Radiation from spectral lines can be absorbed and re- emitted many times in atomic vapours before it reaches the boundaries of the container encasing the vapour. This effect is known as radiation trapping. It plays an important role practically everywhere where atomic vapours occur, e.g. inspectroscopy, in gas lasers, in atomic line filters, in the determination of atomic lifetimes, in measurements of atomic interaction potentials, and in electric discharge lamps. This book for the first time assembles all the information necessary for a treatment of practical problems, emphasizingboth physical insights and mathematical methods. After an introduction that reviews resonance radiation and collisional processes in atomic vapours, physical effects and mathematical methods for various types of problems (e.g. with or without saturation, particle diffusion, reflecting cell walls,etc.) are explained in detail. The last part of the book describes the applications of these methods to a variety of practical problems like cross-section measurements or the design of discharge lamps.