Principles of Stable Isotope Distribution

Hardcover | May 1, 1999

byRobert E. Criss

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This book presents a quantitative treatment of the theory and natural variations of light stable isotopes. It discusses isotope distribution in the context of fractionation processes, thermodynamics, mass conservation, exchange kinetics, and diffusion theory, and includes more than 100original equations. The theoretical principles are illustrated with natural examples that emphasize oxygen and hydrogen isotope variations in natural waters, terrestrial and extraterrestrial rocks, and hydrothermal systems. New data on meteoric precipitation, rivers, springs, formation fluids, andhydrothermal systems are included in relation to various natural phenomena. Essentially, this book seeks to reconnect the diverse phenomenological observations of isotope distribution to the quantitative theories of physical chemistry and the language of differential equations. It may serve as a textbook for advanced students, as a research reference, or as a quick sourceof information. The book is organized into five chapters, each followed by suggested quantitative problems and a short reference list. The three theoretical chapters progress from an elementary review of the physical chemistry of stable isotopes, to the thermodynamics of isotopic compounds, andfinally to the calculation of isotope distribution in dynamic systems. The third and fifth chapters emphasize oxygen and hydrogen isotope variations in Earth's hydrosphere and lithosphere, constituting the most important examples of the theoretical principles. Appendices provide data on atomicweights of light elements, physical constants, mathematical relationships, and isotopic fractionation factors.

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This book presents a quantitative treatment of the theory and natural variations of light stable isotopes. It discusses isotope distribution in the context of fractionation processes, thermodynamics, mass conservation, exchange kinetics, and diffusion theory, and includes more than 100original equations. The theoretical principles are ...

Robert E. Criss is at Washington University, St. Louis.

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Format:HardcoverPublished:May 1, 1999Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195117751

ISBN - 13:9780195117752

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Table of Contents

1. Abundance and Measurement of Stable Isotopes1.1. Discovery of Isotopes1.2. Nuclide Types, Abundances, and Atomic Weights1.3. Properties and Fractionation of Isotopic Molecules1.4. Material Balance Relationships1.5. Mass Spectrometers1.6. Notation and Standards1.7. Summary1.8. ProblemsReferences2. Isotopic Exchange and Equilibrium Fractionation2.1. Isotopic Exchange Reactions2.2. Basic Equations2.3. Molecular Models2.4. Theory of Isotopic Fractionation2.5. Temperature Dependence of Isotopic Fractionation Factors2.6. Rule of the Mean2.7. Isotopic Thermometers2.8. Summary2.9. ProblemsReferences3. Isotope Hydrology3.1. Variations of D and 18O in the Hydrosphere3.2. Variations of D and 18O in Waters from Deep Geologic Environments3.3. Liquid-Vapor and Ice-Vapor Equilibria3.4. Rayleigh Fractionation3.5. Examples of Natural Meteoric Precipitation3.6. Isotopic Variations in Streamflow3.7. Isotopic Variations in Groundwaters3.8. Summary3.9. ProblemsReferences4. Nonequilibrium Fractionation and Isotopic Transport4.1. Kinetics of Isotopic Exchange4.2. Examples of Isotopic Exchange Kinetics4.3. Evaporation4.4. Lake Balance4.5. Isotopic Flux and Soil Evaporation4.6. Kinetic Fractionation Factors4.7. Isotopic Distribution in the Atmosphere4.8. Mass-Independent Fractionation4.9. Summary4.10. ProblemsReferences5. Igneous Rocks, Meteorites, and Fluid-Rock Interactions5.1. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Geochemistry of Rocks5.2. Igneous Rocks: Primary Crystallization5.3. Igneous Rocks: Subsolidus Processes5.4. Hydrothermal Systems5.5. Extraterrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopic Compositions5.6. Summary5.7. ProblemsReferencesAppendicesA.1 Important Nuclides of Light ElementsA.2 Selected Physical ConstantsA.3 Definitions, Formulas, and ApproximationsA.4 Selected Oxygen Isotope Fractionation Factors between Various Phases and WaterIndex

Editorial Reviews

"Reacting to what he sees as an unfortunate migration of funding from fundamental scientific research to applications deemed politically important, Criss seeks to reconnect the diverse observations of isotope distributions to the quantitative theories of physical chemistry emphasized byearlier scientists. Instead of case histories, which he cites only when they exemplify quantitative principles or convey new and important possibilities, he offers translations of the principles of statistical and classical thermodynamics, kinetics, and diffusion theory into the language of isotopedistribution, the fundamental variable of which is the isotope ration."--SciTech Book News