Religion of a Different Color: Race and the Mormon Struggle for Whiteness

Hardcover | February 16, 2015

byW. Paul Reeve

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Mormonism is one of the few homegrown religions in the United States, one that emerged out of the religious fervor of the early nineteenth century. Yet, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have struggled for status and recognition. In this book, W. Paul Reeve exploresthe ways in which nineteenth century Protestant white America made outsiders out of an inside religious group. Much of what has been written on Mormon otherness centers upon economic, cultural, doctrinal, marital, and political differences that set Mormons apart from mainstream America. Reeveinstead looks at how Protestants racialized Mormons, using physical differences in order to define Mormons as non-White to help justify their expulsion from Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. He analyzes and contextualizes the rhetoric on Mormons as a race with period discussions of the Native American,African American, Oriental, Turk/Islam, and European immigrant races. He also examines how Mormon male, female, and child bodies were characterized in these racialized debates. For instance, while Mormons argued that polygamy was ordained by God, and so created angelic, celestial, and elevatedoffspring, their opponents suggested that the children were degenerate and deformed.The Protestant white majority was convinced that Mormonism represented a racial - not merely religious - departure from the mainstream and spent considerable effort attempting to deny Mormon whiteness. Being white brought access to political, social, and economic power, all aspects of citizenship inwhich outsiders sought to limit or prevent Mormon participation. At least a part of those efforts came through persistent attacks on the collective Mormon body, ways in which outsiders suggested that Mormons were physically different, racially more similar to marginalized groups than they werewhite. Medical doctors went so far as to suggest that Mormon polygamy was spawning a new race. Mormons responded with aspirations toward whiteness. It was a back and forth struggle between what outsiders imagined and what Mormons believed. Mormons ultimately emerged triumphant, but not unscathed.Mormon leaders moved away from universalistic ideals toward segregated priesthood and temples, policies firmly in place by the early twentieth century. So successful were Mormons at claiming whiteness for themselves that by the time Mormon Mitt Romney sought the White House in 2012, he was labeled"the whitest white man to run for office in recent memory." Ending with reflections on ongoing views of the Mormon body, this groundbreaking book brings together literatures on religion, whiteness studies, and nineteenth century racial history with the history of politics and migration.

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Mormonism is one of the few homegrown religions in the United States, one that emerged out of the religious fervor of the early nineteenth century. Yet, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have struggled for status and recognition. In this book, W. Paul Reeve exploresthe ways in which nineteenth century Protesta...

W. Paul Reeve is Associate Professor of History at the University of Utah. He is the author of Making Space on the Western Frontier: Mormons, Miners, and Southern Paiutes and the co-editor of Mormonism: A Historical Encyclopedia and Between Pulpit and Pew: The Supernatural World in Mormon History and Folklore.

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:352 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.98 inPublished:February 16, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199754071

ISBN - 13:9780199754076

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Table of Contents

AcknowledgmentsAbbreviationsIntroduction All "Mormon Elder-Berry's" Children1. "The New Race"2. Red, White, and Mormon: "Ingratiating themselves with the Indians"3. Red, White, and Mormon: White Indians4. Black, White, and Mormon: Amalgamation5. Black, White, and Mormon: Black and White Slavery6. Black, White, and Mormon: Miscegenation7. Black, White, and Mormon: One Drop8. Oriental, White, and MormonConclusion From Not White to Too White: The Continuing Contest over the Mormon BodyNotesIndex

Editorial Reviews

"With prodigious research and a keen eye for detail, context, and irony, Paul Reeve masterfully guides us through the fickleness and combustibility of nineteenth-century American racial discourse, with Mormons as his unlikely subjects. In the process of fighting off swarms of accusations thatthey were not white enough, Mormons reified whiteness as the sine qua non of American respectability. Religion of a Different Color provides a powerful new lens that helps us better understand how and why race remains such a troubled legacy for both America and 'the American religion." --Patrick Q. Mason, Claremont Graduate University