Probiotics: The scientific basis by Ray FullerProbiotics: The scientific basis by Ray Fuller

Probiotics: The scientific basis

byRay Fuller

Paperback | October 30, 2012

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In recent years the gastrointestinal microflora has featured strongly in scientific, veterinary and medical research. As a result it has become obvious that the gut microflora is an essential component of the healthy animal. Not only is it involved in digestion of food, it is essential for the optimal resistance to disease. The first part of this book records the research that has been done on the factors affecting colonization of the gut and the effect that the flora has on the host animal. The second part discusses the way in which this basic knowledge affects the choice of organism being used as a probiotic. The evidence for the involvement of the gut microflora in the health and well-being of the animal is incontrovertible, but the development of probiotics has been largely empirical, failing to capitalize on the relevant research data. The bringing together of the basic information on gut microecology and the development of probiotic preparations is long overdue. It is hoped that this exercise will result in a more scientific approach to probiotic development and the emergence of new and improved preparations for animals and man. The authors involved are all experts in their field and I am greatly indebted to them for their contributions to the book. R. Fuller Abbreviations used for • generIc names Aspergillus A. B. Bacillus Bact. Bacteroides Bifidobacterium Bif. C. Clostridium Cam. Campylobacter Can. Candida Cor. Corynebacteri urn E. Escherichia Enterobacter Eb. Ent. Enterococcus Fusobacterium F. Fib. Fibrobacter K. Klebsiella 1.
Title:Probiotics: The scientific basisFormat:PaperbackDimensions:398 pages, 23.5 × 15.5 × 0.07 inPublished:October 30, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401050430

ISBN - 13:9789401050432

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Table of Contents

1 History and development of probiotics.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 History.- 1.3 Composition of probiotic preparations.- References.- 2 Bacterial interactions in the gut.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Methods for studying bacterial interactions.- 2.3 Main types of bacterial interactions in the gut.- 2.3 Conclusions.- References.- 3 Metabolic interactions in the gut.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Mammalian intestinal metabolism.- 3.3 Gut bacterial metabolism.- 3.4 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Translocation and the indigenous gut flora.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Defence against bacterial translocation.- 4.3 Bacterial translocation in animal models with multiple deficiencies in host defences.- 4.4 Conclusion.- References.- 5 Gut flora and disease resistance.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Colonization resistance.- 5.3 Suppression of the multiplication of pathogens by the intestinal microflora.- 5.4 Mechanisms responsible for suppression of pathogens.- 5.5 Conclusions.- 5.6 The probiotic concept.- References.- 6 Factors affecting the microecology of the gut.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Definitions.- 6.3 Use of one or a limited number of bacterial strains in probiotic preparations.- 6.4 Ecological considerations.- 6.5 Recommendations for future developments.- References.- 7 Probiotics and the immune state.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Effect of orally administered lactic acid bacteria on immunity: non-specific and specific immune response.- 7.3 Effect of oral administration on the secretory immune system.- 7.4 Effect on the protection against enteric infections.- References.- 8 Genetit manipulation of gut microorganisms.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Microbes of potential interest.- 8.3 Molecular genetical studies.- 8.4 Stability of genetic determinants.- 8.5 Possible developments.- 8.6 Release of genetically modified microbes.- 8.7 Conclusions.- References.- 9 Selection of strains for probiotic use.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Aim of this chapter.- 9.3 First steps in the choice of microbial strains.- 9.4 Species and viability of probiotic microorganisms.- 9.5 Processing of viable microorganisms to end-products.- 9.6 Resistance to in vivo conditions.- 9.7 Adherence and colonization.- 9.8 Antimicrobial activity.- 9.9 Gene technology.- 9.10 Conclusion.- References.- 10 Probiotics for chickens.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 The normal intestinal flora of poultry.- 10.3 Host-microbial flora interactions.- 10.4 The application of probiosis to poultry.- 10.5 Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics.- 10.6 Competitive exclusion.- 10.7 Immunity.- 10.8 Bacteriophages.- 10.9 Summary.- References.- 11 Probiotics for pigs.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Special features of pigs relevant to the use of probiotics.- 11.3 Current use of probiotics.- 11.4 Efficacy.- 11.5 Functional characteristics of potential probiotic strains.- 11.6 General discussion.- References.- 12 Probiotics for ruminants.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Probiotics for young ruminants.- 12.3 Fungal feed additives for adult ruminants.- 12.4 Bacterial probiotics for adult ruminants.- 12.5 Future developments.- References.- 13 Probiotics for humans.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract.- 13.3 Current use of probiotics.- 13.4 Nutritional benefits of probiotics.- 13.5 Therapeutic benefits of probiotics.- 13.6 More recent developments in the area of probiotics and health.- 13.7 Properties required for probiotics to be effective in nutritional and therapeutic settings.- 13.8 Future development of probiotics for human use.- 13.9 Future applications of probiotics.- 13.10 Techniques for probiotic modification.- References.- 14 Problems and prospects.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Factors affecting the probiotic response.- 14.3 Future developments.- 14.4 Summary.- References.