Sugarbeet.

Economic Importance.

History of Sugarbeet Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Hybrids or Varieties.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Sugarbeet Culture.

Sugar Manufacture.

Seed Production.

Diseases.

Deficiency Disorders.

Nematodes.

Insect Pests.

36. Potato.

Economic Importance.

History of Potato Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Varieties.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Seed Potato.

Potato Culture.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

37. Sweetpotato and Yam.

Economic Importance.

History of Sweetpotato Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Varieties.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Sweetpotato Culture.

Curing.

Storage.

Uses.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

Yam.

38. Rapeseed/Canola.

Rapeseed and Canola.

Economic Importance.

History of Rapeseed Culture.

Adaptation.

Botanical Description.

Fertilizers.

Rotations.

Rapeseed Culture.

Uses of Rapeseed and Canola.

Chemical Composition.

Oil Extraction.

Diseases.

Insect Pests.

39. Miscellaneous Industrial Crops.

Hops.

Mint.

Sunflower.

Mustard.

Sesame.

Safflower.

Castorbean.

Guayule.

Hemp.

Ramie.

Kenaf.

Pyrethrum.

Other Industrial Crops.

40. Miscellaneous Food and Forage Crops.

Jerusalem Artichoke.

Root and Leaf Crops.

Pumpkin and Squash.

Other Crops.

V. APPENDICES.

Table A-1. Seed, and Plant Characteristics.

Table A-2. Composition of Crop Products.

Table A-3. Conversion Tables.

Glossary.

Index.