Principles of Semiconductor Devices

Hardcover | March 1, 2011

bySima Dimitrijev

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The dimensions of modern semiconductor devices are reduced to the point where the classical semiconductor theory, including the concepts of continuous particle concentration and continuous current, becomes questionable. Further questions relate to the two-dimensional transport in the mostimportant field-effect devices and the one-dimensional transport in nanowires and carbon nanotubes.Designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, Principles of Semiconductor Devices, Second Edition, presents the semiconductor-physics and device principles in a way that upgrades the classical semiconductor theory and enables proper interpretations of numerous quantum effects inmodern devices. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to practical applications, including the links to SPICE models and parameters that are commonly used during circuit design. The text is divided into three parts: Part I explains semiconductor physics; Part II presents the principles of operation and modeling of the fundamental junctions and transistors; and Part III provides supplementary topics, including a dedicated chapter on the physics of nanoscale devices,description of SPICE models and equivalent circuits that are needed for circuit design, introductions to most important specific devices (photonic devices, JFETs and MESFETs, negative-resistance diodes, and power devices), and an overview of integrated-circuit technologies. The chapters and thesections in each chapter are organized so to enable instructors to select more rigorous and design-related topics as they see fit.

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From the Publisher

The dimensions of modern semiconductor devices are reduced to the point where the classical semiconductor theory, including the concepts of continuous particle concentration and continuous current, becomes questionable. Further questions relate to the two-dimensional transport in the mostimportant field-effect devices and the one-dimen...

Sima Dimitrijev is Professor at the Griffith School of Engineering and Deputy Director of Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre at Griffith University in Australia. He is the author of Understanding Semiconductor Devices (OUP, 2000) as well as numerous other publications in the areas of MOSFET technology, modeling, and applicat...

other books by Sima Dimitrijev

Understanding Semiconductor Devices
Understanding Semiconductor Devices

Hardcover|Feb 15 2000


Format:HardcoverDimensions:640 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.98 inPublished:March 1, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195388038

ISBN - 13:9780195388039


Extra Content

Table of Contents

Part I: Introduction to Semiconductors1. Introduction to Crystals and Current Carriers in Semiconductors, the Atomic-Bond Model1.1 Introduction to Crystals1.1.1 Atomic Bonds1.1.2 Three-Dimensional Crystals1.1.3 Two-Dimensional Crystals: Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes1.2 Current Carriers1.2.1 Two Types of Current Carriers in Semiconductors1.2.2 NDTType and P-Type Doping1.2.3 Electroneutrality Equation1.2.4 Electron and Hole Generation and Recombination in Thermal Equilibrium1.3 Basics of Crystal Growth and Doping Techniques1.3.1 Crystal-Growth Techniques1.3.2 Doping TechniquesSummaryProblemsReview Questions2. The Energy-Band Model2.1 Electrons as Waves2.1.1 De Broglie Relationship Between Particle and Wave Properties2.1.2 Wave Function and Wave Packet2.1.3 Schrodinger Equation2.2 Energy Levels in Atoms and Energy Bands in Crystals2.2.1 Atomic Structure2.2.2 Energy Bands in Metals2.2.3 Energy Gap and Energy Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators2.3 Electrons and Holes as Particles2.3.1 Effective Mass and Real E-k Diagrams2.3.2 The Question of Electron Size: The Uncertainty Principle2.3.3 Density of Electron States2.4 Population of Electron States, Concentrations of Electrons A: "D Holes"2.4.1 Fermi-Dirac Distribution2.4.2 Maxwell-Boltzmann Approximation and Effective Density of States2.4.3 Fermi Potential and Doping2.4.4 Nonequilibrium Carrier Concentrations and Quasi-Fermi LevelsSummaryProblemsReview Questions3. Drift3.1 Energy Bands with Applied Electric Field3.1.1 Energy-Band Presentation of Drift Current3.1.2 Resistance and Power Dissipation Due to Carrier Scattering3.2 OHM's Law, Sheet Resistance, and Conductivity3.2.1 Designing Integrated-Circuit Resistors3.2.2 Differential Form of OHM's Law3.2.3 Conductivity Ingredients3.3 Carrier Mobility3.3.1 Thermal and Drift Velocities3.3.2 Mobility Definition3.3.3 Scattering Time and Scattering Cross Section3.3.4 Mathieson's Rule3.3.5 Hall EffectSummaryProblemsReview Questions4. Diffusion4.1 Diffusion-Current Equation4.2 Diffusion Coefficient4.2.1 Einstein Relationship4.2.2 Haynes-Shockley Experiment4.2.3 Arrhenius Equation4.3 Basic Continuity EquationSummaryProblemsReview Questions5. Generation and Recombination5.1 Generation and Recombination Mechanisms5.2 General Form of the Continuity Equation5.2.1 Recombination and Generation Rates5.2.2 Minority-Carrier Lifetime5.2.3 Diffusion Length5.3 Generation and Recombination Physics and Shockleyread-Hall (SRH) Theory5.3.1 Capture and Emission Rates in Thermal Equilibrium5.3.2 Steady-State Equation for the Effective Thermal Generation/Recombination Rate5.3.3 Special Cases5.3.4 Surface Generation and RecombinationSummaryProblemsReview QuestionsPart II: Fundamental Device Structures6. P-N Junction6.1 P-N Junction Principles6.1.1 p-~ Junction in Thermal Equilibrium6.1.2 Reverse-Biased P-N Junction6.1.3 Forward-Biased P-K Junction6.1.4 Breakdown Phenomena6.2 DC Model6.2.1 Basic Current-Voltage (I-V) Equation6.2.2 Important Second-Order Effects6.2.3 Temperature Effects6.3 Capacita CE of Reverse-Biased P-:-I Junction6.3.1 C-V Dependence6.3.2 Depletion-Layer Width: Solving the Poisson Equation6.4 Stored-Charge Effects6.4.1 Stored Charge and Transit Time6.4.2 Relationship Between the Transit Time and the Minority-Carrier Lifetime6.4.3 Switching Characteristics: Reverse-Recovery TimeSummaryProblemsReview Questions7. Metal-Semiconductor contact and MOS Capacitor7.1 Metal-Semiconductor Contact7.1.1 Schottky Diode: Rectifying Metal-Semiconductor Contact7.1.2 Ohmic Metal-Semiconductor Contacts7.2 MOS Capacitor7.2.1 Properties of the Gate Oxide and the Oxide-Semiconductor Interface7.2.2 C-V Curve and the Surface-Potential Dependence on Gate Voltage7.2.3 Energy-Band Diagrams7.2.4 Flat4Band Capacitance and Debye LengthSummaryProblemsReview Questions8. MOSFET8.1 MOSFET Principles8.1.2 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Switch8.1.3 The Threshold Voltage and the Body Effect8.1.4 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source: Mechanisms of Current Saturation8.2 Principal Current-Voltage Characteristics and Equations8.2.1 SPICE LEVEL 1 Model8.2.2 SPICE LEVEL 2 Model8.2.3 SPICE LEVEL 3 Model: Principal Effects8.3 SECO:\D-OROER Effects8.3.1 Mobility Reduction with Gate Voltage8.3.2 Velocity Saturation (Mobility Reduction with Drain Voltage)8.3.3 Finite Output Resistance8.3.4 Threshold-Voltage-Related Short-Channel Effects8.3.5 Threshold Voltage Related Narrow-Channel Effects8.3.6 Subthreshold Current8.4 Nanoscale MOSFETs8.4.1 Down-Scaling Benefits and Rules8.4.2 Leakage Currents8.4.3 Advanced MOSFETs8.5 MOS-Based Memory Devices8.5.1 1C1T DRAM Cell8.5.2 Flash-Memory CellSummaryProblemsReview Questions9. BJT9.1 BJT Principles9.1.1 BJT as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source9.1.2 BJT Currents and Gain Definitions9.1.3 Dependence of and Current Gains on Technological Parameters9.1.4 The Four Modes of Operation: BJT as a Switch9.1.5 Complementary BJT9.1.6 BJT Versus MOSFET9.2 Principal Current-Voltage Characteristcs, EBERE-MOLL Model in SPICE9.2.1 Injection Version9.2.2 Transport Version9.2.3 SPICE Version9.3 Second DT Order Effects9.3.1 Early Effect: Finite Dynamic Output Resistance9.3.2 Parasitic Resistances9.3.3 Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: Low-Current Effects9.3.4 Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: Gummel-Poon Model for High-Current Effects9.4 Heterojunction Bipolar TransistorSummaryProblemsReview QuestionsPart III: Supplementary Topics10. Physics of Nanoscale Devices10.1 Single-Carrier Events10.1.1 Beyond the Classical Principle of Continuity10.1.2 Current-Time Form of Uncertainty Principle10.1.3 Carrier-Supply Limit to Diffusion Current10.1.4 Spatial Uncertainty10.1.5 Direct Nonequilibrium Modeling of Single-Carrier Events10.2 Two-Dimensional Transport in MOSFETs and HEMTs10.2.1 Quantum Confinement10.2.2 HEMT Structure and Characteristics10.2.3 Application of Classical MOSFET Equations to Two-Dimensional Transport in MOSFETs and HEMTs10.3 One-Dimensional Transport in Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes10.3.1 Ohmic Transport in Nanowire and Carbon-Nanotube FETs10.3.2 One-Dimensional Ballistic Transport and the Quantum Conductance LimitSummaryProblemsReview Questions11. Device Electronics, Equivalent Circuits A D SPICE Parameters11.1 Diodes11.1.1 Static Model and Parameters in SPICE11.1.2 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit in SPICE11.1.3 Parameter Measurement11.1.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit11.2 MOSFET11.2.1 Static Model and Parameters; LEVEL 3 in SPICE11.2.2 Parameter Measurement11.2.3 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE11.2.4 Simple Digital ~1od.el11.2.5 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit11.3 BJT11.3.1 Static Model and Parameters: Ebers-Moll and Gummel-Poon Levels in SPICE11.3.2 Parameter Measurement11.3.3 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE11.3.4 Small-Signal Equivalent CircuitSummaryProblemsReview Questions12. Photonic Devices12.1 Light Emitting Diodes (LED)12.2 Photodetectors and Solar Cells12.2.1 Biasing for Photodetector and Solar-Cell Applications12.2.2 Carrier Generation in Photodetectors and Solar Cells12.2.3 Photocurrent Equation12.3 Lasers12.3.1 Stimulated Emission, Inversion Population, and Other Fundamental Concepts12.3.2 A Typical Heterojunction LaserSummaryProblemsReview Questions13. JFET and MESFET13.1 JFET13.1.1 JFET Structure13.1.2 JFET Characteristics13.1.3 SPICE Model and Parameters13.2 MESFET13.2.1 MESFET Structure13.2.2 MESFET Characteristics13.2.3 SPICE Model and ParametersSummaryProblemsReview Questions14. Power Devices14.1 Power Diodes14.1.1 Drift Region in Power Devices14.1.2 Switching Characteristics14.1.3 Schottky Diode14.2 Power MOSFET14.3 IGBT14.4 THYRISTORSummaryProblemsReview Question15. Negative Resistance Diodes15.1 Amplification AI'D Oscillation by Negative Dynamic Resistance15.2 GUNN Diode15.3 IMPATT Diode15.4 TUNNEL DiodeSummaryProblemsReview Questions16. Integrated-Circuit Technologies16.1 A Diode in IC Technology16.1.1 Basic Structure16.1.2 Lithography16.1.3 Process Sequence16.1.4 Diffusion Profiles16.2 MOSFET Technologies16.2.1 Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS)16.2.2 NMOS Technology16.2.3 Basic CMOS Technology16.2.4 Silicon-on-Insulator (SOl) Technology16.3 Bipolar IC Technologies16.3.1 IC Structure of NPN BJT16.3.2 Standard Bipolar Technology Process16.3.3 Implementation of PNP BJTs, Resistors, Capacitors, and Diodes16.3.4 Parasitic IC Elements not Included in Device Models16.3.5 Layer MergingBiCMOS TechnologySummaryProblemsReview Questions