Groups that are the product of two subgroups are of particular interest to group theorists. In what way is the structure of the product related to that of its subgroups? This monograph gives the first detailed account of the most important results that have been found about groups of this formover the past 35 years. Although the emphasis is on infinite groups, some relevant theorems about finite products of groups are also proved. The material presented will be of interest for research students and specialists in group theory. In particular, it can be used in seminars or to supplement ageneral group theory course. A special chapter on conjugacy and splitting theorems obtained by means of the cohomology of groups has never appeared in book form and should be of independent interest.