Principles of Superconductive Devices and Circuits


byTheodore Van Duzer, Charles W. Turner

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Principles of Superconductive Devices and Circuits, Second Edition, lays the analytical foundation for understanding a wide range of modern applications of both low- and high-temperature superconductors. It represents an extensive update to the first edition, which has been used worldwide and translated into Japanese, Russian, and Chinese. The field of applied superconductivity has been transformed since the first edition by new materials and fabrication techniques, and by innovative device and circuit concepts. In this new edition, two leading experts provide an up-to-date guide to the theory and practice of applied superconductivity.

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Principles of Superconductive Devices and Circuits, Second Edition, lays the analytical foundation for understanding a wide range of modern applications of both low- and high-temperature superconductors. It represents an extensive update to the first edition, which has been used worldwide and translated into Japanese, Russian, and Chin...

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Principles of Superconductive Devices and Circuits, Second Edition, lays the analytical foundation for understanding a wide range of modern applications of both low- and high-temperature superconductors. It represents an extensive update to the first edition, which has been used worldwide and translated into Japanese, Russian, and Chin...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:448 pages, 9.2 × 7 × 1 inPublisher:Pearson Education

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0132627426

ISBN - 13:9780132627429


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Preface to the Second Edition Several exciting major developments have changed the field of applied superconductivity since 1981, when the first edition of this text was published. New materials and fabrication methods and innovative device and circuit concepts have made profound changes in the way we practice in this field. The most public of the changes was the discovery in 1986 of high-temperature oxide superconductors, several of which quickly were shown to have transition temperatures above the boiling point of nitrogen. Equally important but less publicly obvious was a pair of key innovations in the fabrication of superconductive integrated circuits. A way of making high quality, durable niobium tunnel junctions and a procedure to avoid any processing steps intervening in the fabrication of the junctions, has led to stable, well controlled integrated circuits. New concepts in superconductive detectors and mixers has made superconductivity the technology of choice in millimeter wave radio astronomy. And in the digital field, innovative ideas for single flux quantum logic and for hybridization with semiconductor devices have brought new opportunities. To date, the high-temperature superconductors have had their major impacts in magnetometers and microwave receivers. The greatly reduced refrigerator burden when using these materials compared with the metal superconductors has stimulated very extensive research on making cables for extremely high field magnets, and optimism for use in power systems. The basic theory of superconductivity we presented in the 1981 edition is still very useful. There is, as yet, no accepted theory of electron pairing in the high-temperature superconductors and much of the practical work, including that on high-temperature superconductors, still relies on the theories in this book. Phenomenological theories have been developed to explain the behavior of high-temperature superconductors. And the low-temperature metallic superconductors continue to be of major importance, not least because of the success of Nb-Ti alloy in MRI magnets, by far the largest commercial market for superconductors. The low-temperature superconductor wire technology has matured over the past two decades and continues to make impressive progress. On the other hand, the fast pace of development of the physics and technology of the high-temperature superconductors presents us with a difficult choice. We have chosen to present a practical view of the current position, but freely admit that new results in this rapidly changing field may lead to a complete reappraisal. Between us two co-authors, we have had several decades of experience with applications of superconductivity, both in the university and in industry. We have attempted to infuse the presentations, particularly of the electronics part, with our practical views that we hope will be helpful to the readers. We thank several colleagues in the field including John Clarke, James Lukens, V. K. Kaplunenko, William McGrath, Oleg Mukhanov, Paul Richards, Andrew Smith, Stephen Whiteley, Yongming Zhang, who were very helpful with suggestions on sections in their areas of special expertise and in providing valuable data. Feedback from numerous students over the years has helped to form the presentations. The need to prepare camera-ready copy for this edition led to the involvement of a large number of people in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, to whom we are deeply grateful. We appreciate their generous giving of time and talent. Carol Sitea was responsible for a part of the typing, inserting scores of figures into the text and making corrections, managing the computer aspects of the project, and finally pulling the manuscript together. Thank you Carol! We appreciate that Joyce McDougal generously organized the staff and participated in the typing of several chapters. Invaluable was the volunteered help from Christine Colbert, Dianna Bolt, and Jay Ento, each of whom typed several chapters. Jennifer Basler's help is appreciated. George Chien played a key role in assembling and modifying some of the most changed chapters. Important computations were carried out by Yiqun Phillip Xie and Lizhen Zheng and Mark Jeffery provided valuable assistance. The artistic and computer talents of Katherina Law came together to create close to one hundred new figures, matching them in style to those of the first edition. The willing help of Luis Vasquez in carefully scanning hundreds of figures from the first edition and doing extensive library research were essential to the timely completion of the project, and greatly appreciated. Even our wives, Janice and Shan, volunteered help in proofreading and other ways; how can we thank them enough? Getting this edition into camera-ready form has truly been a community project and we are thankful to all who had a role. T. Van Duzer, Berkeley C. W. Turner, London

Table of Contents


1. Normal Metals and the Transition to the Superconducting State.

Introduction. Independent Electrons in a Periodic Lattice. Energy Distribution and the Fermi Surface. Free-Electron Gas. Excitations: The Energy Gap in a Superconductor. Electronic Heat Capacity. The Phonon Spectrum. Scattering of Electrons by Phonons. Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity: The Superconducting State. Perfect Conductor vs. Superconductor: The Meissner Experiment.

2. Microscopic Theory of The Equilibrium Superconducting State and Single-Particle Tunneling.

Introduction. Electron Pairing. The Cooper Pair Model. Dielectric Functions and Scattering Amplitudes. Attractive Electron-Electron Interaction. Hamiltonian for the Superconducting Ground State. Superconducting Ground State. Gap Parameter and Condensation Energy at T = 0. Excitations from the Ground State. Occupation Statistics for Pairs and Excitations for T …Ö 0. Temperature Dependence of the Gap Parameter. Density of Excitation States. Tunneling Barriers. Tunneling Between Normal Metals. Tunneling Between a Normal Metal and a Superconductor. Ouasiparticle Tunneling Between Superconductors.

3. Electrodynamics of Superconductors in Weak Magnetic Fields.

Introduction. Current-Field Relations. Boson-Gas Model: London Equations. Gauge Transformation. Gauge Selection for Simply Connected Superconductors: The London Gauge. dc Electrodynamic Solutions for Superconductors Having Simple Shapes: The Meissner Effect and Penetration Depth. Two-Dimensional Transition Between a Normal Conductor and a Superconductor. Isolated Current-Carrying Thin Strip; Electrostatic Analogy. Inductance of Thin Film Lines. Ouantization of Magnetic Flux in a Superconducting Ring. Nonlocal Field-Current Relation: Pippard Coherence Length. Penetration Depths for Pure and Impure Materials at T = 0. Temperature Dependences of Carrier Densities and Penetration Depths; The Two-Fluid Model. Complex Conductivity. Electromagnetic Fields in Conducting Media. Superconducting Transmission Lines. Superconducting Passive Microwave Components.

4. Josephson Junctions.

Introduction. Pair Tunneling: The Josephson Relations. Gauge Invariance: Effect of a Magnetic Field. Wave Equation for a Josephson Tunnel Junction. Dependence of Maximum Zero-Voltage Current on Magnetic Field. Self-Field Effects: Dependence of Ic on Shape and Size of Junction. Resonances in Josephson Junctions. Fiske Modes. Conducting-Barrier Josephson Junctions. Circuit Models of Josephson Junctions. Static I-V Characteristics with a dc Source. Analogs of Small-Area Josephson Junctions. RF Effects in Josephson Junctions. Fluctuations (Noise) in Josephson Junctions.

5. Electronics Applications.

Introduction. Josephson Mixing. Quasiparticle Mixing. Bolometers. Parametric Amplifier. RF Signal Generation. Oscillators Based on Flux Dynamics in Long Junctions. Josephson Volt Standard. One-Junction SQUIDS. Multijunction Interferometers (SQUIDs). dc SQUID Magnetometers. RF SQUID Magnetometers. Components for Digital Circuits. Voltage-State Logic. Single Flux Quantum Devices. Rapid Single Flux Quantum Logic. Digital Interface Circuits. Memories in Josephson and Hybrid Technology.

6. Fundamental Thermodynamic and Magnetic Considerations.

Introduction. Fundamental Concepts in Statistical Thermodynamics. Interacting Systems. Helmholtz and Gibbs Free Energies. Magnetization. Demagnetization Factors. Energy in Magnetic Fields. Thermodynamic Relations for Magnetic Systems. Phase Transitions. The Superconducting-Normal Phase Transformation.

7. Spatially Dependent Behavior in Superconductors: The Ginzburg-Landau Equations and Departures from the Eissner State.

Introduction. Ginzburg-Landau Free-Energy Functional. Ginzburg-Landau Differential Equations. Examples of Solutions of the Ginzburg-Landau Equations; The Ginzburg-Landau Parameters. Gor'kov's Microscopic Justification for the Ginzburg Landau Theory. Surface Energy at the Boundary Between Normal and Superconducting Phases in a Homogeneous Medium. Intrinsic Magnetic Behavior of Superconductors. Geometrical Effects: The Intermediate State. Proximity Effects: Contiguous Normal and Superconductive Materials.

8. Type II Superconductivity: Theory and Technology.

Introduction. Mixed State in Type II Superconductors: the Vortex Lattice. Londel Model of the Mixed State. Behavior Near Hc, Magnetic Flux Configuration in the Mixed State: the Vortex Lattice. Behavior Near Hc2 and Surface Conductivity in LTS Materials. Flux Penetration in Thin LTS Films: Critical Fields. Vortex Motion and Flux-Flow Resistance. Thermally Active Flux Motion: Flux Creep and Flux Jumps. The Critical-State Model for Hard Superconductors. The Surface Barrier to Flux Entry in LTS Materials. Stabilization of Superconducting Cables by the Use of Composite Conductors. AC Losses at Power Frequencies.

Appendix A: Elements of Electron Tunneling.

Appendix B: Determination of Materials from Experimental Data.

Appendix C: Computer-Aided-Design Tools.