This book assesses whether a new category of actors - religious actors - has been constructed within international law. Religious actors, through their interpretations of the religion(s) they are associated with, uphold and promote, or indeed may transform, potentially oppressive structures ordiscriminatory patterns. This book moves beyond the concern that religious texts and practices may be incompatible with international law, to provide a detailed analysis of how religious actors themselves are accountable under international law for the interpretations they choose to put forward. The book defines religious actors as comprising religious states, international organizations, and non-state entities that assume the role of interpreting religion and so claim a "special" legitimacy anchored in tradition or affect. Cutting across the state / non-state divide, this definition allowsthe full remit of religious bodies to be investigated. It analyses the crucial question of whether religious actors do in fact operate under different international legal norms to non-religious states, international organizations, or companies. To that end, the Holy See-Vatican, the Organization ofIslamic Cooperation, and churches and religious organizations under the European Convention on Human Rights regime are examined in detail as case studies. The book ultimately establishes that religious actors do not enjoy special or exclusive rights, nor incur lesser obligations, when compared totheir respective non-religious peers. Therefore it demonstrates that they cannot be seen to form an autonomous legal category under international law.