To understand Canada one must understand racism, for Canada was born and grew as a racist state. Race riots, segregated schools, racially-based union membership, mass deportations of innocent people, the state sanctioned kidnapping of children, a conscious attempt at cultural genocide and much more have shaped Canada's history.Last Steps to Freedom: The Evolution of Canadian Racismencourages Canadians to look truthfully at their past, admit mistakes, atone for crimes and applaud progress. The book is organized chronologically, by region, and by ethnic group. It traces the experiences of Chinese, Ukranian, Jewish, Japanese, Black, and Native Canadians. In each case, early activities and contributions by groups and individuals are explored. People mysteriously absent from our history books such as Viola Desmond, Big Bear, Ivan Pylipiw, and others are celebrated. The systemic racism against which they struggled is explained.