Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Hardcover | January 14, 2011

byKeith Stanovich

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In this book, Keith Stanovich attempts to resolve the Great Rationality Debate in cognitive science - the debate about how much irrationality to ascribe to human cognition. Stanovich shows how the insights of dual-process theory and evolutionary psychology can be combined to explain whyhumans are sometimes irrational even though they possess cognitive machinery of remarkable adaptiveness. Using a unique individual differences approach, Stanovich shows that to fully characterize differences in rational thinking, the traditional System 2 of dual-process theory must be partitionedinto the reflective mind and the algorithmic mind. He posits that we need to supersede dual-process theories with tripartite models of cognition. The key operations of the algorithmic mind and the reflective mind that support human rationality are discussed in the book. The key function of thealgorithmic mind is to sustain the processing of decoupled secondary representations in cognitive simulation. The key function of the reflective mind, in contrast, is to detect the need to interrupt autonomous processing and to begin simulation activities.Stanovich uses the algorithmic/reflective distinction to develop a taxonomy of cognitive errors that are made on tasks in the heuristics and biases literature. He presents empirical data to show that the tendency to make these thinking errors is only modestly related to intelligence. Using the newtripartite model of mind, Stanovich shows how rationality is a more encompassing construct than intelligence - when both are properly defined - and that IQ tests fail to assess individual differences in rational thought. Stanovich discusses the types of thinking processes that would be measured inan assessment of rational thinking.

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In this book, Keith Stanovich attempts to resolve the Great Rationality Debate in cognitive science - the debate about how much irrationality to ascribe to human cognition. Stanovich shows how the insights of dual-process theory and evolutionary psychology can be combined to explain whyhumans are sometimes irrational even though they ...

Keith E. Stanovich is Professor of Human Development and Applied Psychology at the University of Toronto. His book What Intelligence Tests Miss (Yale University Press) received the 2010 Grawemeyer Award in Education. He is the author of five other books and over 200 scientific publications on various topics in cognitive psychology.

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:336 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.98 inPublished:January 14, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195341147

ISBN - 13:9780195341140

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Table of Contents

Preface1. Dual-Process Theory and the Great Rationality DebateThe Great Rationality DebateIndividual Differences in the Great Rationality DebateDual Process Theory: The Current State of PlayProperties of Type 1 and Type 2 ProcessingDual-Process Theory and Human GoalsImplications for the Rationality DebateThe Rest of This Book: Complications in Dual Process Theory and Their Implications for the Concepts of Rationality and Intelligence2. Differentiating the Algorithmic Mind and the Reflective MindUnpacking Type 2 Functioning Using Individual DifferencesCognitive Ability and Thinking DispositionsPartition the Algorithmic and the Reflective MindIntelligence Tests and Critical Thinking TestsPartition the Algorithmic from the Reflective MindThinking Dispositions as Independent Predictors of Rational Thought3. The Key Functions of the Reflective Mind and the Algorithmic Mind that Support Human RationalitySo-Called "Executive Functioning" Measures Tap the Algorithmic Mind and Not the Reflective Mind4. The Tri-Process Model and Serial Associative CognitionThe Cognitive Miser and Focal BiasConverging Evidence in the Dual Process Literature5. The Master Rationality Motive and the Origins of the Nonautonomous MindMetarepresentation and Higher-Order PreferencesWhat Motivates the Search for Rational Integration?The Master Rationality Motive as a Psychological ConstructEvolutionary Origins of the Master Rational Motive and Type 2 Processing6. A Taxonomy of Rational Thinking Problems (with Richard F. West)Dual-Process Theory and Knowledge StructuresThe Preliminary TaxonomyHeuristics and Biases Tasks in Terms of the TaxonomyMultiply-Determined Problems of Rational ThoughtMissing Input from the Autonomous Mind7. Intelligence as a Predictor of Performance on Heuristics and Biases Tasks (with Richard F. West)Intelligence and Classic Heuristics and Biases EffectsBelief Bias and Myside BiasWhy Thinking Biases Do and Do Not Associate with Cognitive AbilityCognitive Decoupling, Mindware Gaps, and Override Detection in Heuristics and Biases Tasks8. Rationality and Intelligence: Empirical and Theoretical Relationships and Implications for the Great Rationality DebateIntelligence and Rationality Associations in Terms of the TaxonomySummary of the RelationshipsIndividual Differences, the Reflective Mind, and the Great Rationality DebateSkepticism About Mindware-Caused Irrationalities9. The Social Implications of Separating the Concepts of Intelligence and RationalityBroad Versus Narrow Concepts of IntelligenceIntelligence ImperialismIntelligence Misidentified as Adaptation and the Deification of IntelligenceStrategies for Cutting Intelligence Down to SizeSociety's Selection Mechanisms10. The Assessment of Rational Thought (with Richard F. West and Maggie E. Toplak)A Framework for the Assessment of Rational ThinkingOperationalizing the Components of Rational ThoughtThe Future of Research on Individual Differences in Rational ThoughtReferencesFigures and Tables