This book explores a new approach to understanding the human mind - rational analysis - that regards thinking as a facility adapted to the structure of the world. This approach is most closely associated with the work of John R Anderson, who published the original book on rational analysis in1990. Since then, a great deal of work has been carried out in a number of laboratories around the world, and the aim of this book is to bring this work together for the benefit of the general psychological audience. The book contains chapters by some of the world's leading researchers in memory,categorisation, reasoning, and search, who show how the power of rational analysis can be applied to the central question of how humans think. It will be of interest to students and researchers in cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and animal behaviour.