Readings in Greek History: Sources and Interpretations

Paperback | April 2, 2013

byD. Brendan Nagle, Stanley M. Burstein

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An ideal reader for courses in Greek history, Greek civilization, and Western civilization, this comprehensive collection of more than 180 historical source documents covers major aspects of Greek civilization from the Archaic Age through the end of the Hellenistic Period. Featuring a diverseand extensive array of selections from the works of major authors, Readings in Greek History: Sources and Interpretations, Second Edition, offers balanced coverage of political, social, cultural, intellectual, economic, and technological developments in Greek life. It provides selections drawn fromhistorical, philosophical, and oratorical Greek literary texts and from documentary sources, including inscriptions and papyri. The book is organized chronologically but also addresses various themes throughout, including religion, war, and gender relations. It is enhanced by substantial introductions to each chapter and selection and more than thirty photographs, images, and maps.

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An ideal reader for courses in Greek history, Greek civilization, and Western civilization, this comprehensive collection of more than 180 historical source documents covers major aspects of Greek civilization from the Archaic Age through the end of the Hellenistic Period. Featuring a diverseand extensive array of selections from the w...

D. Brendan Nagle is Professor Emeritus of History at the Unviersity of Southern California, Los Angeles. Stanley M. Burstein is Professor Emeritus of History at California State University, Los Angeles.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:336 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.68 inPublished:April 2, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:019997845X

ISBN - 13:9780199978458

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Table of Contents

*=New to this EditionList of Maps and Figures* Time LinePreface1. EARLY GREECE: FROM THE BRONZE AGE TO THE ORIGIN AND SPREAD OF THE iPOLIS/i SYSTEMA. Greece in the Second Millennium B.C.1. The Mycenaean Kingdoms (ca. 1650-1150 BC)2. Mycenaean Relations with the Hittites: the Tawagalawas Letter (Selections)3. The Sea Peoples and the End of the Bronze Age *B. Greek Definitions of the Polis1. The Natural Origins of the Polis: "Man Is by Nature a Political Animal"2. The Nature of Citizenship: "He Who Has the Right to Take Part in Deliberative or Judicial Administration Is a Citizen"C. Greek Life in the Eighth Century B.C.1. Homer: The Shield of Achilles2. Hesiod's Works and DaysD. Colonization and the Expansion of the iPolis/i System: The Case of Cyrene1. Herodotus' Account2. The Oath of the ColonistsE. Greeks and Non-Greeks in the Greek Colonies: The Foundation of LampsacusF. Greeks and Scythians in the Black Sea: Coexistence and InteractionG. The Aristocratic Warrior1. The Warrior Ideal2. The Warrior and Society: The Drinking Song of HybriasH. The Hoplite Revolution and the Citizen Soldier1. The Reality of Battle2. A Good Citizen: Tellus of Athens3. Only Farmers Can Be Good CitizensI. The Hoplite Polis: SpartaJ. The Role of Athletics1. An Athletic Dynasty: The Diagorids of Rhodes2. Athletics and the Polis: A Philosophical Critique2. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE GREEK ARISTOCRACY IN THE ARCHAIC PERIOD* A. Religion in Aristocratic Greece1. Relations between Man and Gods *2. Animal Sacrifice *B. Aristocratic Privilege1. 1. The Gortyn Code2. 2. How a Boy Becomes a Man in CreteC. Aspects of Aristocratic Life at Its Peak1. A Fine Symposium: Xenophanes2. The Life of an Aristocrat: Alcaeus3. When You Are "Repulsive to Boys and a Laughing Stock to Women": Mimnermus on Old Age4. A Woman's View of Aristocratic Life: Sappho's "To Anactoria"D. Heroic Athletics: The Chariot Race at Patroclus' Funeral GamesE. The Aristocracy and Its International Connections1. A Greek Officer in Egyptian Service2. Greek Mercenaries in the Egyptian Army3. The Life of a Soldier: An Order for Rations at Arad in the Kingdom of Judah4. Aristocratic Exiles5. Sappho on Intermarriage Between AristocratsF. The Crisis of the Aristocracy1. The Lament of Theognis2. Vulgar Upstarts: Artemon and Rhodopis3. The Crisis of the Aristocracy at Corinth: Cypselus and Periander4. The Crisis of the Aristocracy at Athens: Solon5. The Crisis of the Aristocracy at Athens: Cleisthenes *3. THE PERSIAN WARSA. The Persian Empire1. The King and His Subjects: The Cyrus Cylinder2. "By the Grace of Ahurimazda I Am King": Persian Imperial IdeologyB. The Persian Wars1. How the Wars Began: The Problems of Aristagoras2. Aristagoras Seeks Help from Sparta3. Aristagoras at Athens4. The Battle of MarathonC. The Second Persian Invasion of 480 B.C.1. The Muddled Greek Response: "It Was Plain That the Greater Number of the States Would Take No Part in the War but Warmly Favored the Persians"2. Themistocles and the "Alliance of the Willing"3. The Themistocles Decree4. Why Gelo of Syracuse Refused Help5. The Battle of Thermopylae6. Athens Evacuated7. The Great Debate: Fight at Salamis or Defend the Isthmus of Corinth?8. The Battle of Plataea9. Revenge for Thermopylae: The Humanity of Pausanias4. LIFE IN THE POLISA. The Household: Family Relations1. "What Is Sweeter Than Family?"2. Do Parents Love Their Children More Than Children Love Their Parents?3. The Nature of Youth4. Husbands and Wives5. Mothers and Sons: "My Mother Is a Trial"6. "Except for My Mother I Hate the Whole Female Sex"7. Procne's Lament: The Sorrows of Young WomenB. Household Management1. Women's Work2. "Where There Is No Wife Households Are Neither Orderly nor Prosperous"3. Woman and Legal Affairs4. The Education of a Wife5. Managing Obstreperous Children6. The Short Sad Life of a Good Woman: The Epitaph of Sokratea of ParosC. Slaves and Slavery1. "The Best and Most Necessary Possessions"2. "We Have Mistresses for Our Pleasure": Sex and Slavery in the Oikos3. How to Become a Slave: Be in the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time4. The Slave Trade: A Eunuch's RevengeD. The Polis and the Household1. 1. The Murder of Eratosthenes2. 2. The Demos Must Be Pure: Athenian Laws on PederastyE. Religion in the Classical Polis1. The Affair of the Herms2. The Festivals: "A Man Should Spend His Whole Life at Play"3. Local Festivals4. Athena Nike Priestess5. Xenophon Consults the Delphic Oracle *6. Personal Religion: Xenophon's Temple to ArtemisF. War and Warfare in the Polis1. The Spartan Army2. A Hoplite Battle: MantineiaG. The Place of Warfare in the Polis: Some Philosophical Reflections1. "All States Are by Nature Fighting an Undeclared War with All Other States"2. "Peace Is the End of War, Leisure of Work"5. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR AND THE MILITARY REVOLUTIONA. The Rise of Athens1. The Golden Age: Looking at the Past2. "For Without Equal Military Power It Is Impossible for Allies to Have Equal or Similar Say in Policy-Making": The Reality of Athenian Power3. The Strategic Thinking of ThemistoclesB. The Delian League1. "They Had Enough of the Persian War:" The Spartans and the Delian League2. "The Allies Brought All This on Themselves": From League to Empire3. Aristotle on the Organization of the Athenian EmpireC. The Athenian Empire1. The Logic of Possessing an Empire2. Athens and Her Subjects: The Case of Erythrae3. Imperial Ideology: Pericles' Funeral Oration4. The Bloody Revolution at Corcyra: "War is a Hard Master"5. "Justice Enters the Discussion Only When the Parties Are Equal": The Melian DialogueD. Opposition to the Peloponnesian War at Athens1. Prayer to Peace2. Lysistrata's Solution to WarE. Defeat and Hard Times: Athens After the Peloponnesian WarF. The Military Revolution1. Old and New Forms of Warfare2. Iphicrates: A Military Revolutionary3. A Stunning Reversal: Light Infantry Defeat Heavy Infantry at Lechaeum4. Mercenaries at War5. A Two-Edged Sword: Mercenary Troops and Their Employers6. The Need for Walls6. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CLASSICAL AGE: THE iPHYSIS/NOMOS/i DEBATEA. The Conventionalist Argument1. "There Is No Natural Standard of Justice:" An Overview from Plato2. Callicles' Superman: "Right Is the Advantage of the Stronger over the Weaker"3. Protagoras: Virtue Is Taught by Parents, Teachers, and the LawsB. The Naturalist Argument1. Antiphon: Greeks and Barbarians Are the Same by Nature2. Sophocles, Empedocles, and Alcidamas: Universally Valid Norms Exist3. Aristotle: Intrinsically Evil Acts4. Making Fun of the Philosophers: AristophanesC. The Threat of Socrates1. Socrates and Anytus2. The Sophist Polykrates' PamphletD. Socrates' Defense: "I Shall Obey God Rather Than You"E. Diogenes the Cynic7. THE FOURTH CENTURYA. The Decline and Fall of Sparta1. Social Problems at Sparta: The Conspiracy of Cinadon2. Sparta at Its Peak: The King's Peace (386 B.C.)3. The Foundation of the Second Athenian League (377 B.C.)4. The Battle of Leuctra and the End of Spartan Primacy (371 B.C.)5. The Decline of Sparta: Why?B. The Crisis of the Polis in Fourth-Century B.C. Greece1. Fifth Column Activity in Greek Cities2. Political Revolution in Argos3. Mercenaries and Exiles: The Tyranny of Clearchus of Heraclea Pontica (364-352 B.C.)4. Can the Polis Be Saved? Suggested SolutionsC. The Periphery of the Greek World1. Thracian Court Life: A Heroic Society2. A Greek Trading Post in Thrace3. Greeks and Non-Greeks in the Black Sea: Amage, Queen of the Sarmatians, Saves the City of Chersonesus4. Bosporus: A Multi-Ethnic State in the Black Sea (347/6 B.C.)5. A Hellenized Satrap: Mausolus of Caria6. The Funeral of Mausolus: A Greek Extravaganza (353 B.C.)7. A Greek View of Persia: Xenophon, The Education of CyrusD. Philip II and the Emergence of Macedon1. The Achievements of Philip II: Alexander the Great's Speech at Opis (324 B.C.)2. Philip II's Military Reforms3. The Companions of Philip II4. Philippi: The First Macedonian Colony5. Oath of Members of the League of Corinth (338-337 B.C.)6. The Marriages of Philip II7. The Assassination of Philip IIE. The Reign of Alexander the Great: Alexander and the Greeks1. The Greeks in Europe2. The Greeks in AsiaF. Alexander and Egypt1. Surrender of Egypt to Alexander2. Foundation of Alexandria3. Alexander's Visit to Siwah4. Alexander's Organization of Egypt5. The Administration of Cleomenes of NaucratisG. Alexander and the Non-Greeks1. Alexander's Organization of Babylon2. Babylonian Resistance to Alexander's Plans3. The Destruction of PersepolisH. The Challenges of Alexander1. The Attempt to Introduce Proskynesis2. The Pages' Conspiracy3. Alexander's Last PlansI. What Was Alexander? Saint or Demon?1. Plutarch: Alexander a Force for the Spread of Greek Culture2. Alexander the Enemy of the True Religion: A Zoroastrian View8. THE HELLENISTIC AGEA. A New World1. A Greek Philosopher's View of Alexander's Conquests2. The Brutal Struggle for Alexander's Empire: The Heidelberg EpitomeB. Alexandria and the Colonial World of Hellenistic Egypt1. A Hellenistic Metropolis: Alexandria in Egypt2. A Giant Warship: The Forty of Ptolemy IV Philopator *3. Middle Class Life in Hellenistic Egypt4. Government in Ptolemaic Egypt: Advice to a Young Official5. Government Corruption in Ptolemaic Egypt: The Amnesty of 118 B.C.C. Cultural Contact: Ptolemaic Egypt1. The Origins of Sarapis2. The Praises of Isis3. How Sarapis Came to Delos: The Family of Apollonios, Priest of SarapisD. Cultural Contact: Bactria and India1. The Greeks in Bactria and India2. Greek Wisdom in Bactria3. Sagala: A Greco-Indian Metropolis4. The Rock Edict of King Ashoka from Kandahar5. Dedication to Vishnu by Heliodorus (First Century B.C.)6. Stele of Sophytos, Son of NaratosE. Culture Clash: Jewish Resistance to Hellenism1. Jerusalem Transformed into a Polis (ca. 175 B.C.)2. Abolition of Jewish Law (167 B.C.)3. Armed Jewish Resistance Begins (167 B.C.)4. The Purification of the Temple and the Restoration of Jewish Law (165 B.C.)F. Jewish Life in the Diaspora1. The Synagogue of Alexandria2. The Origin of the Sabbath RitualG. Opportunities and Social Roles in the Hellenistic Period1. An Athenian in Ptolemaic Service: The Life of Kallias, Ptolemaic Governor of Halicarnassus (Athens, 270-269 B.C.)2. The Dangerous Life of a Soldier of Fortune3. Recommendation for a Government Job (Egypt, 255 B.C.)4. A Political Woman: Phyle, Wife of Thessalos (Priene, First Century B.C.)5. A Woman Philosopher: The Life of Hipparchia6. A Professional Woman: Phanostrate, Midwife and Doctor (Athens, Fourth Century B.C.)7. A Professional Woman: The Theban Harpist Polygnota, Daughter of Socrates (Delphi, 86 B.C.)8. The Romance of Prince Antiochus and Queen Stratonice9. The Marriage Contract of Heracleides and Demetria (311 B.C.)H. The Coming of Rome1. T. Quinctius Flamininus and Greek Freedom (196 B.C.)2. The Reality of Roman Power: The Letter of King Eumenes II (156 B.C.)3. Greek Reactions to the Destruction of Carthage (Polybius, Histories 36.9-17) *4. Rome's Role in Greek Affairs: Arbitration of Disputes *5. Roman Expansion in the Eastern Mediterranean: A Cynical ViewGlossary