Project Development In The Solar Industry by Albie FongProject Development In The Solar Industry by Albie Fong

Project Development In The Solar Industry

EditorAlbie Fong, Jesse Tippett

Hardcover | June 12, 2012

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This book provides an extensive overview of utility scale  solar  project  development  and  the  various tasks  required  to  bring  large  solar  power  plants from plans to realities. The various topics have been organized and presented in a way to clearly define important  development  fundamentals  including basic business and legal considerations. The reader is  also  guided  through  the  more  complex  aspects of  renewable  energy  development  such  as  how to  choose  the  ideal  project  site.  Further,  while the  book  is  appropriate  for  a  cover  to  cover  read-through it is also designed to be an excellent go-to reference, a HANDBOOK FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT.

Edited by: Albie Fong and Jesse Tippett
with contributions from: Arturo Alvarez, Jeffery Atkin, William DuFour III, Perry Fontana, William Hugron, Jason Keller, Tyler M. Kropf, Michael Mendelsohn, Brett Prior, Scott Reynolds, Pilar Rodriguez-Ib'z, Katherine Ryzhaya Poster and Alfonso Tovar

ELECTRONIC ENHANCEMENTS
The book's companion website http://www.solarbookteam.com provides contact information for all authors to the book and access to the key resources highlighted in the text. This tailored media platform provides supplemental and exclusive information that is up-to-date with the present state of the solar industry.

EDITORSALBIE FONGAlbie is currently a Senior Manager of Project Execution with Talesun Solar where he works to deploy Talesun manufactured photovoltaic modules into commercial and utility scale projects. Technical evaluation of solar equipment, EPC management, and creation of strategic partnerships are other aspects of his role. Before...
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Title:Project Development In The Solar IndustryFormat:HardcoverDimensions:250 pages, 9.7 × 6.8 × 0.9 inPublished:June 12, 2012Publisher:Taylor and FrancisLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0415621089

ISBN - 13:9780415621083

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
List of figures
List of tables
This book and electronic enhancements
About the authors

1 Why renewable energy?
1.1 'WHY NOT' Solar Energy

2 Technology basics
2.1 Solar Photovoltaics
2.1.1 The photoelectric effect
2.2 Solar Thermal
2.2.1 The Rankine cycle
2.3 Parabolic Trough Systems
2.4 Power Towers, Dish Solar Thermal Systems and Solar Water Heating

3 Development: Project permitting
3.1 The Development and Permitting Landscape
3.2 The Development Process ' An Overview
3.3 The Evolution of Permitting
3.4 Permitting a Utility-Scale Solar Generation Facility
3.5 The Role of the Non-Governmental Organization
3.6 Some Parting Thoughts

4 Development: Land
4.1 Brief Outline of Land Use and Energy Consumption
4.2 Solar Math, Energy Consumption and the Land Perspective
4.3 Preparation Prior to Search
4.3.1 Land size
4.3.2 State-County-Region
4.3.3 Utility provider
4.3.4 Project size
4.3.5 Distance to interconnection and proximity to substation
4.3.6 Topography
4.3.7 Water requirements
4.3.8 Solar radiation
4.4 Using Technology in Site Selection Process
4.5 BLM Land Overview
4.5.1 BLM vs. Private land
4.6 Williamson Act
4.7 Leasing, Purchasing and Options
4.8 Contracts
4.9 Pricing
4.10 Conclusion

5 Development: Transmission
5.1 Locating Transmission Lines
5.2 Identifying the Lines and Nomenclature
5.3 Historic Interconnection Application and Study Process
5.4 The Updated Interconnection Application Process
5.4.1 Fast track
5.4.2 Independent study
5.4.3 Cluster study
5.5 Land Requirements for Interconnection
5.6 Interconnection Cost Estimates
5.7 APS transmission Case Study: Transmission
5.8 Transmission Case Study: NV Energy Transmission
Delivery Preferences and Implications
5.9 California Interconnection Process ' 5 MW Facility Placed
Onto Pacific Gas & Electric Network
5.9.1 Application processing
5.9.2 The technical scoping meeting
5.9.3 Technical studies
5.9.4 Interconnection agreement
5.9.5 Project implementation

6 Development: Energy off-take and power purchase agreements
6.1 The PPA and its importance to finance and valuation
6.2 Basic structure of a PPA
6.3 Key terms of the PPA
6.4 Financing Considerations of the PPA
6.5 PPA Variables greatly affecting the cash flow and value of the project
6.6 Buyer and Seller Key Commitments under a PPA
6.7 Obtaining a PPA
6.8 Utility Concerns in PPAs
6.9 Keys to PPA Award
6.10 Finding the best utility for a PPA
6.11 Project maturity and PPA Award
6.12 The broken U.S. PPA market and keys to improving it

7 Development: Renewable energy credits
7.1 Renewable Energy Credits
7.1.1 Tradable instruments
7.1.2 Regional markets (U.S.)
7.1.3 Commercial and regulatory risks
7.2 Carbon Markets and Cap-and-Trade Programs
7.2.1 Tradable instruments
7.2.2 Regional markets

8 Development: Development tools
8.1 Uses and application of geographic information software tools: Wetland databases
8.2 Biological geography databases and basis database navigation
8.3 Flora resource information databases
8.4 Renewable energy resource information: Solar radiation data
8.5 Geographic soil data
8.6 Transmission route and information databases

9 Development: Design considerations of photovoltaic systems
9.1 Overview of Design Considerations
9.2 Solar Resource
9.2.1 Direction or angle of incidence
9.2.2 Atmospheric disturbance or clearness index
9.2.3 Inter-annual variability
9.3 Project Requirements
9.3.1 Photovoltaic module
9.3.2 Photovoltaic inverter
9.3.3 Module mounting structure
9.4 Photovoltaic system design
9.4.1 Operating voltage
9.4.2 Temperature
9.4.3 String sizing
9.4.4 Combiner box
9.4.5 DC wiring
9.4.6 DC to AC conversion
9.4.7 AC field
9.4.8 System modeling

10 Business: Legal considerations of solar development
10.1 Entering into business negotiations
10.1.1 Confidentiality agreements
10.1.2 Term sheets
10.2 Business/Deal Structuring Decisions
10.2.1 Choice of entity
10.2.2 A holding company versus a project company
10.2.3 Where to form your business
10.2.4 Steps to create an LLC in delaware
10.2.5 Joint ventures
10.2.6 Acquiring a project in development
10.3 Project Development Considerations
10.3.1 Site control
10.3.2 Power purchase agreements
10.4 Construction Documents
10.5 Conclusion

11 Business: Finance
11.1 Forms of Investment
11.2 Financial Structure
11.3 Capital Requirements
11.4 Sources of Capital
11.5 Development Risks
11.5.1 Risk mitigation techniques and policies
11.6 Policy Impact on Asset Financing
11.6.1 U.S. policy to induce renewable energy finance
11.7 Path Forward: Securitization?

12 Business: Insurance and risk management
12.1 Risk Analysis
12.2 Project Risk
12.2.1 Risk mitigation
12.2.2 Anticipated insurance coverage's
12.3 Conclusion

13 Renewable energy and Mexico ' an emerging market with promise
13.1 The Law on the Use of Renewable Energy and Energy Transition Funding (LAERFTE)
The policy for the development of renewable energy
13.2 Current overview of renewable energy in Mexico: Progress on the introduction of wind and solar energy in the Mexican market
13.2.1 Wind energy
13.2.2 Solar energy
13.3 Conclusions

14 Market study: Current state of the US solar market
14.1 Solar Projects in Operation
14.1.1 Solar projects by technology
14.1.2 Solar projects in operation by state
14.1.3 Leading solar developer for completed solar projects
14.1.4 Leading debt providers for completed solar projects
14.1.5 Leading tax equity providers for completed solar projects
14.1.6 Leading direct equity providers for completed solar projects
14.2 Bottom-Up View of the US Utility-Scale Solar Market, 2012'2015
14.2.1 Solar projects under development or construction
14.2.2 Crystalline silicon and thin film PV
14.2.3 CSP
14.2.4 CPV
14.2.5 Solar projects by state
14.2.6 Leading solar developer
14.2.7 Leading debt providers
14.2.8 Leading tax equity providers
14.2.9 Leading direct equity providers
14.3 Top-Down View of the US Utility-Scale Solar Market, 2012'2015
14.3.1 Total US electricity demand and supply growth
14.3.2 RPS requirements by state
14.4 Key Trends in the US Utility-Scale Solar Market
14.4.1 End of the section 1603 cash grant program
14.4.2 IPPs moving from natural gas and wind to solar
14.4.3 Once the RPS requirements are met, then what? or ' can solar compete with natural gas plants?

References
Index