Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering by Cam NguyenRadio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering by Cam Nguyen

Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering

byCam Nguyen

Hardcover | March 16, 2015

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Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering addresses the theory, analysis and design of passive and active RFIC's using Si-based CMOS and Bi-CMOS technologies, and other non-silicon based technologies. The materials covered are self-contained and presented in such detail that allows readers with only undergraduate electrical engineering knowledge in EM, RF, and circuits to understand and design RFICs. Organized into sixteen chapters, blending analog and microwave engineering, Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering emphasizes the microwave engineering approach for RFICs.

• Provides essential knowledge in EM and microwave engineering, passive and active RFICs, RFIC analysis and design techniques, and RF systems vital for RFIC students and engineers

• Blends analog and microwave engineering approaches for RFIC design at high frequencies

• Includes problems at the end of each chapter

Cam Nguyen, PhD, IEEE Fellow, is the Texas Instruments Endowed Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Texas A&M University. He was Program Director at the National Science Foundation during 2003-2004, responsible for research programs in RF and wireless technologies. Over the past 35 years, including 12 years at TRW, Marti...
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Title:Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit EngineeringFormat:HardcoverDimensions:888 pages, 11.1 × 8.8 × 2.1 inPublished:March 16, 2015Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0471398209

ISBN - 13:9780471398202

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xvii

1 INTRODUCTION 1

Problems 5

2 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTROMAGNETICS 6

2.1 EM Field Parameters 6

2.2 Maxwell’s Equations 7

2.3 Auxiliary Relations 8

2.3.1 Constitutive Relations 8

2.3.2 Current Relations 9

2.4 Sinusoidal Time-Varying Steady State 9

2.5 Boundary Conditions 10

2.5.1 General Boundary Conditions 11

2.5.2 Specific Boundary Conditions 11

2.6 Wave Equations 12

2.7 Power 13

2.8 Loss and Propagation Constant in Medium 14

2.9 Skin Depth 16

2.10 Surface Impedance 17

Problems 19

3 LUMPED ELEMENTS 20

3.1 Fundamentals of Lumped Elements 20

3.1.1 Basic Equations 23

3.2 Quality Factor of Lumped Elements 28

3.3 Modeling of Lumped Elements 30

3.4 Inductors 32

3.4.1 Inductor Configurations 32

3.4.2 Loss in Inductors 36

3.4.3 Equivalent-Circuit Models of Inductors 39

3.4.4 Resonance in Inductors 45

3.4.5 Quality Factor of Inductors 46

3.4.6 High Q Inductor Design Considerations 51

3.5 Lumped-Element Capacitors 60

3.5.1 Capacitor Configurations 60

3.5.2 Equivalent-Circuit Models of Capacitors 63

3.5.3 Resonance 68

3.5.4 Quality Factor 69

3.5.5 High Q Capacitor Design Considerations 71

3.6 Lumped-Element Resistors 72

3.6.1 Resistor Configurations 72

3.6.2 Basic Resistor Equations 72

3.6.3 Equivalent-Circuit Models of Resistors 75

References 75

Problems 76

4 TRANSMISSION LINES 85

4.1 Essentials of Transmission Lines 85

4.2 Transmission-Line Equations 86

4.2.1 General Transmission-Line Equations 86

4.2.2 Sinusoidal Steady-State Transmission-Line Equations 91

4.3 Transmission-Line Parameters 93

4.3.1 General Transmission Lines 93

4.3.2 Lossless Transmission Lines 96

4.3.3 Low Loss Transmission Lines 96

4.4 Per-Unit-Length Parameters R,L,C, and G 97

4.4.1 General Formulation 97

4.4.2 Formulation for Simple Transmission Lines 104

4.5 Dielectric and Conductor Losses in Transmission Lines 107

4.5.1 Dielectric Attenuation Constant 108

4.5.2 Conductor Attenuation Constant 109

4.6 Dispersion and Distortion in Transmission Lines 111

4.6.1 Dispersion 111

4.6.2 Distortion 111

4.6.3 Distortion-Less Transmission Lines 113

4.7 Group Velocity 115

4.8 Impedance, Reflection Coefficients, and Standing-Wave Ratios 117

4.8.1 Impedance 117

4.8.2 Reflection Coefficients 119

4.8.3 Standing-Wave Ratio 120

4.8.4 Perfect Match and Total Reflection 122

4.8.5 Lossless Transmission Lines 123

4.9 Synthetic Transmission Lines 126

4.10 Tem and Quasi-Tem Transmission-Line Parameters 128

4.10.1 Static or Quasi-Static Analysis 129

4.10.2 Dynamic Analysis 130

4.11 Printed-Circuit Transmission Lines 132

4.11.1 Microstrip Line 133

4.11.2 CoplanarWaveguide 135

4.11.3 Coplanar Strips 138

4.11.4 Strip Line 139

4.11.5 Slot Line 141

4.11.6 Field Distributions 142

4.12 Transmission Lines in RFICs 144

4.12.1 Microstrip Line 145

4.12.2 CoplanarWaveguide 146

4.12.3 Coplanar Strips 149

4.12.4 Strip Line 149

4.12.5 Slot Line 150

4.12.6 Transitions and Junctions Between Transmission Lines 150

4.13 Multi-Conductor Transmission Lines 152

4.13.1 Transmission-Line Equations 152

4.13.2 Propagation Modes 156

4.13.3 Characteristic Impedance and Admittance Matrix 157

4.13.4 Mode Characteristic Impedances and Admittances 159

4.13.5 Impedance and Admittance Matrix 161

4.13.6 Lossless Multiconductor Transmission Lines 163

References 173

Problems 174

Appendix 4: Transmission-Line Equations Derived From Maxwell’s Equations 182

5 RESONATORS 186

5.1 Fundamentals of Resonators 186

5.1.1 Parallel Resonators 187

5.1.2 Series Resonators 188

5.2 Quality Factor 189

5.2.1 Parallel Resonators 190

5.2.2 Series Resonators 193

5.2.3 Unloaded Quality Factor 195

5.2.4 Loaded Quality Factor 195

5.2.5 Evaluation of and Relation between Unloaded and Loaded Quality Factors 198

5.3 Distributed Resonators 205

5.3.1 Quality-Factor Characteristics 206

5.3.2 Transmission-Line Resonators 207

5.3.3 Waveguide Cavity Resonators 216

5.4 Resonator’s Slope Parameters 231

5.5 Transformation of Resonators 231

5.5.1 Impedance and Admittance Inverters 231

5.5.2 Examples of Resonator Transformation 236

References 237

Problems 238

6 IMPEDANCE MATCHING 244

6.1 Basic Impedance Matching 244

6.1.1 Smith Chart 244

6.2 Design of Impedance-Matching Networks 248

6.2.1 Impedance-Matching Network Topologies 249

6.2.2 Impedance Transformation through Series and Shunt Inductor and Capacitor 249

6.2.3 Examples of Impedance-Matching Network Design 252

6.2.4 Transmission-Line Impedance-Matching Networks 255

6.3 Kuroda Identities 262

References 266

Problems 266

7 SCATTERING PARAMETERS 271

7.1 Multiport Networks 271

7.2 Impedance Matrix 273

7.3 Admittance Matrix 274

7.4 Impedance and Admittance Matrix in RF Circuit Analysis 274

7.4.1 T-Network Representation of Two-Port RF Circuits 275

7.4.2 π-Network Representation of Two-Port RF Circuits 278

7.5 Scattering Matrix 279

7.5.1 Fundamentals of Scattering Matrix 279

7.5.2 Examples for Scattering Parameters 287

7.5.3 Effect of Reference-Plane Change on Scattering Matrix 288

7.5.4 Return Loss, Insertion Loss, and Gain 290

7.6 Chain Matrix 293

7.7 Scattering Transmission Matrix 294

7.8 Conversion Between Two-Port Parameters 295

7.8.1 Conversion from [Z] to [ABCD] 295

References 298

Problems 298

8 RF PASSIVE COMPONENTS 304

8.1 Characteristics of Multiport RF Passive Components 304

8.1.1 Characteristics of Three-Port Components 304

8.1.2 Characteristics of Four-Port Components 309

8.2 Directional Couplers 311

8.2.1 Fundamentals of Directional Couplers 311

8.2.2 Parallel-Coupled Directional Couplers 313

8.3 Hybrids 326

8.3.1 Hybrid T 326

8.3.2 Ring Hybrid 328

8.3.3 Branch-Line Coupler 335

8.4 Power Dividers 339

8.4.1 Even-Mode Analysis 340

8.4.2 Odd-Mode Analysis 342

8.4.3 Superimposition of Even and Odd Modes 343

8.5 Filters 345

8.5.1 Low Pass Filter 345

8.5.2 High Pass Filter Design 357

8.5.3 Band-Pass Filter Design 359

8.5.4 Band-Stop Filter Design 361

8.5.5 Filter Design Using Impedance and Admittance Inverters 364

References 371

Problems 372

9 FUNDAMENTALS OF CMOS TRANSISTORS FOR RFIC DESIGN 379

9.1 MOSFET Basics 379

9.1.1 MOSFET Structure 379

9.1.2 MOSFET Operation 382

9.2 MOSFET Models 386

9.2.1 Physics-Based Models 387

9.2.2 Empirical Models 387

9.2.3 SPICE Models 402

9.2.4 Passive MOSFET Models 404

9.3 Important MOSFET Frquencies 407

9.3.1 fT 408

9.3.2 fmax 408

9.4 Other Important MOSFET Parameters 409

9.5 Varactor Diodes 409

9.5.1 Varactor Structure and Operation 409

9.5.2 Varactor Model and Characteristics 410

References 412

Problems 412

10 STABILITY 418

10.1 Fundamentals of Stability 418

10.2 Determination of Stable and Unstable Regions 421

10.3 Stability Consideration for N-Port Circuits 427

References 427

Problems 428

11 AMPLIFIERS 430

11.1 Fundamentals of Amplifier Design 430

11.1.1 Power Gain 430

11.1.2 Gain Design 433

11.2 Low Noise Amplifiers 443

11.2.1 Noise Figure Fundamentals 443

11.2.2 MOSFET Noise Parameters 446

11.2.3 Noise Figure of Multistage Amplifiers 447

11.2.4 Noise-Figure Design 448

11.2.5 Design for Gain and Noise Figure 450

11.3 Design Examples 451

11.3.1 Unilateral Amplifier Design 451

11.3.2 Bilateral Amplifier Design 454

11.4 Power Amplifiers 455

11.4.1 Power-Amplifier Parameters 455

11.4.2 Power-Amplifier Types 458

11.5 Balanced Amplifiers 470

11.5.1 Differential Amplifiers 470

11.5.2 Ninety-Degree Balanced Amplifiers 485

11.5.3 Push–Pull Amplifiers 487

11.6 Broadband Amplifiers 489

11.6.1 Compensated Matching Networks 489

11.6.2 Distributed Amplifiers 490

11.6.3 Feedback Amplifiers 523

11.6.4 Cascoded Common-Source Amplifiers 540

11.7 Current Mirrors 548

11.7.1 Basic Current Mirror 550

11.7.2 Cascode Current Mirror 550

References 552

Problems 553

A11.1 Fundamentals of Signal Flow Graph 563

A11.2 Signal Flow Graph of Two-Port Networks 563

A11.2.1 Transistor’s Signal Flow Graph 563

A11.2.2 Input Matching Network’s Signal Flow Graph 564

A11.2.3 Output Matching Network’s Signal Flow Graph 565

A11.2.4 Signal Flow Graph of the Composite Two-Port Network 566

A11.3 Derivation of Network’s Parameters Using Signal Flow Graphs 566

A11.3.1 Examples of Derivation 567

A11.3.2 Derivation of Reflection Coefficients and Power Gain 568

References 571

12 OSCILLATORS 572

12.1 Principle of Oscillation 572

12.1.1 Oscillation Conditions 573

12.1.2 Oscillation Determination 574

12.2 Fundamentals of Oscillator Design 575

12.2.1 Basic Oscillators 576

12.2.2 Feedback Oscillators 579

12.3 Phase Noise 587

12.3.1 Fundamentals of Phase Noise 588

12.3.2 Phase Noise Modeling 593

12.3.3 Low Phase-Noise Design Consideration 599

12.3.4 Effects of Phase Noise on Systems 599

12.3.5 Analysis Example of Effects of Phase Noise 601

12.4 Oscillator Circuits 602

12.4.1 Cross-Coupled Oscillators 602

12.4.2 Distributed Oscillators 612

12.4.3 Push-Push Oscillators 617

References 626

Problems 627

13 MIXERS 633

13.1 Fundamentals of Mixers 633

13.1.1 Mixing Principle 633

13.1.2 Mixer Parameters 636

13.2 Mixer Types 641

13.2.1 Single-Ended Mixer 642

13.2.2 Single-Balanced Mixer 642

13.2.3 Double-Balanced Mixer 646

13.2.4 Doubly Double-Balanced Mixer 649

13.3 Other Mixers 650

13.3.1 Passive Mixer 650

13.3.2 Image-Reject Mixer 651

13.3.3 Quadrature Mixer 652

13.3.4 Distributed Mixer 652

13.4 Mixer Analysis and Design 656

13.4.1 Switching Mixer Fundamental 656

13.4.2 Single-Ended Mixer 658

13.4.3 Single-Balanced Mixer 661

13.4.4 Double-Balanced Mixer 663

13.4.5 Source Degeneration in Mixer Design 665

13.5 Sampling Mixer 667

13.5.1 Fundamentals of Sampling 668

13.5.2 Sampling Theory 669

13.5.3 Sampling Process 670

13.5.4 Sample and Hold 673

13.5.5 Sampling Switch 678

13.5.6 Integrated Sampling Mixer 678

References 689

Problems 690

14 SWITCHES 694

14.1 Fundamentals of Switches 694

14.1.1 Switch Operation 694

14.1.2 Important Parameters 695

14.2 Analysis of Switching MOSFET 697

14.2.1 Analysis of Shunt Transistor 697

14.2.2 Analysis of Series Transistor 698

14.2.3 Analysis of Combined Series and Shunt Transistors 699

14.2.4 Selection of MOSFET 699

14.2.5 Design Consideration for Improved Insertion Loss and Isolation 701

14.3 SPST Switches 702

14.3.1 SPST Switch Employing Two Parallel MOSFETs 702

14.3.2 SPST Switch Employing Two Series MOSFETs 703

14.3.3 SPST Switch Employing Two Series and Two Shunt MOSFETs 703

14.3.4 SPST Switch Using Impedance or Admittance Inverters 703

14.4 SPDT Switches 712

14.4.1 SPDT Switch Topologies 712

14.4.2 SPDT Switch Analysis 713

14.5 Ultra-Wideband Switches 714

14.5.1 Ultra-Wideband SPST Switch 715

14.5.2 Ultra-Wideband T/R Switch 721

14.6 Ultra-High-Isolation Switches 727

14.6.1 Ultra-High-Isolation Switch Architecture and Analysis 727

14.6.2 Ultra-High-Isolation SPST Switch Design 733

14.7 Filter Switches 737

References 739

Problems 739

15 RFIC SIMULATION, LAYOUT, AND TEST 747

15.1 RFIC Simulation 748

15.1.1 DC Simulation 749

15.1.2 Small-Signal AC Simulation 749

15.1.3 Transient Simulation 749

15.1.4 Periodic Steady State Simulation 749

15.1.5 Harmonic-Balance Simulation 750

15.1.6 Periodic Distortion Analysis 751

15.1.7 Envelope Simulation 751

15.1.8 Periodic Small Signal Analysis 751

15.1.9 EM Simulation 751

15.1.10 Statistical and Mismatch Simulation 754

15.2 RFIC Layout 754

15.2.1 General Layout Issues 754

15.2.2 Passive and Active Component Layout 755

15.3 RFIC Measurement 758

15.3.1 On-Wafer Measurement 759

15.3.2 Off-Chip Measurement 782

References 784

Problems 784

16 SYSTEMS 788

16.1 Fundamentals of Systems 788

16.1.1 Friis Transmission Equation 788

16.1.2 System Equation 790

16.1.3 Signal-to-Noise Ratio of System 791

16.1.4 Receiver Sensitivity 793

16.1.5 System Performance Factor 794

16.1.6 Power 796

16.1.7 Angle and Range Resolution 797

16.1.8 Range Accuracy 800

16.2 System Type 801

16.2.1 Pulse System 801

16.2.2 FMCW System 803

16.2.3 Receiver Architectures 808

References 826

Problems 826

APPENDIX: RFIC DESIGN EXAMPLE: MIXER 830

A1.1 Circuit Design Specifications and General Design Information 830

A1.2 Mixer Design 830

A1.2.1 Single-Ended to Differential Input Active Balun 832

A1.2.2 Double-Balanced Gilbert Cell 832

A1.2.3 Differential to Single-Ended Output Active Balun 834

A1.2.4 Band-Pass Filter 834

A1.3 Mixer Optimization and Layout 835

A1.4 Simulation Results 836

A1.4.1 Stability 836

A1.4.2 Return Loss 836

A1.4.3 Conversion Gain 836

A1.4.4 Noise Figure 837

A1.4.5 Other Mixer Performance 837

A1.5 Measured Results 838

References 840

INDEX 841